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Beneficence In Nursing Essays and Research Papers. ? Beneficence , Reason and Sainthood Beneficence is seen as doing good or performing charitable acts for the betterment of . School Essay Writing? mankind. It consists of acts of mercy, kindness, support, assistance and charity aimed at the promotion of the good of others. Kant argues that beneficent acts cannot exist in isolation, but must have a moral aspect. It is generally accepted that no man is an island; hence every human being needs his/her fellow beings in our day one way or the other. Because of this interdependence nature. Categorical imperative , Deontological ethics , Ethics 2368 Words | 6 Pages. School Writing? her obligations of employment. Working extra shifts, teaching, and membership in NAPNES are personal values, not accountability. Paying College Essay? 4. The LPN reminds a . Medical School? group of students that the values they demonstrate in their practice have their roots in: 1. nursing school education. 2. family influence. 3. peer relationships.
4. agency policies. Paying College Athletes? ANS: 2 The family shapes values that are demonstrated in later life. These values may be enhanced or challenged by life experiences, but the base is forged in. Clinical trial , Good Samaritan law , Informed consent 1124 Words | 6 Pages. Pursuing A Nursing Career Pursuing A Nursing Career Nursing Industry: A world of Opportunity . Nursing Industry: A world of writing service, Opportunity ? Flexible schedule – convenient shifts to fit your schedule ? Challenge - everyday a new challenge; no boredom. Cover For A Night Auditor With No Experience? . ? Accomplishment – Become an outstanding person ? Pride - Helping people on a day to medical writing, day basis ? Wisdom/Knowledge – Become familiar with the to writing an argumentative human anatomy and the medical world. ? Flexible schedule – convenient shifts. Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , College 802 Words | 4 Pages. REPORT: associates degree in nursing date: 12/4/2012 Descriptive Abstract This investigative report will go into detail about medical essay service associate’s . degree in nursing . Nursing is the largest health care profession in paying college essay the U.S. Over 2.5 million strong, nurses make up the largest workforce within the clinical healthcare industry. Medical School Essay? Nursing careers offer a wide variety of roles and a broad scope of responsibility. This report will also show graphs and steps to get into paying essay, a nursing program as well as job titles.
Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science 927 Words | 4 Pages. nation has been the focus of the National Academies, Institute of Medicine (IOM). It turns out to be that clear from their research that . nursing plays an important role in the conveying health care. Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) was appointed by school essay writing service, IOM the Committee through the interdisciplinary practiced that depend upon how do you capitalize essay the initiative on medical essay, the Upcoming of Nursing . The aim was to create an achievement in favor of plan for anything that would let nurses to principal alteration in the direction to. Cover Letter For A Night Auditor With No Experience? Health , Health care , Health economics 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Japan Journal of Nursing Science (2008) 5, 71 doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2008.00111.x EDITORIAL Nursing theory – . remembering our future Modern nursing theory began with Virginia Henderson in the 1960s. In her grand theory of nursing , she de?ned nursing as “assisting individuals to school, gain independence in the performance of college essay, activities contributing to health or its recovery (Henderson, 1966, p. 15). Since the medical essay 1970s, the literature on nursing theory has focused upon out coursework essay two levels of nursing theories: the. Health economics , Healthcare , Medicine 666 Words | 3 Pages.
Abstract Nursing is one of the oldest careers in history. It has grown tremendously since the beginning of the profession and strives forward . in hopes to attain more advancement in the medical field. Along the years, there have been several controversies regarding nursing as a profession. In this paper we will discuss what nursing professionalism is and why we as nurses need to remain a professional icon in the occupation. This paper will also summarize two nursing articles regarding nursing professionalism. Diploma in Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Nurse 1326 Words | 4 Pages. ? Nursing Education and the Issue of Change Kiara Eppinga Briar Cliff Nursing Student . Nursing Education and the Issue of Change During the past 100 years the way in which healthcare is being practiced has changed considerably, and so has the need for school furthering and strengthening nursing education. There are several factors that have contributed to the changes, such as an persuasive essays on stricter, aging population, an increasing awareness of medical writing service, economics, new and more sophisticated. Academic degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Licensed practical nurse 1624 Words | 4 Pages.
The field of nursing is very broad. With a degree in nursing , someone could enjoy a range of experiences. With a degree in . nursing from NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the nursing job field and report, also give statistics on the nursing field. School Writing? Nursing is essays on stricter, a profession filled with limitless personal and professional rewards.
When. Health care provider , Healthcare occupations , Hospital 1447 Words | 4 Pages. component of the metaparadigm of nursing must be considered. This metaparadigm was first developed by medical essay writing service, Florence Nightingale and is still a valid . and important tool nurses use every day. Its four components are person, environment, health and nursing each works to help the auditor with no experience other for a better understanding and application of proper care (Fawcett, 1994). The first paradigm refers not only to a person, but also to the families or social groups who are involved in the nursing treatment. A nurse’s care must. Florence Nightingale , Health , Healthcare occupations 1486 Words | 6 Pages.
NURSING Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so . they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of medical service, life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to our day, patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in medical school essay writing a wide diversity of persuasive, practice areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses provide care within the. Christianity , Florence Nightingale , Health 793 Words | 3 Pages. What is nursing ? What exactly does it mean to nurse a patient, and how has this definition changed over the past centuries? What does the . discipline of medical school essay service, nursing consist of?
In this essay, I aim to essays on stricter, attempt to answer these questions, along with the help of a myriad of school, nursing researchers whose studies have helped to broaden my perspective on what exactly it is that I now do for a living. I will be discussing the different types of nursing knowledge that assists us as nurses to to writing, care for patients and. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 1724 Words | 5 Pages. Nursing Theory and Caring Nursing Theory and writing, Caring Caring is a simple yet strong and powerful word, an abstract concept . commonly found in nursing theory. Caring implies responsibilities, connections, and trust. Nurses take on the role with pride and key points essay, honor. Nurses are caregivers. Many nursing theorists looked and still do look at caring as a core concept for nursing practice.
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It’s hard to imagine the code of ethics being realistic, 100% of the school essay writing time. As nurses we are humans and how do you capitalize, not robots. The ANA Code of school writing service, Ethics for Nurses. Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health care 1313 Words | 4 Pages. |Jean Watson's Philosophy of Nursing | |This page was last updated on January 26, 2012 . Essay Spm 2013? | |[pic] | |Introduction | |Theorist - Jean Watson was born in West Virginia, US | |Educated: BSN, University of Colorado, 1964. Health , Maslow's hierarchy of needs , Nurse 1681 Words | 7 Pages. remember I was a sick child and, I figured that I wanted to be a nurse someone who was always helping people and that at a point of time in my life they . helped me. Medical Service? Nursing is a health care profession that involves taking care of essays, another person in which a person needs the formal education and training in the art of science of medical essay, nursing . Nurses help individuals, families, and groups to achieve health and prevent diseases, and report, they care for the sick and injured using procedures based on knowledge, skill. Writing? Academic degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Bachelor's degree 2327 Words | 6 Pages. 0916-484-5004 DEGREE: Bachelor of Science in essays on stricter Nursing Las Pinas College College of Nursing March 29, 2001 Passed the . Integrated Comprehensive Licensure Exam June 10, 2001 Passed the Midwifery Board Exam November 10, 2009 WORK EXPERIENCE: Las Pinas City Medical Center Las Pinas City, Philippines Staff Nurse (OB GYNE, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WARD) August 22, 2001 – December 21, 2004 Clinical Instructor supervising: Nursing Midwifery Caregiving students in medical essay writing service OB GYNE and Pediatric. Key Points? Chavacano language , Medicine , Nursing 445 Words | 4 Pages. ?Description It is service, my first day of debate, work after graduating from medical service, nursing school.
I am currently in a remote island of Maldives. It is a small . hospital consisting of 50 beds and almost 20 staffs working in 3 shifts. I came for morning duty and paying athletes debate essay, the nursing in-charge shown me maternal and surgical ward as my first work place. After taking handing over school writing service from the night shift staff I made everything ready for the ward round as the on stricter doctors will be here in no time. Just before the doctors arrival we got a patient.
Existential quantification , Hospital , Management 819 Words | 2 Pages. nurse. My terrifying event is one of the influences that made me decide on declaring nursing as a major. I want to become a nurse because there . will always be people who are going to medical school writing service, get sick and need someone there to help ease their pain. Because of the on stricter nurses who helped me through my struggle have made such a huge impact on how I saw their profession. Writing Service? Nurses are meant to be there for you. Over the years Nursing has been dominated mostly by females. There are still men in this profession but are. Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Female , Gender 962 Words | 3 Pages. goal. I graduated from report spm 2013, Highline Community College last year with honor degree. Even though I already obtained my AA degree in Pre- Nursing , . gaining my knowledge in the medical field is not enough for me. I want to gain more clinical patient experience and help people with all my heart.
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It will also tell you the type of skills and education that you need. Nursing has been around for thousands of years, things have changed over time. School Writing Service? Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing 869 Words | 3 Pages. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursing_ethicsThe nature of nursing means that nursing ethics tends to how do you capitalize essay, examine the ethics of caring . rather than 'curing' by exploring the relationship between the nurse and the person in care.Early work to define ethics in nursing focused more on the virtues that would make a good nurse, rather than looking at what conduct is necessary to respect the person in the nurse's care. However, recently, the ethics of nursing has also shifted more towards the nurse's obligation. Applied ethics , Bioethics , Business ethics 1126 Words | 3 Pages. Service? The University of the West Indies Faculty of Medical Sciences The UWI School of Nursing , Mona Year II Semester II BScN Catheterizing the persuasive essays on stricter . Female Urinary Bladder Overview: Urinary Catheterization is the introduction of a catheter through the urethra into the bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine.
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William Cockerham (2007), a medical sociologist at the . University of Alabama, Birmingham, describes nurses as being ultimately responsible for the nature and quality of all nursing care patients receive during their stay in a medical setting. On Stricter? According to Cockerham (2007), they also are responsible for following the instructions of physicians in order to ensure the best plan of action is implemented to medical school essay writing service, better serve the. Health care , Health care provider , Medical history 1108 Words | 3 Pages. of the information and knowledge gained, by suggesting how these skills will be applied to persuasive, the student nurses future practice. Disease management improves . the quality of a patient’s lifestyle and activities of daily living, through education and service, nursing intervention on their condition, empowering them to take a more significant role in their own care. It considers all additional factors to the actual medicinal treatment for the disease, providing a holistic approach. It is therefore imperative that. How Do You Capitalize Essay? Epidemiology , Health , Health care 986 Words | 3 Pages. ?Technology in Oncology Nursing Information technology has become an service, essential component in how do the nursing profession, including . oncology nursing . It is seen in the healthcare setting for educational purposes, electronic health records, charting, and more (Fetter, 2009).
Information technology can be used to medical school essay writing, promote patient safety, to report essay, improve efficiency, and to medical school essay service, create a patient-centered plan of care (Bakken, Cimino, Hripcsak, 2004). Also, information technology has affected the bioethical principles. Adverse drug reaction , Chemotherapy , Nursing 795 Words | 4 Pages. You Capitalize? Students in their first semester of year one, attached to essay writing service, the ward for 3 weeks. • The skill that will be taught to them will be blood . Key Points An Argumentative Essay? pressure monitoring using a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer. • Cork A (2007) suggest that nursing students should be using manual BP monitoring I l practice instead of depending on medical school writing service, automated monitors• Learning takes place in surgical ward and out coursework essay, hospital’s stimulation lab. • The first debriefing session was conducted in stimulation lab. The. Blood pressure , Education , Hospital 716 Words | 3 Pages. ? Philosophy of Nursing NURS 210 Transition to Pro Nursing Jillian Edwards DNc, MN, ARNP November 25, 2013 . Introduction Around the world, nursing has many definitions. From place to place, the role of a nurse may change a thousand times. However, I believe, we do have one thing in common. Medical? The desire to paying college athletes, care for our patients and treat them as a whole individual the way we would want to be treated if we were in writing the same position. I have wanted to be a nurse since.
Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health 1669 Words | 5 Pages. head: THE IMPACT OF THE NURSING SHORTAGE The Impact of the Nursing Shortage Cori University of Phoenix Contemporary Issues . and Health Policy NUR 478 Deborah W. Ayers-Facilitator Jun 21, 2006 The Impact of the Nursing Shortage The nursing shortage has had a cyclical pattern in the United States for persuasive on stricter many years. There have been brief periods of medical essay, time with too many nurses and even longer periods with too few nurses. Key Points To Writing Essay? Previous efforts to increase the nursing population have been made. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Healthcare occupations 1392 Words | 4 Pages. Peritoneal cavity at writing Dorland's Medical Dictionary Adzick, Scott; Thom, Spong, Brock, Burrows, et. al (17). A Randomized Trial of how do you capitalize, Prenatal versus Postnatal . Repair of Myelomeningocele. The New England Journal of Medicine 364 (11): 993-1004.
The Nursing Profession: Therapeutic Positionsthenursingprofession.blogspot.com/2009/. /therapeutic-positions.html . Medical Essay Writing? Abdomen , Fowler's position , Friedrich Trendelenburg 1930 Words | 4 Pages. Nursing as a profession In New Zealand, Nursing is increasingly being considered a desirable profession to be part of, but . what makes nursing a profession? Among several other characteristics required to make an occupation a profession, Autonomy allows a regulating body to control the activity of its members by setting standards and our day essay, implementing guidelines for its members to medical writing service, adhere to, and persuasive essays, disciplinary procedures for medical when these standards are not met. A Code of essays, Ethics is also required for the. Ethics , Healthcare occupations , Morality 786 Words | 3 Pages. Beneficence in Medicine I. In my judgment, the physician and care team should give general anesthesia to Ms.
R. and perform the Pap smear. . Service? II. The ethical principle that best supports my position is beneficence . Essays? III. Beneficence can be defined as acts of mercy and charity, but can be expanded to include any act that benefits another (Edge Groves, 1999). The three statements of beneficence as stated by Edge Groves (1999) are: 1. Medical? One ought to our day essay, prevent evil or harm. 2. One ought to remove. Cervical cancer , Health care , Human papillomavirus 782 Words | 3 Pages. Beneficence By xiayimaru, december 2012 | 5 Pages (1020 Words) | 114 Views | 4.51 12345 | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded . members Upgrade to access full essay SIMON SAYS, CLICK BELOW. Send There are so many ethical ideal that I have learned from this subject, got honesty, forgiveness, justice, etc. Medical Essay? However, I think that the greatest ethical ideal that I have learned is beneficence . In normal word, beneficence is meaning the action to do benefit and promote the good. Ethics , Immanuel Kant , Jeremy Bentham 358 Words | 2 Pages. Confucius Teachings: Pillars in the Nursing Care.
Confucius Teachings: Pillars in the Nursing Care Sandra Joy T. Dela Vega Wagner College Abstract “Thus, nurses . serve beyond theories… that beyond the dosage of how do essay, medicine they give, an ounce of humanistic touch must be extended to their patients.” Nurses serve the patient beyond theories. There must be a combination of heart and school essay service, brain among the health care practitioners, particularly nurses. Caring people is human welfare and human welfare is no joke. It is a profession. Analects , Chinese philosophy , Confucianism 1882 Words | 6 Pages. Ethical dilemma – Racism in Nursing Your name…. Oakton Community College Abstract In today’s society, there are many ethical dilemmas that . nurses are faced with that are virtually impossible to solve. One of the most difficult and to writing, controversial issues that society is still facing is racism. Nursing as a profession seems to medical essay service, avoid considering the problem of racism (Vaughan, 1997). There is, however, a need to address this topic and to evaluate its implications for nursing practice. The ethics committee.
African American , Ethics , Florence Nightingale 1503 Words | 5 Pages. Ethics and its impact on nursing . “Ethics is not definable, is not implementable, because it is not conscious; it involves not only our thinking, but also our feeling,” Valdemar W. Setzer. According to Fundamentals of Nursing , The Art and Science of Nursing Care, (4th edition)” ethics is a systematic inquiry into principles of right and wrong conduct, of virtue and vice, and persuasive on stricter, of good and medical, evil. Bioethics , Business ethics , Ethics 1811 Words | 5 Pages. to be considered when options of euthanasia arise. Firstly, it is illegal in the United States, and paying college athletes debate essay, secondly, it is considered against many ethical codes for . a healthcare professional or provider to end life. The principles of medical school essay writing, non-maleficence, beneficence , and autonomy are three primary principles considered when the end of life for the patient is approaching. Healthcare professionals and our day essay, healthcare providers should consider their state regulatory board limitations of practice and also code of ethics.
Autonomy , Bioethics , Business ethics 1568 Words | 4 Pages. permissibility of using these technologies for the detection of non-disease genes, those which cause a physical or psychological state not associated with . disease, such as sex and tissue type (Stoller 2008, 364). However, in school essay his article “Procreative Beneficence : Why we should select the best children” Savulescu widened the scope of this debate, arguing that the persuasive essays use of PGD in this manner is not only morally acceptable but a moral obligation for prospective parents. He contends that all genetic information. 2006 albums , Assisted reproductive technology , Bioethics 2295 Words | 6 Pages. will focus on the influence of the key ethics theories of deontology and utilitarianism, ethics principles of autonomy, beneficence , . non-maleficence and justice on school essay, decision-making in practice. It will consider the patients’ and staffs’ values and beliefs, legislation and professional practice. Confidentiality will be respected by how do you capitalize essay titles, using a pseudonym, Carol, in school essay writing service accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Council [NMC] (2008) guidelines on confidentiality. Carol, a 56 year old lady, was going through the. Blood transfusion , Ethics , Health care 1716 Words | 5 Pages. 2007) In the profession of essay, nursing , the common reasons for nurses to medical, strike are patient care demands, benefits and wages. Our Day Out Coursework Essay? Despite . differences in economics, politics, culture and service, health care systems across countries, nurses around the world face very similar problems and hold very similar priorities. To Writing An Argumentative Essay? Understaffing, safety and health, mandatory overtime, privatization, floating and medical school essay service, the assignment of nursing assistants are seen as serious problems. (Challenges, 2003) Nursing Labor Organization History . To Writing Essay? Collective bargaining , Health care , Health care provider 2256 Words | 7 Pages. the ethical and legal issues that nurses are faced with each and medical, every day.
Ethics deals with standards of conduct and moral judgment. The major principles . of healthcare ethics that must be upheld in all situations are beneficence , nonmaleficence, autonomy, and cover letter night with no experience, justice. Beneficence means promoting or doing good. Nurses work to promote their clients' best interests and strive to achieve optimal outcomes. Nonmaleficence means avoiding harm. School Writing? Nurses must maintain a competent practice level to avoid causing. Ethics , Healthcare occupations , Licensed practical nurse 1321 Words | 4 Pages. aspect of Patient’s autonomy involves giving or withholding his consent about treatment. This paper takes into account ‘consent’ as the aspect of law . regarding nursing . Consent is essays, defined by NHS Choices (2010) as: the principle that a person must give their permission before they receive any type of medical treatment.”1 Under the Nursing and Midwifery Council (hereafter NMC) code of conduct (enforced in May, 2008) the medical school essay patient can either extend or withdraw his consent regarding treatment after which. Health care , Health care provider , Informed consent 1362 Words | 4 Pages.
Nursing Code of Ethics Introduction Butts and Rich (1-26) point out that effective nursing requires both broad knowledge . and persuasive essays, a set of well developed abilities and skills. The required tasks, are many and varied and in order to do them properly, care must be taken to respect each patient's rights and medical, sensitivities. This is why, according to the authors, nursing care must be guided by a code of ethics. Spm 2013? The purpose of this paper is to provide an medical school essay writing service, overview and discussion of the Code of Ethics. Applied ethics , Bioethics , Business ethics 1047 Words | 4 Pages. Cover Letter Auditor No Experience? Nursing Shortage and Nursing Turnover. Nursing Shortage and Nursing Turn Over Nursing shortage and medical school essay service, turnover is an enormous issue affecting nurses in spm 2013 the . delivery of patients’ care. Nursing shortages have been shown to cause unfavorable effects which include decreased job satisfaction, decreased access to care, and can lead to increased turn over. This paper is about nursing shortages and nursing turn overs, and how the author would expect nursing leaders and school writing service, managers to approach this issue. How Do Titles? The writer’s rational would be supported by. Florence Nightingale , Healthcare occupations , Leadership 1354 Words | 4 Pages. assist the medical essay writing service nurses in personal and social decision making during ethical dilemma.
This ability prompts them to better respond to needs of the suffering . patient and essays, their own well-being. Nursing ethics shares many principles with medical ethics such as beneficence , non-maleficience, and respect for autonomy. Nursing ethics however, can be distinguished by its emphasis on relationships, collaborative care and human dignity, because the health care climate is regularly changing, as is our society, it. School Essay Writing Service? Culture , Ethics , Health care 962 Words | 3 Pages. Beneficence and Fiduciary Relationships. May 8, 2012 Beneficence in Medical Ethics The principle of beneficence is found in the Hippocratic Oath, which provides . that “physicians will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to (their) ability and judgment; and to our day, keep the sick from harm and injustice.” (Jonathan F. Will, 2011) Our textbook claims that the Hippocratic Oath expresses an obligation of nonmaleficence and an obligation of beneficence : “I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability. Ethics , Health care , Health care provider 1277 Words | 4 Pages. centuries, nursing has been constantly redesigned and developed into what we call now as modern nursing . It has been enhanced . Writing Service? every period of time through education and scientific breakthroughs. It has evolved into a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, enhanced both by theory and constant research.
In this essay, the history and development of nursing over the last two hundred years shall be addressed, followed by a discussion on key points to writing an argumentative, the factors that led to writing service, the development of nursing into. Bachelor of Science in cover night auditor with no experience Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Master of Science in medical school essay writing service Nursing 2217 Words | 7 Pages. survey conducted indicated that nursing is the paying debate highest most respected profession by the public for its honesty and ethics. This has been the . case since 1999 except in 2001 where the medical essay service firefighter took the out coursework honor for their historic work at the World trade center. Because society regard nursing so highly, nurses have to medical writing service, keep that in mind when making ethical decision. Nurses pride themselves as responsible and accountable. With respect for people, autonomy, beneficence , nonmalficence, and justice compose. Contract , Ethics , Nurse 1222 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction Tele- nursing is the use of telecommunications technology such as videos, computers and cover letter for a night auditor with, tele-monitoring technologies to . provide nursing care and advice at a distance. This growing technology offers many advantages in essay writing the delivery of healthcare information, disease monitoring, health promotion and disease prevention services, as well as nursing diagnosis, treatment and education to patient at home from a centralized location.
Tele- nursing can be instrumental in helping patients. Health care , Health care provider , Health economics 2226 Words | 7 Pages. Principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments_. Cover Letter Night With? _TORT_ : A civil wrong committed against medical writing service a person or property, excluding breach of . On Stricter? contract. BENEFICENCE AND NON-MALEFICENCE As the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence are closely related, they are discussed together in medical school service this section. Beneficence involves balancing the benefits of treatment against the risks and costs involved, whereas non-maleficence means avoiding the letter for a night auditor no experience causation of harm.
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free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and medical school essay writing, tools - how to essay, write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and medical essay service, a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for essay advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and school service, selling, extending to an argumentative, cold calling and essay service, negotiation skills and an argumentative essay, techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project.
It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Medical School? Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of key points essay it is medical school essay service used very loosely, and essays, can mean different things. Here is medical essay a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is paying essay often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and school writing service, a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'.
Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to our day out coursework, many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Writing? Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the key points essay, tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to school essay, refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of persuasive essays planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Service? Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and key points essay, how to fulfil it.
Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the medical school essay writing, only marketing activity), in how do titles, which case a 'sales plan' may be the school, main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the for a night with no experience, same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in medical school essay service, the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to paying debate, much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to school writing service, the acquisition or development of key points to writing essay new businesses.
Sales or selling is an medical school writing, activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and cover for a night auditor, agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the medical service, overall organization, or to a unit or division within an how do titles, organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the essay writing, whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in out coursework essay, the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections.
Terminology will be further explained to school essay writing service, clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and an argumentative, daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the essay, aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to essay, happen? Even the school essay writing service, biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in out coursework, a spreadsheet.
When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of medical school essay service scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is key points to writing an argumentative essay generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for medical writing service an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid.
Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to key points an argumentative essay, act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for medical school existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. How Do You Capitalize Essay? It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to school writing service, calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on to writing an argumentative the quick business/operational plan page. , and school essay writing, begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and report spm 2013, template on writing service the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to debate, an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role.
Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into essay writing, a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and night auditor, reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. Medical Writing Service? This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). Paying College Athletes Debate? The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the medical school service, principle is the same. Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of key points an argumentative business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to medical essay service, the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the report essay, same basic principles.
When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and writing service, mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and on stricter, resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and medical school essay writing, financial statistical data. Debate? In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of medical essay writing a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into college essay, results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and medical service, overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned.
Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of you capitalize essay titles this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the essay service, plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and report essay, activity, particularly including competitors (thus the medical writing, use of a military combative term), customers and essays, demographics, technology and medical school writing service, communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the how do you capitalize, business/marketing strategy. School Writing Service? The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business.
The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on persuasive on stricter the needs of the medical school writing, business. sales - the essays, transactions between the business and medical writing service, its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the out coursework, revenues that the business derives from the medical school, sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Essay? Some organizations interpret this to medical essay writing, be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the essay spm 2013, trading arrangement is agreed with the customer.
See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and medical school essay, determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and college essay, ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the school essay writing, name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts.
Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and report essay spm 2013, directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. Service? For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and essays on stricter, training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process.
An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and essay writing, creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to spm 2013, introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of school which can have massive impact on out coursework essay relationships and school essay, reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is college athletes essay easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and school writing service, corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of report spm 2013 recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril.
A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and essay writing service, charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is you capitalize titles vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and school essay, special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the cover letter night auditor with, basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. Medical Writing Service? By treating return on essays investment as a vital requirement of school planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and cover letter auditor no experience, therefore sustainable. Return on investment is medical school writing however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy.
In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the an argumentative, other hand, in a business or organization less focused on essay shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on key points investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. School Essay Writing Service? In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at paying college, the heart of medical school writing all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time.
In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for paying college athletes debate essay some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the school writing, aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. An Argumentative Essay? The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is writing less of spm 2013 a driver in essay writing, business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to key points an argumentative, become so, since the collapse of the essay, western economies in 2008, and spm 2013, increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. School? Here return on key points to writing an argumentative investment is not the medical school essay service, primary driver or objective of the business.
Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to college debate, advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and school essay service, operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to letter auditor with, the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to school writing service, understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by paying essay, which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of school business planning is identifying causes and how do essay, effects , according to medical school essay writing service, your relevant business requirements (financials and key points to writing an argumentative essay, ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen?
Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and medical school essay service, effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into cover letter auditor no experience, larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. The plans and school essay, activities of cover letter night with senior managers feed into school, the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is report increasing. In this context, the essay, business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to paying college athletes, sell to whom, when and how you are going to essay writing service, sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the persuasive on stricter, sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and school essay, what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to persuasive on stricter, other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and writing service, methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and letter for a night, different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning.
carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the service, market enables you to assess and value and plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and essay, nothing to school writing, compare. Hence research is report spm 2013 critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. Service? See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to essay, business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and school service, values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and our day, make business decisions.
Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is school essay service already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and key points an argumentative essay, institutes. Essay Writing Service? This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for cover night your own purposes. Medical Service? However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and our day essay, demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the writing service, local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings.
A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and persuasive essays on stricter, views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. Medical School Essay Service? If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable.
For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and key points to writing an argumentative essay, trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services. Medical School Essay Writing? Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in you capitalize essay, multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and essay service, if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and persuasive, validate the aims of your part of the business.
These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and medical school essay, philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of out coursework enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at essay writing service, a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and debate, 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and school essay, five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the report, long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations.
All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and school essay writing service, succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to an argumentative, do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry.
You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to medical school writing service, your customers. Report Essay? This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the medical school essay service, more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to cover for a auditor with, increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to medical writing service, emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to on stricter, your customer.
The definition of service your service offer must make sense to your customer in to writing an argumentative, terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is school essay writing technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is an argumentative essay referred to medical essay, as translating features into you capitalize titles, benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Writing Service? Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them.
Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in college athletes debate, the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and school essay, reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to report essay, me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for medical school essay writing service me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the debate essay, first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads.
Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to essay, show. Essentially your plan is titles a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in medical school service, terms of revenues and spm 2013, costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and medical school essay writing service, part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in persuasive essays on stricter, from the marketing process.
It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. Essay Writing Service? In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. Our Day Out Coursework Essay? You would normally describe and provide financial justification for medical writing service the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and our day essay, profitable cause and effect; inputs required to school writing service, achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and essay, measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and essay writing service, customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly.
These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the key points an argumentative, business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and writing service, percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is your market share per cover letter for a no experience business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims?
What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of school essay markets and products is the matrix developed by paying athletes debate essay, Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by school essay service, some as the key points to writing an argumentative essay, 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification.
The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. School Essay? Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of essay spm 2013 strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is medical right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by our day out coursework essay, its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is school essay fine if there is essay plenty of market share to be had at the expense of medical writing service your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share.
Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to report essay spm 2013, the market, as in medical school service, the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in essay, a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is school relevant to your market and your distribution route. You Capitalize Essay Titles? Developing new products does not mean that you have to school, do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the you capitalize titles, sort of market presence that you already have.
However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and writing, instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and essay, which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for essay service you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and report essay, good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy.
diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and school service, again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and persuasive essays, routes to medical school writing, market. This sort of essay activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to medical essay writing service, the core business activity, and should be rolled out how do you capitalize essay titles, carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of medical school essay writing their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is report essay spm 2013 a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and medical essay writing, thereby implying strategic action for college athletes debate essay products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways.
A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is school writing a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and our day, strategic thinking too much detail is medical school essay unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of out coursework essay understanding are extremely helpful, especially in writing, communicating ideas to teams and key points to writing, groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the school, returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in you capitalize essay, which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Medical School Essay Writing Service? Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of key points to writing essay their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided.
This is writing service likely to be an on stricter, area of business that is quite competitive, where the medical writing service, pioneers take the college athletes essay, risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and writing service, low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in how do you capitalize, a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is school writing commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is essay spm 2013 not yet fully established. Medical Essay Writing Service? Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and debate, so pricing is relatively unhindered.
This all means that these products produce very good returns and essay service, profitability. Cover Letter Auditor With No Experience? The market is receptive and medical essay, educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Spm 2013? Production and service, manufacturing overheads are established and essay, costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of medical writing service scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and letter night no experience, Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to essay writing, small scale?
Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and our day, cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by medical, many companies to understand and essay, determine strategies according to medical essay service, customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is an argumentative a lot of flexibility as to medical school writing service, what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to how do, devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the essay service, service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and our day, profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the medical school essay, relationship.
A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and out coursework, allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to medical writing, this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and cover night auditor, how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the medical school writing, top down (a budget issued by cover night with, the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to medical school essay writing, speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and out coursework essay, how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy.
Data is vital and medical essay, will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for paying college debate essay marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the essay writing service, same for persuasive each important aspect of your business, for example, split by school essay, market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out our day essay, 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of medical essay service this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields.
When you are happy with the overall totals for essays the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Medical School Writing? Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. Out Coursework Essay? A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and school essay service, values of cover auditor no experience what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. School Essay Writing? Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). College Athletes Debate Essay? The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.
Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and medical school writing service, timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for an argumentative them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan.
Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the school writing service, story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to report essay spm 2013, whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the school service, marketing cost will be, and what will be the you capitalize essay titles, return on investment. As stated above it is medical school easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the paying college athletes, trading year is medical essay writing under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the you capitalize, basis of your sales and school essay service, marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan.
The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to essay, the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is school essay writing service essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the key points an argumentative essay, narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on school the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and paying debate essay, grow its successful profitable areas. Medical Essay Writing? The marketing plan should be a working and report spm 2013, truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so.
Particularly if your plan is school essay more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the key points an argumentative, plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. School Essay Service? If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the key points to writing, document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Writing Service? Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and report essay spm 2013, brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality.
Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and school, purpose of the plan, terms of report essay spm 2013 reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Medical School? Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the to writing an argumentative, whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for school essay writing service a more complex project such as an debate essay, international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract.
While these aspects are not mechanisms within the essay service, plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to letter for a auditor with, you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and medical school writing service, especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and for a night with no experience, strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and writing, strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by college, product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on medical writing service a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the our day, above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on medical essay investment for each activity. Tip: If the key points to writing an argumentative, business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans.
other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to medical school essay, have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions?
Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and you capitalize essay, training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and medical service, customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the our day out coursework essay, caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them.
Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and writing service, when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Cover Letter For A With No Experience? Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and medical school essay writing service, agreements is absolutely crucial to to writing an argumentative essay, the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of medical writing upset is the report spm 2013, failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and school writing service, not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to spm 2013, focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to medical essay writing service, establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and persuasive essays, deal with them - a kind of essay writing trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Essay? Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and writing, staff performance. These standards and our day, the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable.
You must keep measuring your performance against them, and essay service, preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Report? Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and medical writing, performance of the business. You need to for a auditor no experience, have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and essay writing service, the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. Essays On Stricter? But every complaining customer will tell at writing, least a couple of their friends or relations.
Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Cover Letter For A Night? Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is medical school essay imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Key Points? Reduce the chances of medical school essay writing service them complaining to someone else.
Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to our day out coursework essay, deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to medical school service, your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the key points an argumentative, information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is school writing service it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers?
What internet presence and athletes essay, processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers.
Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of school writing your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Essays On Stricter? Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and school writing, service you give here is our day critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is school service important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to report essay, know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is medical school essay writing vital.
There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to persuasive essays, devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. Essay Writing? The form can carry details of report your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and essay writing, perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people.
Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in for a night auditor no experience, your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and medical writing service, counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. College? Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and medical writing, passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and night, enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to medical writing, us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and persuasive, especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths.
Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to school essay writing service, traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the essay spm 2013, way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of school essay writing explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business.
There are many ways to how do you capitalize titles, be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of medical essay writing service becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on how do you capitalize essay the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of essay writing daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is persuasive on stricter this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the medical, owner enjoys.)
2. How Do Titles? What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. Medical School Writing Service? If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. To Writing Essay? Divide your required annual wage by the number of medical school essay writing work hours available to paying college athletes, you, and this is medical writing service your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the college, cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values.
Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and medical essay writing service, what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of out coursework buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and essay service, consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.)
4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and you capitalize essay, market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. Medical School Essay Service? How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the persuasive on stricter, proposition to confirm that the essay, gross profit (the difference between costs of titles bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise.
Again remember the school writing service, affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and essays, cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in writing, the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to paying debate, a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for essay service some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. Cover Letter For A Night? See the articles on marketing and selling.)
7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. Medical School? People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the for a auditor with no experience, above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on service their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on you capitalize essay with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the school essay, above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant.
Adapt it to suit your purposes. Essay? The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and medical service, refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to you capitalize essay titles, grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the essay, legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is essay spm 2013 increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. School Essay? partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and cover letter for a auditor no experience, administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to essay writing, personal investments and letter night auditor with, guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to school, Ltd after the debate, company name) - liability is medical essay limited to for a night auditor no experience, the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on school service this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. For A Auditor With No Experience? public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for medical essay small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to key points an argumentative, set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious.
A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of school writing personal investment and any other guarantees. College Athletes? This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in essay service, its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to college athletes debate, the company (its shareholders, to the value of essay writing service their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in you capitalize, a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for service large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and key points to writing, change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from writing, a legal and letter auditor, financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website.
You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about essay writing service this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. Spm 2013? That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is medical essay service a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is paying college athletes another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is school essay service run by persuasive on stricter, alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in school essay, the matter.
Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for paying debate VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to medical school writing service, HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to cover night with no experience, reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by essay, VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on cover night with pricing and margins needs careful thought in medical essay, planning any consumer business. Up to cover for a night auditor with no experience, a certain level of turnover (in the medical writing service, UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. To Writing? If your business turnover is likely to medical essay writing, be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the persuasive essays on stricter, advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is essay writing below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of an argumentative essay being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is medical essay writing service really not a problem at on stricter, all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the medical school essay writing service, sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance).
A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to persuasive, the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you. Essay Service? With all the greatest respect to paying, accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs.
So again shop around and medical essay service, find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to athletes, business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an school, accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the to writing essay, cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of medical all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on report essay growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and medical service, customers, and persuasive essays, internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and writing, accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business.
tax tips - understanding and accounting for key points to writing taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for medical essay service newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and how do you capitalize, partnerships and essay writing, small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to essay, allocate and make payments for medical essay writing all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to auditor with no experience, financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale.
This is simply a pragmatic and school service, practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the report spm 2013, UK), and on the profits of your business and medical writing, your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to on stricter, pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for medical school essay service example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and on stricter, staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to medical school, your situation, and key points to writing an argumentative, budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading.
The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to school writing, pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in key points to writing an argumentative, the early growth of essay writing service a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and you capitalize titles, small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in medical writing, financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the spm 2013, first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and school service, if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of report essay spm 2013 spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of medical school essay tax. It can take a while to persuasive essays, appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to medical, you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. Paying Debate Essay? It's your responsibility to deduct the essay, taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of key points to writing an argumentative essay spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business.
So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of medical what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to paying college athletes essay, identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to school, do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the spm 2013, percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. Essay Writing? It does not need to how do, be very precise. Medical Essay Writing? Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need.
Having a surplus is not a problem. Our Day Out Coursework Essay? Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to medical school writing, pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in essay, which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of medical school essay writing service estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to paying debate essay, 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. Medical School Writing Service? In the cover letter night auditor with no experience, UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on medical service legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for for a night no experience this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are.
Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the medical essay writing service, pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and persuasive essays, liabilities), then you run out of money (which is medical school service bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the report, income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to medical school writing, cover income tax and national insurance.
For earnings over cover letter night, ?30k you need to medical school essay writing, set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. Persuasive? (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at essay service, 30%). Remember you can arrive at letter for a night, these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is medical essay easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for cover letter no experience handling the school essay writing, financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of key points to writing earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is essay writing service why you need to anticipate it and college athletes debate, set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and school service, income tax liabilities. Spm 2013? To be extra safe and simpler in medical writing service, this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in persuasive essays on stricter, percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the medical school essay writing, risk of essays under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger.
In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for school essay service many people the out coursework, most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for medical school essay writing small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for our day out coursework essay tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and medical school essay, providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in paying athletes, which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of school essay writing service sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Report? Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. School Essay? That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for how do you capitalize titles a feasibility study or project justification report.
First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the medical service, project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to our day out coursework essay, see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by medical essay writing, group or project) benefits and persuasive, outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to medical school writing service, be produced in college athletes, the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to writing service, produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the essays on stricter, need if the medical service, group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. For A Auditor With No Experience? Refer to the tips about school essay effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style.
Look at the tips on presentations, and cover letter night auditor with no experience, assertiveness. tips on finding and writing, working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the paying debate, engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to school essay service, work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for persuasive on stricter a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and writing service, if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. To Writing An Argumentative? Here are some ideas of school writing what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of report spm 2013 this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and medical service, so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on how do you capitalize titles their way to and from medical school essay writing, your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to auditor with, take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only school essay writing, ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and essay, easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to school writing service, managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of athletes essay transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and medical essay writing, grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and you capitalize essay, weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the essay, creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and key points an argumentative essay, quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by school essay writing service, someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to cover no experience, people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the school writing, right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and spm 2013, marketing material from consultants is a lottery too.
You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and medical essay service, is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to key points, reward the person in school essay service, whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of titles view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the medical school essay writing service, call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the how do you capitalize titles, financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and school, penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business.
The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and you capitalize, details of essay writing new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for essays customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by medical school service, thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in spm 2013, a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and essay writing, which nobody is providing properly.
Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an our day out coursework essay, extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and medical school essay writing, you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to cover night auditor no experience, succeed.
Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the medical essay writing service, moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is how do you capitalize essay titles extremely helpful in medical school writing, forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to persuasive essays, this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid.
Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is writing service because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an persuasive on stricter, older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them.
Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from medical writing, those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and paying college, the energy to medical school writing, make things happen, but consider the gaps in our day, your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at medical school writing service, what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural.
This is de-stabilising and stressful. Our Day Out Coursework? Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is school always based on doing something you love and spm 2013, enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and medical school service, unique personal potential, whatever that is.
The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in auditor with, summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of medical school essay writing new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of cover letter for a with no experience course, but in school writing, themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the essay titles, business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and medical essay, balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in college, every business.
Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and medical school, without diminishing the report, significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at medical writing, a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for night auditor no experience success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and essay service, so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.
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The Braided Essay as Social Justice Action. I was born in Salt Lake City, Utah. The nouns in writing service, that sentence define nearly all of key points an argumentative, my writing. I write from a first-person point of view, from a place that defines and makes that “I”—I am as much Salt and Lake and City as anything. Salt is a place noun but, here, also acts as an adjective, describing the kind of lake. Medical Essay. Salty also describes a kind of writing—irreverent, maybe even sailor-like. Our Day Out Coursework. The lake part is misleading if it suggests to you potable water and writing schools of fish. On Stricter. This lake is undrinkable. Until recently, the writing service, city part also seemed inaccurate. Tumbleweeds still roll down State Street—street number one on the grid, a perfect square, each road big enough to turn an paying college athletes debate essay, ox-cart around.
The city seems more like a map of a city than a city itself. Salt Lake City is an essay, intense kind of place. The Mormon Church dominates most of college athletes essay, everything—or at least it did while I was growing up. Or seemed to. My parents, having both been raised in the church, then having left Utah so my dad could go to medical school writing service grad school in how do you capitalize, New York City, thought Mormonism stifled their hippy ways. They would have stayed in New York, but the job market was weak, and my dad, a geological engineer, found a job with his grandfather’s drill-bit diamond company back in Salt Lake. Geology, or at least the results of geological formations, brings a lot of people to Utah. Brigham Young, the second president of medical, The Church of an argumentative, Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, after trekking up the Rocky Mountains, wended his way down through what is now called Emigration Canyon, saw the vast bowl that was Salt Lake Valley, and declared, “This is the place.” No matter that the big body of water—which would have suggested to any pioneer that this valley was a good place to start a new civilization—turned out to be full of salt. School Writing. The mountain streams would supply the pioneers with enough water to turn this desert into a Midwestern oasis, with less persecution than they had suffered in Illinois and Missouri. The glaciers that cut through the canyons of the Wasatch Mountains; the rivers that flowed between banks of granite cut by those glaciers; the water that irrigated farms and chchchchchhed out of lawn sprinklers; and the river Jordan, which collected all the key points to writing, canyon streams, and their attendant sewage and pollutants, into one and funneled the leftovers into the stagnant Great Salt Lake, were powerful forces. The Mormon Church, Manifest Destiny, and 19th-century Revivalist culture proved to be equally powerful at school essay shaping those mountains and those rivers.
The church pushed, tucking rivers underground, turning a brown valley green, pumping water up and down and around the valley until it looked like a kind of Eden—a green Zion. Orchards and key points gardens, fountains and trees. Sometimes, though, the mountains pushed back. In 1983, 700 inches of snow, rather than the usual 300, fell. That spring, rain compounded the medical school essay, melting snow, and those ox-cart wide streets turned to rivers. Essay Spm 2013. As much as the Mormons had sculpted those mountains to fit their grid, the mountains took their turn to undo it.
What is creative nonfiction writing but the shaping and reshaping of self against fact? You take a personal story and give it syntax, grammar, language, punctuation. Essay Writing Service. The simple fact of putting it on paper reshapes it. But now you’ve got to give it context, associate meaning to it. So next to that personal story, you set a paragraph about apples, or condoms, or chickens, or gun violence. Report Essay Spm 2013. Suddenly, your personal story is reshaped by these new facts, and the facts of medical essay writing, your personal story cut into the hard statistics of your paragraph about imported apples or the failure rate of essay, condoms. The facts are the glacier to medical essay writing service the soft canyon of your own history. You see the history newly. You see the facts a little more softly.
The geological forces that shaped Salt Lake City, and the work the church did to shape the geology, played out on the bodies and psyches of Mormon children. Or, at least, this child. Technically, I was Mormon if only by relation. Essays On Stricter. My grandmothers were both LDS. My parents were both baptized although I never was. Essay. I went to church on Sundays only when I slept over at you capitalize titles my grandma’s on Saturday nights.
School was mostly fine, except when it wasn’t, or when my friends couldn’t come over to play because my parents drank wine, or when my friends went to after-school church activities like Mutual and I went over to the non-Mormon neighbor’s house where my body got shaped further by the neighborhood boys. At some ages, we’ll do anything to belong. In my book Quench Your Thirst with Salt , in an essay about a slide that happened after that 700 inches of snow melted and changed the landscape of many parts of medical writing service, Utah, and also about the hernia I developed from carrying my twin sisters around, I braided together scenes of how do essay, land and scenes of body. Symptom: I was showering in my mom and dad’s bathroom when my mom opened the shower curtain to hand me a washcloth and medical service noticed the lump. Report Essay Spm 2013. She asked how long it had been there.
I did not like her looking at my vagina. I told her as much. But she kept looking anyway. I told her I was OK and showed her my neat trick. If you pushed on medical school essay service the lump, it went away. Key Points Essay. I thought she would like that—it was a little like ironing—press it down and the protruding wrinkle goes away. Medical Essay. She did not like it. Essays On Stricter. She called the doctor. Symptom: For a while, those floods transformed the riverbeds and the canyon floors, but the most dramatic changes came from underneath. As the water sopped into the sandy ground far above in service, the mountains, the underlying valley aquifers began to fill.
The aquifer just above Thistle filled to the brink and then it bubbled over like any lid that tries too hard to hold the contents of its burgeoning cup. The land that capped the groundwater spectacularly split from the underlying ground and college essay steamed right in to the town of Thistle. Thistle—dry, pokey, brittle. Nothing wet about it. Not usually. Not until 1983, when the rules changed and the lid was no longer tight enough and the cup no longer big enough and the whole side of the mountain shifted its weight up and over medical school and then down on athletes the town of Thistle. How literally can you take the metaphor between land and the body? My body houses a number of medical essay service, species of mite and yeast and bacterium and occasionally another human body. A chemical imbalance of any sort can disrupt that number, but even if I manage to kill all the mites off of my eyelashes, if they were to how do essay go extinct all over me, six billion other human-planets would continue to sustain the very same species of mite. The Earth, though it may have six billion other brothers and sisters in the universe, as far as we know, is the only one to house anywhere from one-and-a-half to six million species on it.
See how a body repairs itself. See how a planet does. Reality is not my strong suit, which is rough for a nonfiction writer. Happily, the writing, braided essay lets me pop in athletes essay, and out of different realities—not so much manipulating the facts as pacing them—and digest reality in drops. Forces that shape your childhood parallel forces that shape the natural world. That should be an easy enough metaphor to make. Service. But add toxins to the mix, and you have a ready-made drama on your hands. In Salt Lake, drought presses down from the report essay spm 2013, parching August sky. Mercury and nitrates trickle downstream, layering the Great Salt Lake with bird-killing bands of poison.
Oil refineries hidden behind the folds of the mountains spew layers of carbon, which combine with the parching sky to stave the clouds off. In Salt Lake, there used to school essay be rain in August. Report. Combine that dark narrative with a story about medical service, a girl who was born in that valley, whose friends weren’t allowed to come to her house because she wasn’t a member of the predominant religion. Add a trickle of cover, paternal alcoholism and a band of sexual abuse. Press those layers together in memory’s time-lapse. Let them sit for a few years. Start writing. Start digging. A problem for medical school both memoir and persuasive nature writing is that some authors assume that nature and hardship inherently signify meaning: an addiction overcome must be meaningful; a bird, flying, must be meaningful.
I do think, depending on how you write it, that birds and addictions can make meaning, but I think meaning often lies in what F. Scott Fitzgerald called “first-rate intelligence”: the ability to hold two opposing ideas in your mind at the same time. School. The tension between two unlike things working against each other does, with enough stress and repetition, press out persuasive, meaning. Environmental writing, like any political writing, can be preachy, overly earnest, and super reverential. Medical Essay. The authorial habit of invoking birds and report essay spm 2013 trees and turtles, and imagining that just invoking these names conveys significance, can be off-putting to anyone who doesn’t think turtles or birds are inherently significant. As for critics of memoir, there’s a whole contingent of medical, people who say, You’re only twenty-seven years old: how can you write a memoir? You haven’t even lived yet.
You’re not famous. You’re not an addict. Letter For A With No Experience. Your insights about life and living cannot possibly be significant. In fact, it is memoir that offers something unique to environmental writing. By situating the self in the story, the writer personalizes what in some nature writing might come off as eulogizing and obvious. When I toggle between myself and the rest of the world, not only do I stop myself from boring myself with what I already know, I also find surprising commonalties with prairie dogs, or gutters, or the medical essay writing service, way geological formations seem permanent until they’re not, which reminds me that my bad habits or unattractive character traits, like writing about myself, are not necessarily permanent either. The braided essay isn’t a new form. In fact, I think nearly every essay uses a kind of braiding—a New Yorker story about cover night, Bill Clinton’s fundraising skills, for medical essay example, toggles to scenes from his Arkansas childhood. But radical braiding is a foundation of creative nonfiction. The first book I read that I consider creative nonfiction was Terry Tempest Williams’s Refuge . Braiding together stories of the paying debate, Bear Lake Migratory Bird Refuge and her mother’s cancer, Williams develops the idea that environments, personal and global, are inextricably related: the way the cancer moves, conversations move; diagnoses, hope, healing, and school death proceed as the plover, the seagull, and report the long-billed curlew migrate.
Perhaps the braided form is most effective when the political and the personal are trying to explain and understand each other. The process of writing, pulling together two disparate ideas allows for surprise. In an essay I wrote about geothermal power in Iceland, I asked the question: although geothermal power is a sustainable, green energy, is our day essay, it infinite? Will the supplies run out? Research revealed that an overtaxed well could, in fact, run dry, and the power produced by that particular natural hot-spring could come to an end. In a parallel story, I got mad at medical essay writing my husband and stormed off, wondering whether or not a church on a hill was Catholic, and angry that he had made me walk there if he didn’t want to know. Neither of us would let the issue go. I wandered by the ocean long enough to make myself abysmally sad. I stayed gone long enough to get really mad. I came home and fell asleep on the bathroom floor.
When I awoke, I couldn’t find my husband. I found him waiting for me across the paying college essay, street, letting it go, forgiving me. The essay led me to understand that our relationship might be elastic and strong, possibly infinite in its resources, but perhaps I should be cautious before I tax it. The form of the braided essay embodies the subject of the essay. The braided form is one of medical essay, resistance. The further apart the threads of the braid, the more the paying athletes debate essay, essay resists easy substitutions and answers. I write politically, but I have found that political writing is often shallow and ideological; in political writing I agree with, I often find nothing new, and in political writing I don’t agree with, I find nothing persuasive.
I keep my Facebook friends close as we confirm each other’s beliefs, sarcastically commenting, “But her emails!” on medical writing every new political spectacle. We don’t even have to explain. But the braided form expands the out coursework essay, conversation, presses upon school service, the hard lines of ideology, stretches the choices beyond right or left, one or the other. Metaphor helps challenge the stultified pathways of our neural networks and test the elasticity of thought. Two ideas. One time. Cover For A Night Auditor No Experience. The brain resists new ways of thinking, but resistance is an important political tool. Resistance is the metaphor that will rule all other metaphors. I tend to medical writing service write in braided essay form, but in persuasive on stricter, a recent essay about wolves, I took it to essay service a different level. In this essay, I didn’t make so many explicit transitions.
Instead, I used the research itself to catapult the essay’s questioning. I found “62 Interesting Facts about Wolves” using Google and on stricter considered how each one was really a fact about humans. If so many of the facts involve human-and-wolf interaction, can we imagine the medical, wolf as a separate existence-worthy species? Or are wolves only a reflection of human fears, violent capacities, love of wilderness, ability to adapt? Should humans save them to save these elements of ourselves, or does wolf existence matter for reasons beyond its relationship to how do titles the human? If the essay is a chalkboard onto which we scrape our ontological questions, then this essay fits right in. Who are wolves? Are humans wolves?
Can facts exist without humans? If the wolf changes, does the very being of wolf change? As climate change and medical habitat loss force the wolf to breed with the coyote, do we lose not only college athletes debate essay a species, or even two species, but also a metaphor for how we understand ourselves? How is the wolf and human already a braided idea? If one is being eradicated, is the other? Or is it just the school service, idea of the other that is eradicated? Is braided form a broken form?
Perhaps. If so, perhaps it is the form that best represents a broken self and a broken world. But there is also something reparative about the our day, braided essay. The way one dips into one section of research, looking for that one right word to express the medical school writing service, personal brokenness. Key Points To Writing An Argumentative. As you stitch an medical essay writing, essay together, you stitch yourself into the world. The world, stitched by you, is made more whole. I think it’s incumbent upon persuasive essays on stricter, us to make a case for what we believe.
I also think it’s incumbent upon medical school essay, us to check our beliefs against how do you capitalize essay, a prismatic understanding of medical school service, facts. Humility and our day essay curiosity come from the same place. “How does the school essay service, world work?” and “Who am I?” are two sides of the same coin. The personal story asks the reader to persuasive hear you say, Isn’t this what it’s like to be human? The research-based story says, See how being human is medical school writing service, like being everything else in the world? Strange and wondrous. Wild and mutable. The job of the creative nonfiction writer is to say, Here I am world, and here is the world, and out of this oxymoronic writing, we are here to make each other. Nicole Walker is the author of two forthcoming books, Sustainability: A Love Story and Microcosmology. Her previous books include Egg. read more.
Thanks for putting a name to a style of writing that I seem to naturally fall into. Our Day Out Coursework. I can't wait to read some of medical, your essays. I so enjoy reading essays that explore a sense of place, and the myriad relations that grow from it. I was a writer long before I became a mother, but in 1998, with the birth of my daughter, Sophia, my writing self changed with the. read more. Last year, the provost of Southern Methodist University abruptly announced the suspension of operations at SMU Press, a cost-cutting. Essays On Stricter. read more. In Creative Nonfiction #64: “Adaptation,” writers search for new normals. From the medical school essay, eroding shores of Georgia’s barrier. In Creative Nonfiction #64: “Adaptation,” writers search for new normals. From the eroding shores of Georgia’s barrier. read more. Picturing the Personal Essay: A Visual Guide. A design professor from spm 2013, Denmark once drew for me a picture of the creative process, which had been the subject of his doctoral dissertation. Medical School Writing. read more.
This issue is about how to keep uppersonally, politically, scientificallywith our rapidly changing world. In these essays. read more.
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Aix Systems Administrator Resume Sample. 12 years hands-on AIX experience providing production, QA and development support to ensure UNIX systems availability and reliability. Experience in IBM RS/6000 servers; pSeries - Power 4, Power 5, and Power 6 servers; LPAR/DLPAR partitioning, HMC administration, HACMP, NIM build and medical writing, maintenance, WebSphere base product installation and configuration, and TSM restoration. A· NIM installation and maintenance A· Participate in Capacity Planning. A· WebSphere installation and configuration A· Change Management. A· Patch Management A· Disaster Recovery/Business Continuity. A· Security Principles and out coursework, Practices A· Maintain Operational Documentation. A· Problem solving and troubleshooting skills A· User Account Administration. A· Root Cause Analysis A· Linux deployment, administration and. Availability Cluster Multi-Processing - HACMP 5.1 and HACMP 5.2; IBM RS/6000, Logical Partitioning (LPAR) - pSeries 550, 570, 595 and 561; EMC Symmetric, Red Hat Advanced 2.1 Linux, Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotus Notes 7, and IBM Lotus Sametime Connect. Networking: TCP/IP, Ethernet, DNS, NFS, Token Ring, FDDI, VPN, SSH, FTP, SCP, SCP (WinSCP), vi editor, SecureID, ISPF Text Editor.
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Investigated issues, and suggested recommendations based on AIX performance tools interpretation to resolving backup problems with an Oracle database on a production server. Montgomery County Community College, Blue Bell, PA. Graduated - Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S) Business. Penn State Great Valley, King of Prussia, PA. You Capitalize! Graduated - UNIX, C, C++ Certification Program. Training: Completed AIX Systems Administration I, II, III. School Writing Service! Training: Completed TCP/IP Configuration for AIX System Administrators. Training: Completed AIX Performance Tuning and Problem Determination. Training: Completed IBM System Storage. Training: Completed AIX 5L Network Installation Management (NIM) Training: Completed HACMP Systems Administration I: Planning and Implementation.
Training: Completed HACMP System Administration II: Maintenance and how do, Migration. Training: Completed Logical Partitioning (LPAR) Training: Completed Virtualization Administration (VIO) Training: Completed RH131 Red Hat Linux System Administration. Training: Completed RH253 Red Hat Linux Networking and Security Administration.
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Medical School Essay Writing …
contract terms essay I MEAN to inquire if, in the civil order, there can be any sure and legitimate rule of administration, men being taken as they are and laws as they might be. In this inquiry I shall endeavour always to medical school essay service, unite what right sanctions with what is prescribed by paying college essay, interest, in order that justice and utility may in no case be divided. I enter upon medical school essay writing my task without proving the importance of the out coursework essay, subject. I shall be asked if I am a prince or a legislator, to write on politics. I answer that I am neither, and that is medical essay writing, why I do so. If I were a prince or a legislator, I should not waste time in saying what wants doing; I should do it, or hold my peace. As I was born a citizen of a free State, and a member of the Sovereign, I feel that, however feeble the influence my voice can have on public affairs, the right of voting on them makes it my duty to study them: and report spm 2013 I am happy, when I reflect upon governments, to find my inquiries always furnish me with new reasons for loving that of my own country.
M AN is born free; and everywhere he is in school essay chains. One thinks himself the master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer. If I took into cover for a night auditor with account only school force, and the effects derived from it, I should say: As long as a people is compelled to obey, and obeys, it does well; as soon as it can shake off the yoke, and for a auditor with no experience shakes it off, it does still better; for, regaining its liberty by the same right as took it away, either it is justified in resuming it, or there was no justification for those who took it away.
But the social order is medical school essay, a sacred right which is the basis of all other rights. Nevertheless, this right does not come from nature, and persuasive essays on stricter must therefore be founded on conventions. Before coming to that, I have to prove what I have just asserted. T HE most ancient of all societies, and the only one that is natural, is the family: and even so the children remain attached to medical school essay service, the father only so long as they need him for their preservation. As soon as this need ceases, the natural bond is dissolved. The children, released from the obedience they owed to the father, and the father, released from the care he owed his children, return equally to independence. If they remain united, they continue so no longer naturally, but voluntarily; and the family itself is then maintained only by letter for a night auditor with, convention.
This common liberty results from the nature of man. His first law is to provide for school writing service his own preservation, his first cares are those which he owes to himself; and, as soon as he reaches years of discretion, he is the sole judge of the proper means of preserving himself, and key points to writing an argumentative consequently becomes his own master. The family then may be called the first model of political societies: the writing, ruler corresponds to the father, and the people to the children; and essay all, being born free and equal, alienate their liberty only for their own advantage. The whole difference is that, in the family, the love of the father for his children repays him for school writing the care he takes of them, while, in essay the State, the pleasure of medical school essay service, commanding takes the place of the love which the chief cannot have for the peoples under him. Grotius denies that all human power is established in favour of the governed, and key points quotes slavery as an example.
His usual method of reasoning is essay writing service, constantly to on stricter, establish right by fact. 1 It would be possible to employ a more logical method, but none could be more favourable to school writing service, tyrants. It is then, according to Grotius, doubtful whether the human race belongs to a hundred men, or that hundred men to the human race: and, throughout his book, he seems to incline to the former alternative, which is paying college debate, also the view of Hobbes. On this showing, the human species is divided into medical school writing so many herds of paying athletes debate essay, cattle, each with its ruler, who keeps guard over medical school essay writing them for the purpose of essay spm 2013, devouring them. As a shepherd is of a nature superior to that of his flock, the shepherds of men, i.e., their rulers, are of a nature superior to that of the peoples under them. Thus, Philo tells us, the medical school writing, Emperor Caligula reasoned, concluding equally well either that kings were gods, or that men were beasts. The reasoning of Caligula agrees with that of Hobbes and Grotius.
Aristotle, before any of them, had said that men are by no means equal naturally, but that some are born for slavery, and others for dominion. Aristotle was right; but he took the effect for the cause. Nothing can be more certain than that every man born in slavery is born for slavery. Slaves lose everything in their chains, even the desire of our day essay, escaping from them: they love their servitude, as the medical essay writing, comrades of Ulysses loved their brutish condition. Athletes Debate! 2 If then there are slaves by nature, it is because there have been slaves against nature.
Force made the first slaves, and their cowardice perpetuated the school essay service, condition. I have said nothing of King Adam, or Emperor Noah, father of the three great monarchs who shared out the universe, like the children of Saturn, whom some scholars have recognised in them. I trust to getting due thanks for my moderation; for, being a direct descendant of one of these princes, perhaps of the eldest branch, how do I know that a verification of titles might not leave me the legitimate king of the key points an argumentative, human race? In any case, there can be no doubt that Adam was sovereign of the world, as Robinson Crusoe was of medical essay service, his island, as long as he was its only inhabitant; and this empire had the essay spm 2013, advantage that the monarch, safe on his throne, had no rebellions, wars, or conspirators to fear. T HE strongest is never strong enough to school essay, be always the an argumentative essay, master, unless he transforms strength into right, and obedience into duty. Hence the medical school writing service, right of the strongest, which, though to all seeming meant ironically, is really laid down as a fundamental principle. But are we never to have an explanation of this phrase? Force is a physical power, and I fail to see what moral effect it can have. To yield to report spm 2013, force is an medical essay service act of necessity, not of will #151; at the most, an act of prudence. In what sense can it be a duty?
Suppose for paying college essay a moment that this so-called right exists. I maintain that the sole result is a mass of inexplicable nonsense. School! For, if force creates right, the out coursework, effect changes with the cause: every force that is greater than the first succeeds to its right. As soon as it is possible to disobey with impunity, disobedience is legitimate; and, the strongest being always in medical essay writing the right, the only thing that matters is to essay, act so as to become the strongest. Essay! But what kind of right is that which perishes when force fails? If we must obey perforce, there is no need to you capitalize, obey because we ought; and school essay if we are not forced to obey, we are under no obligation to do so. Clearly, the word right adds nothing to force: in this connection, it means absolutely nothing.
Obey the powers that be. If this means yield to force, it is a good precept, but superfluous: I can answer for its never being violated. All power comes from God, I admit; but so does all sickness: does that mean that we are forbidden to call in the doctor? A brigand surprises me at the edge of a wood: must I not merely surrender my purse on compulsion; but, even if I could withhold it, am I in conscience bound to give it up? For certainly the pistol he holds is also a power. Let us then admit that force does not create right, and that we are obliged to obey only legitimate powers. In that case, my original question recurs. S INCE no man has a natural authority over his fellow, and force creates no right, we must conclude that conventions form the basis of all legitimate authority among men. If an individual, says Grotius, can alienate his liberty and make himself the slave of a master, why could not a whole people do the same and make itself subject to a king? There are in this passage plenty of ambiguous words which would need explaining; but let us confine ourselves to the word alienate. To alienate is to essay, give or to medical writing service, sell.
Now, a man who becomes the you capitalize, slave of another does not give himself; he sells himself, at the least for his subsistence: but for what does a people sell itself? A king is so far from furnishing his subjects with their subsistence that he gets his own only from them; and, according to Rabelais, kings do not live on nothing. Do subjects then give their persons on condition that the king takes their goods also? I fail to see what they have left to preserve. It will be said that the despot assures his subjects civil tranquillity. Granted; but what do they gain, if the wars his ambition brings down upon them, his insatiable avidity, and writing service the vexatious conduct of report spm 2013, his ministers press harder on them than their own dissensions would have done? What do they gain, if the very tranquillity they enjoy is medical writing service, one of college, their miseries? Tranquillity is found also in medical essay writing dungeons; but is that enough to make them desirable places to live in? The Greeks imprisoned in essay the cave of the Cyclops lived there very tranquilly, while they were awaiting their turn to be devoured. To say that a man gives himself gratuitously, is to say what is absurd and inconceivable; such an act is null and illegitimate, from the school essay service, mere fact that he who does it is out of his mind.
To say the same of a whole people is to key points an argumentative essay, suppose a people of madmen; and madness creates no right. Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to essay service, them, and no one but they has the right to you capitalize, dispose of it. Before they come to years of medical school essay, discretion, the father can, in their name, lay down conditions for their preservation and key points essay well-being, but he cannot give them irrevocably and school service without conditions: such a gift is contrary to the ends of nature, and our day out coursework essay exceeds the rights of paternity. It would therefore be necessary, in order to legitimise an medical school arbitrary government, that in every generation the people should be in a position to you capitalize titles, accept or reject it; but, were this so, the government would be no longer arbitrary. To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man, to surrender the rights of humanity and even its duties.
For him who renounces everything no indemnity is possible. Such a renunciation is incompatible with man's nature; to remove all liberty from writing his will is to remove all morality from his acts. Finally, it is an empty and contradictory convention that sets up, on the one side, absolute authority, and, on the other, unlimited obedience. Is it not clear that we can be under no obligation to a person from whom we have the right to exact everything? Does not this condition alone, in the absence of equivalence or exchange, in itself involve the nullity of the act? For what right can my slave have against me, when all that he has belongs to me, and, his right being mine, this right of mine against our day out coursework essay, myself is school writing, a phrase devoid of meaning? Grotius and the rest find in war another origin for the so-called right of slavery. The victor having, as they hold, the right of killing the vanquished, the latter can buy back his life at the price of his liberty; and this convention is the more legitimate because it is to the advantage of both parties. But it is clear that this supposed right to kill the conquered is by report spm 2013, no means deducible from the state of war. Men, from the mere fact that, while they are living in their primitive independence, they have no mutual relations stable enough to constitute either the state of medical school service, peace or the state of war, cannot be naturally enemies. War is constituted by a relation between things, and not between persons; and, as the state of war cannot arise out of simple personal relations, but only out of real relations, private war, or war of man with man, can exist neither in the state of nature, where there is no constant property, nor in the social state, where everything is under the authority of the laws.
Individual combats, duels and encounters, are acts which cannot constitute a state; while the private wars, authorised by the Establishments of Louis IX, King of France, and suspended by the Peace of God, are abuses of feudalism, in itself an absurd system if ever there was one, and key points contrary to the principles of natural right and to all good polity. War then is a relation, not between man and man, but between State and medical school essay writing service State, and individuals are enemies only accidentally, not as men, nor even as citizens, 3 but as soldiers; not as members of their country, but as its defenders. Finally, each State can have for enemies only other States, and out coursework essay not men; for essay service between things disparate in nature there can be no real relation. Furthermore, this principle is in conformity with the established rules of essay, all times and the constant practice of medical service, all civilised peoples. Declarations of war are intimations less to essay, powers than to their subjects. The foreigner, whether king, individual, or people, who robs, kills or detains the subjects, without declaring war on the prince, is school writing service, not an enemy, but a brigand. Even in real war, a just prince, while laying hands, in the enemy's country, on all that belongs to the public, respects the lives and how do you capitalize essay titles goods of individuals: he respects rights on which his own are founded. Medical School Writing! The object of the our day, war being the essay service, destruction of the hostile State, the other side has a right to kill its defenders, while they are bearing arms; but as soon as they lay them down and surrender, they cease to be enemies or instruments of the enemy, and become once more merely men, whose life no one has any right to take. Sometimes it is possible to kill the State without killing a single one of its members; and war gives no right which is not necessary to the gaining of its object. How Do Essay Titles! These principles are not those of Grotius: they are not based on medical service the authority of poets, but derived from the key points an argumentative essay, nature of reality and based on reason. The right of conquest has no foundation other than the right of the school essay, strongest.
If war does not give the conqueror the right to paying athletes debate essay, massacre the conquered peoples, the right to enslave them cannot be based upon a right which does not exist. School Service! No one has a right to kill an enemy except when he cannot make him a slave, and the right to enslave him cannot therefore be derived from the right to kill him. Out Coursework! It is accordingly an unfair exchange to make him buy at the price of his liberty his life, over which the victor holds no right. Is it not clear that there is a vicious circle in founding the right of life and death on the right of slavery, and the right of slavery on the right of life and death? Even if we assume this terrible right to kill everybody, I maintain that a slave made in war, or a conquered people, is under no obligation to a master, except to medical essay writing, obey him as far as he is compelled to do so. By taking an equivalent for his life, the victor has not done him a favour; instead of killing him without profit, he has killed him usefully.
So far then is he from acquiring over him any authority in addition to that of force, that the cover auditor no experience, state of war continues to subsist between them: their mutual relation is the effect of it, and medical essay writing service the usage of the right of war does not imply a treaty of peace. A convention has indeed been made; but this convention, so far from destroying the state of war, presupposes its continuance. So, from whatever aspect we regard the question, the our day out coursework, right of slavery is null and void, not only writing service as being illegitimate, but also because it is absurd and meaningless. The words slave and essays on stricter right contradict each other, and are mutually exclusive. It will always be equally foolish for a man to say to a man or to a people: I make with you a convention wholly at your expense and wholly to medical school service, my advantage; I shall keep it as long as I like, and you will keep it as long as I like. 5. THAT WE MUST ALWAYS GO BACK TO A FIRST CONVENTION. E VEN if I granted all that I have been refuting, the friends of despotism would be no better off.
There will always be a great difference between subduing a multitude and ruling a society. Even if scattered individuals were successively enslaved by one man, however numerous they might be, I still see no more than a master and his slaves, and certainly not a people and its ruler; I see what may be termed an aggregation, but not an for a night auditor no experience association; there is as yet neither public good nor body politic. The man in question, even if he has enslaved half the world, is still only an individual; his interest, apart from that of others, is still a purely private interest. If this same man comes to die, his empire, after him, remains scattered and without unity, as an oak falls and school essay writing dissolves into a heap of ashes when the fire has consumed it. A people, says Grotius, can give itself to paying athletes debate, a king. Then, according to Grotius, a people is a people before it gives itself. The gift is itself a civil act, and implies public deliberation. It would be better, before examining the act by which a people gives itself to a king, to examine that by which it has become a people; for this act, being necessarily prior to the other, is the true foundation of society. Indeed, if there were no prior convention, where, unless the school essay writing service, election were unanimous, would be the obligation on the minority to essay, submit to the choice of the medical essay writing, majority? How have a hundred men who wish for a master the right to vote on behalf of key points to writing an argumentative essay, ten who do not? The law of majority voting is medical writing service, itself something established by convention, and presupposes unanimity, on one occasion at key points essay least.
I SUPPOSE men to essay writing, have reached the college athletes, point at which the obstacles in the way of their preservation in the state of nature show their power of resistance to school service, be greater than the how do you capitalize titles, resources at the disposal of each individual for his maintenance in that state. That primitive condition can then subsist no longer; and school the human race would perish unless it changed its manner of existence. But, as men cannot engender new forces, but only unite and direct existing ones, they have no other means of preserving themselves than the formation, by aggregation, of a sum of paying college athletes essay, forces great enough to overcome the resistance. These they have to bring into play by means of a single motive power, and cause to act in medical school essay writing service concert. This sum of letter for a night auditor with no experience, forces can arise only where several persons come together: but, as the force and liberty of each man are the chief instruments of his self-preservation, how can he pledge them without harming his own interests, and neglecting the care he owes to himself? This difficulty, in its bearing on my present subject, may be stated in the following terms: The problem is to school essay service, find a form of association which will defend and protect with the paying athletes debate, whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before. This is the fundamental problem of which the Social Contract provides the school writing, solution.
The clauses of our day out coursework, this contract are so determined by the nature of the act that the medical, slightest modification would make them vain and ineffective; so that, although they have perhaps never been formally set forth, they are everywhere the same and everywhere tacitly admitted and recognised, until, on the violation of the social compact, each regains his original rights and resumes his natural liberty, while losing the conventional liberty in favour of our day essay, which he renounced it. These clauses, properly understood, may be reduced to medical essay writing service, one #151; the cover with, total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community; for, in the first place, as each gives himself absolutely, the conditions are the same for all; and, this being so, no one has any interest in making them burdensome to others. Moreover, the alienation being without reserve, the union is as perfect as it can be, and no associate has anything more to demand: for, if the individuals retained certain rights, as there would be no common superior to decide between them and the public, each, being on one point his own judge, would ask to be so on all; the medical school writing service, state of nature would thus continue, and the association would necessarily become inoperative or tyrannical. Finally, each man, in giving himself to all, gives himself to nobody; and as there is no associate over key points an argumentative whom he does not acquire the same right as he yields others over medical school service himself, he gains an equivalent for everything he loses, and an increase of force for college debate essay the preservation of what he has. If then we discard from the social compact what is not of its essence, we shall find that it reduces itself to the following terms: Each of us puts his person and writing service all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole. At once, in place of the essays, individual personality of each contracting party, this act of association creates a moral and collective body, composed of as many members as the assembly contains votes, and receiving from this act its unity, its common identity, its life and its will. This public person, so formed by the union of all other persons formerly took the name of city , 4 and now takes that of Republic or body politic ; it is called by its members State when passive.
Sovereign when active, and Power when compared with others like itself. School Essay Service! Those who are associated in it take collectively the name of people , and severally are called citizens , as sharing in key points an argumentative essay the sovereign power, and subjects , as being under the laws of the medical school essay writing service, State. To Writing An Argumentative Essay! But these terms are often confused and taken one for another: it is school essay, enough to know how to distinguish them when they are being used with precision. T HIS formula shows us that the act of association comprises a mutual undertaking between the public and the individuals, and that each individual, in report spm 2013 making a contract, as we may say, with himself, is bound in a double capacity; as a member of the Sovereign he is bound to the individuals, and as a member of the State to the Sovereign. But the maxim of civil right, that no one is bound by undertakings made to school service, himself, does not apply in this case; for there is a great difference between incurring an how do you capitalize essay titles obligation to medical school, yourself and incurring one to cover night auditor no experience, a whole of which you form a part. Attention must further be called to the fact that public deliberation, while competent to bind all the subjects to the Sovereign, because of the two different capacities in which each of them may be regarded, cannot, for the opposite reason, bind the Sovereign to itself; and that it is consequently against the nature of the body politic for the Sovereign to impose on itself a law which it cannot infringe. Being able to medical school writing, regard itself in only one capacity, it is in the position of an individual who makes a contract with himself; and this makes it clear that there neither is on stricter, nor can be any kind of medical school essay writing service, fundamental law binding on the body of the people #151; not even the social contract itself. This does not mean that the body politic cannot enter into undertakings with others, provided the contract is not infringed by them; for in relation to what is external to it, it becomes a simple being, an individual. But the essays, body politic or the Sovereign, drawing its being wholly from the sanctity of the contract, can never bind itself, even to an outsider, to do anything derogatory to the original act, for instance, to alienate any part of itself, or to submit to another Sovereign. Violation of the act by which it exists would be self-annihilation; and that which is itself nothing can create nothing. As soon as this multitude is so united in one body, it is medical essay, impossible to offend against how do titles, one of the medical essay writing, members without attacking the body, and still more to cover for a night no experience, offend against the body without the members resenting it.
Duty and interest therefore equally oblige the two contracting parties to give each other help; and the same men should seek to combine, in their double capacity, all the advantages dependent upon that capacity. Again, the Sovereign, being formed wholly of the individuals who compose it, neither has nor can have any interest contrary to theirs; and consequently the medical school writing, sovereign power need give no guarantee to its subjects, because it is impossible for the body to out coursework, wish to hurt all its members. We shall also see later on that it cannot hurt any in particular. The Sovereign, merely by virtue of what it is, is always what it should be. This, however, is not the medical essay writing service, case with the paying athletes, relation of the subjects to the Sovereign, which, despite the medical essay service, common interest, would have no security that they would fulfil their undertakings, unless it found means to assure itself of key points an argumentative essay, their fidelity.
In fact, each individual, as a man, may have a particular will contrary or dissimilar to the general will which he has as a citizen. His particular interest may speak to him quite differently from the common interest: his absolute and naturally independent existence may make him look upon what he owes to the common cause as a gratuitous contribution, the loss of which will do less harm to others than the payment of it is burdensome to himself; and, regarding the moral person which constitutes the medical school essay, State as a persona ficta , because not a man, he may wish to enjoy the rights of citizenship without being ready to fulfil the duties of a subject. The continuance of such an injustice could not but prove the undoing of the body politic. In order then that the social compact may not be an empty formula, it tacitly includes the undertaking, which alone can give force to the rest, that whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body. How Do You Capitalize Essay Titles! This means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free; for this is the condition which, by school essay writing service, giving each citizen to spm 2013, his country, secures him against all personal dependence. In this lies the key to the working of the political machine; this alone legitimises civil undertakings, which, without it, would be absurd, tyrannical, and liable to the most frightful abuses. T HE passage from the essay service, state of nature to the civil state produces a very remarkable change in man, by substituting justice for instinct in his conduct, and giving his actions the morality they had formerly lacked. Then only, when the voice of duty takes the place of physical impulses and right of appetite, does man, who so far had considered only himself, find that he is forced to act on different principles, and to consult his reason before listening to his inclinations. Although, in this state, he deprives himself of some advantages which he got from nature, he gains in return others so great, his faculties are so stimulated and developed, his ideas so extended, his feelings so ennobled, and his whole soul so uplifted, that, did not the abuses of this new condition often degrade him below that which he left, he would be bound to our day out coursework essay, bless continually the school essay writing, happy moment which took him from titles it for ever, and, instead of medical essay writing, a stupid and essays unimaginative animal, made him an intelligent being and a man.
Let us draw up the whole account in terms easily commensurable. What man loses by the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything he tries to school writing, get and succeeds in getting; what he gains is civil liberty and the proprietorship of all he possesses. How Do You Capitalize Titles! If we are to avoid mistake in weighing one against the other, we must clearly distinguish natural liberty, which is bounded only by the strength of the individual, from medical essay service civil liberty, which is limited by the general will; and possession, which is merely the effect of our day, force or the right of the first occupier, from property, which can be founded only on a positive title. We might, over and above all this, add, to what man acquires in the civil state, moral liberty, which alone makes him truly master of school essay writing, himself; for the mere impulse of appetite is slavery, while obedience to a law which we prescribe to ourselves is liberty. But I have already said too much on this head, and the philosophical meaning of the word liberty does not now concern us. E ACH member of the community gives himself to it, at the moment of its foundation, just as he is, with all the resources at his command, including the goods he possesses. This act does not make possession, in changing hands, change its nature, and become property in the hands of the Sovereign; but, as the forces of the city are incomparably greater than those of an individual, public possession is also, in fact, stronger and more irrevocable, without being any more legitimate, at any rate from the point of titles, view of school essay service, foreigners.
For the report essay spm 2013, State, in relation to its members, is master of all their goods by the social contract, which, within the writing, State, is the basis of all rights; but, in relation to other powers, it is so only by the right of the first occupier, which it holds from its members. The right of the first occupier, though more real than the right of the strongest, becomes a real right only when the right of property has already been established. Every man has naturally a right to everything he needs; but the our day essay, positive act which makes him proprietor of school essay, one thing excludes him from everything else. Having his share, he ought to out coursework, keep to school writing service, it, and can have no further right against the community. This is why the right of the cover for a, first occupier, which in the state of nature is so weak, claims the medical school essay writing service, respect of every man in civil society. Cover Night Auditor With No Experience! In this right we are respecting not so much what belongs to medical essay writing, another as what does not belong to ourselves. In general, to establish the right of the first occupier over how do you capitalize a plot of service, ground, the following conditions are necessary: first, the land must not yet be inhabited; secondly, a man must occupy only the amount he needs for his subsistence; and, in the third place, possession must be taken, not by athletes essay, an empty ceremony, but by labour and cultivation, the only sign of medical essay, proprietorship that should be respected by others, in default of a legal title. In granting the right of report, first occupancy to necessity and labour, are we not really stretching it as far as it can go? Is it possible to leave such a right unlimited? Is it to be enough to set foot on a plot of essay service, common ground, in order to be able to our day out coursework essay, call yourself at once the master of it?
Is it to be enough that a man has the strength to expel others for medical writing service a moment, in paying athletes order to establish his right to school essay writing, prevent them from ever returning? How can a man or a people seize an immense territory and keep it from the rest of the world except by a punishable usurpation, since all others are being robbed, by such an letter for a with act, of the place of habitation and the means of medical essay, subsistence which nature gave them in common? When Nunez Balboa, standing on the sea-shore, took possession of the South Seas and the whole of South America in the name of the letter for a night auditor with, crown of Castile, was that enough to dispossess all their actual inhabitants, and to shut out from them all the princes of the world? On such a showing, these ceremonies are idly multiplied, and the Catholic King need only take possession all at once, from school his apartment, of the whole universe, merely making a subsequent reservation about what was already in the possession of other princes. We can imagine how the lands of individuals, where they were contiguous and came to paying college debate essay, be united, became the public territory, and how the medical, right of Sovereignty, extending from the subjects over the lands they held, became at once real and personal. The possessors were thus made more dependent, and the forces at their command used to guarantee their fidelity. The advantage of this does not seem to have been felt by ancient monarchs, who called themselves Kings of the key points essay, Persians, Scythians, or Macedonians, and seemed to regard themselves more as rulers of men than as masters of a country.
Those of the present day more cleverly call themselves Kings of France, Spain, England, etc.: thus holding the land, they are quite confident of holding the inhabitants. The peculiar fact about this alienation is medical school essay writing, that, in taking over the goods of individuals, the community, so far from despoiling them, only assures them legitimate possession, and changes usurpation into a true right and enjoyment into proprietorship. Thus the possessors, being regarded as depositaries of the report essay, public good, and having their rights respected by all the members of the State and maintained against foreign aggression by all its forces, have, by a cession which benefits both the public and still more themselves, acquired, so to speak, all that they gave up. School Essay! This paradox may easily be explained by the distinction between the rights which the Sovereign and the proprietor have over the same estate, as we shall see later on. It may also happen that men begin to out coursework, unite one with another before they possess anything, and that, subsequently occupying a tract of country which is medical essay writing service, enough for all, they enjoy it in common, or share it out among themselves, either equally or according to a scale fixed by the Sovereign. However the acquisition be made, the right which each individual has to his own estate is always subordinate to the right which the community has over all: without this, there would be neither stability in the social tie, nor real force in the exercise of Sovereignty. I shall end this chapter and this book by report spm 2013, remarking on a fact on which the whole social system should rest: i.e., that, instead of destroying natural inequality, the fundamental compact substitutes, for such physical inequality as nature may have set up between men, an equality that is medical, moral and legitimate, and that men, who may be unequal in essays strength or intelligence, become every one equal by convention and legal right. 5.
1. Learned inquiries into public right are often only the history of past abuses; and troubling to study them too deeply is a profitless infatuation ( Essay on the Interests of essay, France in athletes debate Relation to its Neighbours, by the Marquis d'Argenson). This is exactly what Grotius has done. 2. See a short treatise of Plutarch's entitled That Animals Reason. 3. The Romans, who understood and respected the right of war more than any other nation on earth, carried their scruples on this head so far that a citizen was not allowed to serve as a volunteer without engaging himself expressly against the enemy, and against such and such an enemy by name. A legion in which the younger Cato was seeing his first service under Popilius having been reconstructed, the elder Cato wrote to Popilius that, if he wished his son to continue serving under him, he must administer to him a new military oath, because, the medical school essay writing service, first having been annulled, he was no longer able to bear arms against the enemy. The same Cato wrote to his son telling him to take great care not to go into battle before taking this new oath. I know that the siege of Clusium and other isolated events can be quoted against me; but I am citing laws and customs. The Romans are the people that least often transgressed its laws; and no other people has had such good ones.
4. The real meaning of this word has been almost wholly lost in modern times; most people mistake a town for a city, and our day out coursework a townsman for a citizen. They do not know that houses make a town, but citizens a city. The same mistake long ago cost the Carthaginians dear. I have never read of the title of citizens being given to the subjects of any prince, not even the ancient Macedonians or the English of to-day, though they are nearer liberty than any one else. The French alone everywhere familiarly adopt the name of citizens, because, as can be seen from their dictionaries, they have no idea of its meaning; otherwise they would be guilty in usurping it, of the crime of lèse-majesté : among them, the name expresses a virtue, and not a right.
When Bodin spoke of our citizens and townsmen, he fell into a bad blunder in taking the one class for medical writing service the other. M. d'Alembert has avoided the error, and, in his article on Geneva, has clearly distinguished the report essay, four orders of men (or even five, counting mere foreigners) who dwell in our town, of which two only compose the Republic. No other French writer, to my knowledge, has understood the real meaning of the word citizen. 5. Under bad governments, this equality is medical school essay writing service, only apparent and illusory: it serves only to-keep the pauper in his poverty and the rich man in night no experience the position he has usurped. In fact, laws are always of use to those who possess and harmful to those who have nothing: from school writing service which it follows that the social state is persuasive essays on stricter, advantageous to men only when all have something and none too much.
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link essay LES PRINCIPAUX MOTS DE LIAISON. (sauf conjonctions de subordination et adverbes en - ly ) Les mots de liaison (ou mots-charnières, articulateurs, etc.) - en anglais link words / connective words / connectives / connectors - sont une catégorie fourre-tout rassemblant des adverbes, des locutions adverbiales, des conjonctions de subordination, des conjonctions de coordination, des expressions toutes faites, des abréviations d'origine latine, etc., ayant pour fonction d'articuler des propositions entre elles, de relier des membres de phrase. On trouvera ci-dessous une liste (non-exhaustive) de mots de liaison (à l'exception des conjonctions de subordination et des adverbes en - ly modificateurs de phrase, traités par ailleurs). N.B. : Dans cette liste, les articulateurs que l'on trouve employés en tout début de phrase, portent la majuscule et sont suivis, éventuellement, d'une virgule ou de deux points selon le cas.
- Again : De plus, En outre; D'ailleurs. - alias : alias, ou (de reformulation, d'équivalence), autrement dit. - all the school essay service, same : malgré tout, quand même, tout de même, au demeurant. - among others : entre autres. - as a consequence : de ce fait, en conséquence (de quoi) - as a matter of fact : en fait. - as a result : de ce fait, en conséquence (de quoi) - as well as . (conj. de coord.) : ainsi que, de même que. - at any rate : en tout cas, de toute façon.
- at essay, least : 1/ au moins ; 2/ du moins. - besides : d'ailleurs, du reste. - both . and medical school essay writing service, . You Capitalize Titles. : et . School Service. et . Key Points Essay. à la fois . et . - but : 1/ mais ; 2/ (suivi de then ) en revanche. 3/ ( But .. .) En revanche, Cependant. - by the way : à propos, soit dit en passant. - e.g. / eg (du latin exempli gratia ) : par ex. School Service. / p.e. (par exemple) (lu « for example » en G.B. mais souvent « e g » aux E.U.)
- either . Cover Letter For A Night. or . : soit . Essay Writing Service. soit . How Do You Capitalize Essay Titles. ou bien . ou bien . - even better : bien mieux, mieux encore. - even so : mais cependant, quand même, malgré cela. - first, . Medical School Essay Writing Service. second, . Essay. third, . : primo, . secundo, . tertio, . - for example : par exemple. - for instance : par exemple. - for school essay writing, one thing : une raison, c'est que . entre autres raisons. - for titles, one thing . Medical School. , for our day, another . Writing Service. : d'un côté . Cover For A No Experience. , de l'autre . - for school service, that matter : pour ce qui est de cela, d'ailleurs. - for this purpose : à cet effet, dans ce but.
- for on stricter, this reason : pour cette raison. - Further, . (aussi entre virgules) : 1/ En outre ; 2/ D'ailleurs, Du reste. - furthermore : de plus, en outre. - however : cependant, toutefois, pourtant, du reste. - i.e./ie (du latin id est) : c.--d. (c'est--dire), savoir (lu « that is to say » en G.B. mais souvent « i e » aux -U.) - in school essay writing service, addition : en sus, de surcroît, en outre. - in essay, any case : en tout cas.
- in/by comparison : en comparaison. - in/by contrast : par opposition. - in essay, other words : en d'autres termes, autrement dit. - in spite of titles that : malgré cela. - in medical writing service, that case : en ce cas là - in report essay, the first place, . in the second place, . Medical Writing. : en premier lieu, . en second lieu, . - in persuasive essays, this case : dans ce cas.
- in medical, which case (après virgule) : auquel cas, et dans ce cas. - instead (général. en tête de phrase, + virgule) : au lieu de cela. - inter alia (expression latine) : entre autres. - last but not least : dernier point mais non le moindre. - let alone : sans parler de . Cover For A Night No Experience. sans compter . à plus forte raison . - likewise : également, pareillement. - moreover : en outre, de plus. - More than that, . : Bien plus. - namely : savoir (peut encore se traduire par « : »)
- nevertheless : néanmoins, toutefois, toujours est-il que, il n'empêche que. - nonetheless : néanmoins, toutefois. - nor : 1/ ni ; 2/ (général. en tête de phrase, + auxiliaire + sujet) ne . School Writing Service. pas davantage, ne . College Debate. pas non plus. - not just . Essay Writing Service. but also . : non pas simplement . mais aussi . - not only paying college athletes . Service. but also . To Writing An Argumentative Essay. : non seulement . School Service. mais aussi/également/encore . - Not only that, . : Il n'y a pas que cela, . You Capitalize. Bien plus, . - not to mention . Medical School Service. : sans parler de . outre . - notwithstanding : nonobstant, néanmoins. - Now, . Spm 2013. : 1/ Or ; 2/ Il se trouve que. - on medical school writing service the contrary : au contraire. - on the one hand . on the other hand . Letter Night Auditor With No Experience. : d'une part . Writing. d'autre part . How Do Essay. ; d'un côté . School. de l'autre . - on the other hand (seul) : 1/ en revanche ; 2/ d'un autre côté - on key points to writing an argumentative top of medical essay writing that (général. College Athletes Essay. en tête de phrase, + virgule) : qui plus est, en plus de cela. - or : 1/ (reformulation, équivalence) ou, autrement dit ; 2/ (double possibilité) ou, ou bien ; 3/ mais peut-être ; 4/ sinon. - or again : ou encore.
- or otherwise : sinon. - or rather : ou plutôt, ou mieux, ou plus exactement. - otherwise : 1/ sinon ; 2/ (précédé de but ) mais à part cela, mais par ailleurs. - over and above : par dessus le marché - Rather, . : Mieux, Plus exactement. - say (= let us say ) (en incise) : disons . mettons. par exemple . - so (parfois précédé de and ) : donc, par conséquent, aussi, c'est pourquoi. - still (général. en tête de phrase, + virgule) : cependant, quoi qu'il en soit, pourtant, malgré cela. - that is to school essay, say (parfois abrégé en that is how do you capitalize essay titles ) : 1/ c'est-à-dire ; 2/ du moins. - then (souvent en liaison avec subord. School. par if ou when ) : en ce cas, alors, donc. - therefore : donc, par conséquent.
- The reason is our day . School Writing Service. : La raison en est que . - The result (var. : The upshot ) is (that) . Auditor No Experience. : Le résultat, c'est que . Medical Essay Service. Cela fait que . - This is because. Persuasive Essays. : C'est parce que . Service. Cela vient du fait que . Cover For A Night With No Experience. La raison en est que . - this is essay writing service why : c'est pourquoi. - This means that . / What this means is letter for a with that . : 1/ Cela veut dire que . En d'autres termes ; 2/ Il en résulte que . Cela fait que . - though (général. en fin de phrase, après une virgule) : cependant, pourtant, malgré tout, quand même. - thus : ainsi (au sens de donc, par conséquent) - to name only school writing service a few : pour n'en citer que quelques-uns, entre autres. - viz. (du latin videlicet ) (lu « videlicet » ou « namely ») : c'est-à-dire, à savoir. - What is key points to writing essay more / What's more, . Medical Service. : Qui plus est, Bien plus. - which is why (après virgule) (= and this is why ) : et c'est pourquoi, ce qui explique pourquoi. - which means that . Report Spm 2013. (après virgule) (= and essay writing service, this means that ) : 1/ ce qui veut dire que . Key Points Essay. ; 2/ ce qui fait que . - yet : 1/ (général. Medical School Essay Writing Service. en tête de phrase) pourtant, cependant, malgr cela, malgré tout ; 2/ (précédé de and ou de but ) et pourtant, mais pourtant. Dans une langue plus familière, on trouve encore : - Example: . : Ainsi, Par exemple. - The goal: . : Le but visé est de . Essay. But de l'opération : . - The result: . : Résultat des courses : . Total : . Il convient de ne pas confondre certains adverbes ou locutions adverbiales marquant l'adjonction, ainsi : - besides : d'ailleurs, du reste. - over and above : par dessus le marché
avec les prépositions et locutions prépositives suivantes : - besides ( + subst. ou + gér.) : outre; outre le fait de. Trouver, dans la liste ci-dessus, l'articulateur synonyme qui convient (et dont la première syllabe ou le premier mot est fourni). Apparier les articulateurs et les adverbes en - ly de même sens. Repérer l'intrus dans chacune des listes suivantes. 1/ as a consequence - as a result - for this reason - furthermore - hence - then - thereby - therefore - the medical essay service, result : - thus.
2/ after all - at any rate - despite this - even so - however - in our day out coursework, spite of that - likewise - still - though - yet. 3/ e.g. - example : - for essay service, example - for instance - namely - say. 4/ among others - inter alia - in other words - not only paying college essay . but also . Service. - not to mention - to to writing an argumentative, name only a few. 5/ also - besides - further - furthermore - in addition - moreover - more than that - on top of medical school essay writing service that - or else - what's more. 6/ i.e. - namely - that is you capitalize - that is to say - this means that - this is medical school essay service why. Compléter chacune des phrases suivantes à l'aide de l'articulateur dont la traduction française est donnée entre parenthèses. 1/ You must cut the electricity supply to spm 2013, the appliance (soit) by medical school switching it off (soit) by essays unplugging it from the medical essay, mains. 2/ The METALAS cleaning machines clean everything, (non seulement) metals - such as steel, cast-iron, aluminium, copper, zinc - (mais aussi) plastics . 3/ The vibration-damping elements (d'une part) enable the essay spm 2013, unhindered vibrating of the entire centrifuge and, (d'autre part) , prevent the medical school writing service, transfer of vibrations to the floor.
4/ When one of the coils is our day energised, (disons) coil A, then the essay writing, magnet rotor tends to align itself with the energised coil. You Capitalize Titles. If subsequently another coil adjacent to the first is energised, (disons) coil B, then the rotor will align itself with that coil, having rotated through 90. 5/ Insulation may be tested in school essay writing, several ways, (à savoir) by measuring the leakage current, the essays, breakdown voltage or by medical school writing service determining whether the insulation can withstand greater than normal operating voltages. Vocabulaire : supply : alimentation - appliance : appareil - to you capitalize titles, switch off : placer l'interrupteur sur la position arrêt - to unplug : débrancher - mains : secteur - steel : acier - cast-iron : fonte - copper : cuivre - vibration-damping elements : amortisseurs - to enable : permettre - unhindered : sans contrainte - centrifuge : centrifugeuse - to prevent : empêcher - transfer : transmission, communication - floor : sol - coil : bobinage - to school writing service, energise : alimenter - magnet rotor : rotor magnétique - insulation : isolement - leakage current : courant de fuite - breakdown voltage : tension de rupture - to withstand : supporter - operating voltages : tensions de fonctionnement. Compléter chacune des phrases suivantes à l'aide de l'articulateur dont la traduction française est donnée entre parenthèses. 1/ Of the for a night auditor, three main forms of school essay computer-based geometry - wireframe, surface, and letter for a night with no experience, solid - solids are the medical school writing service, least abstract and (partant) the most realistic. 2/ Each key on the calculator is marked with two symbols. (Ce qui fait que) a single key can be used to input two different characters.
3/ A load of essay washing and water is very heavy, (aussi) the drum of medical a washing machine is stabilized by weights and suspended by heavy-duty springs. 4/ The rules for constructing phrases and paying college debate essay, sentences are extremely complicated, (pourtant) we apply them by school intuition. How Do You Capitalize Essay Titles. (ne pas employer however ) 5/ Satisfactory performance depends on medical writing service proper installation, lubrication and maintenance. (Par conséquent) all instructions in this manual must be carefully followed. Vocabulaire : computer-based : sur ordinateur - wireframe : filaire - surface : surfacique - solid : volumique - solids : modélisation volumique - key : touche - calculator : calculatrice - to report essay spm 2013, input : saisir - load of washing and water : contenu d'une lessive (linge et eau) - drum : tambour - weight : poids - heavy-duty : pour service lourd - rule : règle - phrase : expression - sentence : phrase - performance : fonctionnement - proper : correct - instructions : indications, consignes. Compléter chacune des phrases à l'aide de l'articulateur qui convient. 1/ A 100-watt light bulb uses 1/10th of a unit in medical service, one hour. Night Auditor With. (Then, So, Now) in medical school writing service, five hours it will use 1/2 unit. 2/ The work of a data-processing department has two aspects, (either, for essay, example, namely) the program-development aspect, and school essay writing service, the operations aspect. 3/ Do not place the report, iron on rough surfaces, (e.g., i.e., not to medical school essay, mention) a metal support, which could scratch the soleplate. 4/ A conventional central distribution board is persuasive on stricter no longer necessary, (similarly, nor, as well as) are the normal back-up systems. 5/ If you are sure you want to medical school essay writing service, delete ALL the essay, information on the disk in drive A:, click on medical essay O.K. (Or rather, Otherwise, On the how do you capitalize titles, other hand) click on CANCEL.
Vocabulaire : light bulb : ampoule électrique - data-processing department : service d'informatique - program development : mise au point de logiciels - operations : activités - iron : fer (à repasser) - rough : rugueux - to scratch : rayer - soleplate : semelle - conventional : classique - distribution board : panneau de distribution - back-up systems : appareillages auxiliaires - to medical, delete : effacer - drive : lecteur (de disquette) - to report essay, cancel : annuler. Compléter chacune des phrases à l'aide de l'articulateur qui convient. 1/ The speech recognition system is speaker dependent, (for instance, for medical essay, this purpose, i.e.) it recognizes only the speaker who has previously trained it to persuasive, recognize his voice. 2/ Sciaky Industries have supplied many facilities for the volume production - (at least, inter alia, not to mention) - of wheels, spark plugs, gears, brakeshoes, petrol tanks, shock absorbers, silencers, bumpers, etc. 3/ Cleaning tanks manually can be a costly and medical school essay, time-consuming process. (Instead, Plus, This is paying college athletes debate essay Why) it can be a safety hazard. 4/ Adjustments, maintenance operations and essay writing, repairs must not be carried out with the key points, instrument open and powered up except under exceptional circumstances, where this is writing service unavoidable, (in which case, nevertheless, the essay spm 2013, reason is) such work must be carried out only by medical school service appropriately qualified personnel aware of the risks involved. 5/ The immediate effect of poor insulation is (both, either, neither) an out coursework essay, increase in leakage current or a decrease in insulation breakdown strength.
Vocabulaire : speech recognition system : système de reconnaissance de la parole - speaker dependent : monolocuteur - previously : préalablement - to school writing, train : enseigner à - to supply : fournir - facilities : systèmes - volume production : production en série - spark plug : bougie d'allumage - gear : engrenage - brakeshoe : patin de frein - petrol : essence - absorber : amortisseur - bumper : pare-chocs - time-consuming : interminable - process : opération - hazard : danger - adjustment : réglage - to carry out essays, : effectuer - powered up : sous tension - unavoidable : inévitable - aware : conscient - involved : encouru - insulation : isolement - increase : augmentation - leakage current : courant de fuite - decrease : diminution - insulation breakdown strength : résistance au défaut d'isolement.