Write my essay for me with Professional Academic Writers -
Staging Nationalism: Essays on …
bressay cross Bressay shelters Lerwick from the east and can be reached by car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the east coast of Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and wild flowers. Nationalism Essays. Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the bustling centre of Lerwick to another world. Binding Auckland. You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and nationalism and national identity coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and a profusion of archaeological and graduate historical sites. The east side of the in theatre and national island is sparsely inhabited, a place of peace and quiet where birds and sheep wander undisturbed. The Bressay ferry sails from Albert Buildings in the centre of Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on Friday and Saturday nights. The ferry berths in Bressay right next to the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on the culture, history and natural heritage of the island. The centre is open part time from May to September.
Much of Bressay is accessible by car on the single-track roads which radiate from the shop and post office at Mail (the place-name means the sands and long pre-dates the irene Royal Mail). The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for cars and the best way to enjoy the wild east side of the island is on nationalism essays and national identity, foot. Abstracts. The south-eastern corner in particular has some fine walking country but is nowhere more than three miles from the centre of Lerwick. Essays In Theatre And National Identity. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the North Sea and for many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of refuge for shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in the 17th century. This natural harbour and the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the Ward of Bressay (742'/258m), gave the island special significance from make essay stand out prehistoric times. From the summit, all of Shetland is visible: on a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the natural arch in the Gaada Stack on Foula, away to the west, in the Atlantic; to the north-east lie Out Skerries; to the north Ronas Hill and Saxa Vord (Unst); and to the south Sumburgh Head. As our prehistoric and Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in February. Bressay is also home to the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of facilities and treatments are available.
There is plenty of birdlife to see in Bressay, including most of the identity species found in Noss. The south eastern corner of the island includes the Puffin cliffs of the Ord and has a breeding colony of binding, several hundred Great Skua around the loch at Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and other moorland birds. The Merlin is sometimes seen and occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and autumn bring Bressay its share of migrating birds. Great flocks of Redwing and Fieldfare can be seen and essays in theatre identity the island has some rarities on its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. In winter the lochs are used by parties of up to a dozen Whooper Swans. Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and Goldeneye are common winter visitors. The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and Common Seal.
Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by humans over abstracts, the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes: The road north from Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in 1724 and noted for its walled gardens. Another little road north passes through the staging nationalism identity crofting hamlet of Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of willows) and over the hill to for junior kg the townships of Beosetter and Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is one of the best birdwatching spots in the island, noted for waders, divers and sea ducks. Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and Gunnista is the staging nationalism essays site of the ruined chapel of St Olaf, with an dissertation abstracts canada, interesting graveyard. The Bressay Kirk is a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and nationalism identity two handsome memorial tablets to local landlords.
For times of make essay stand, services and to staging nationalism in theatre view the interior, visitors should contact the dissertation minister of staging nationalism essays in theatre identity, Lerwick and application essays 2015 Bressay Parish Church at St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125). South from the Mail Shop the road winds past modern housing at Glebe Park and Fullaburn to the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. Built in 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the light is now automatic. The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation. In the dramatic geo (cove) below the lighthouse the nationalism essays in theatre and national identity Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in a 1993 storm. All 60 crew were rescued by essay, the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and Lerwick Lifeboat. The wreck site is now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over a ruined broch. Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the memorial to the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered. Nationalism Essays In Theatre Identity. There is how to a college stand, a replica on site but the original is staging nationalism essays in theatre and national identity, stored in the new Museum of application essays, Scotland at Edinburgh.
Safety First - Remember, all the cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in the wet. On no account should you attempt to climb them or approach the staging in theatre identity edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of gulls and terns or you may cause them to desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and tenants of the land have given permission for these recommended walks to be included in essays 2015, this guide, on condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on a leash. The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and wildlife and you are respectfully asked to staging nationalism identity comply with the farmers' and crofters' wishes. Drop by binding auckland, the Bressay Heritage Centre and delve into the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the Burn of Setter is nationalism identity, a good place for a close look at the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills. There are several on this burn and common application 2015 many more throughout Bressay. Once an essential part of every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is a restored one in working order at nationalism essays in theatre and national, the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. A walk around the west shore of the Voe of make stand out, Culbinsbrough brings you to the old stone and staging essays and national slate quarries in my family kg, Aith Ness, topped by staging essays in theatre and national identity, the remains of a six-inch naval gun from the First World War. Binding University. Like the gun on staging nationalism in theatre identity, Bard Head at the southern tip of Bressay, this one was installed in the last year of the war and was never fired in anger. If you have only a little time in dissertation abstracts, Shetland, one of the best ways to sample most of what the islands have to offer is to spend a day on this glorious walk round the uninhabited coast and hills between Noss Sound and the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in some of the staging nationalism wildest scenery in the islands.
Follow the tarmac road to Noss Sound and then head south along the coast, past the volcanic vent of the Muckle Hell and its colony of Herring Gulls, until you come to the waterfall below the ruined watermill on the burn from the Loch of Grimsetter. The boulder beach of Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore. At Grutwick there is a stone cairn erected by the people of Bressay to commemorate the my family bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the staging in theatre identity Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in November 1997. Turning inland, the deserted hamlet of Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Across the Loch of Grimsetter is the writing graduate application croft of staging nationalism essays and national, Gorie, an irene, oasis of trees and bushes in the hill. Staging. South of Wadbister the cliff walk gives superb views of caves and natural arches, including the remarkable triple arch of the Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for Common Seals. Here too is the ruined medieval settlement of Stobister, where legend has it that the inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the chimneys - perhaps the same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Walking on make a college essay stand out, past the collapsed sea cave of the Gore's Kirn you come to the breeding territory of Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the wild, lonely loch of Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Beyond are the cliffs of Bard Head and the old WWI gun still standing on its concrete plinth.
Two hundred feet (61m) below is the tide race of the Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for Gannets and other seabirds. From here to nationalism essays in theatre identity the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of southern Shetland. The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of these graceful birds wheeling in application, the updraft, but here and in many corners of the Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and Tysties. From the staging nationalism essays in theatre and national identity Ord there's an easy walk down to the lighthouse, through the ruined crofts of Scrana and Daal. Once back on the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and fields to the Lerwick ferry by the Maryfield pub.
Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. As soon as you set eyes on the mile-long seabird cliffs of Noss you can see why the dissertation canada island was declared a National Nature Reserve in staging essays, 1955: this is one of the application most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. At the peak of the breeding season the stupendous chorus of around 150,000 birds and chicks is unforgettable - as is the smell of the guano which stains the cliffs white! In the words of National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is a world-class cliff. Millions of years of wind and ice have honeycombed thousands of staging nationalism essays and national identity, nesting ledges in sandstone cliffs up to 592 feet (181m) high. As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the preferred size and binding auckland university shape. Although not the biggest seabird colony in Britain, Noss is the most accessible one, combining very large numbers of birds with a wide variety of species and spectacular scenery.
The cliffs are only staging nationalism in theatre, one of the thesis auckland Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and former cultivated land, all of which support other birds and nationalism identity animals. Common Application 2015. Resident seals and staging nationalism the visiting Otters feed in the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. The spectacle of: festooned over a mile of cliffs, up to 592’ (181m) high, is simply astounding, as is the auckland university roar of the staging in theatre and national identity mass ‘choir’ parents and chicks. There are two very different ways to experience Noss and my family essay many visitors choose to do both: Excursion boat from Lerwick. This is easily the staging nationalism essays in theatre and national identity best way to essay for junior view most of the seabird nesting sites at close range (and the only way when the island is closed to visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on Noss. If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on essays and national, a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into the coves, right alongside the essays lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into the Cave of staging nationalism and national identity, Noss, with an underwater camera to explore the kelp forest as well. Details of daily sailings from the VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434. The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the summer season (late April - late August) while the dissertation wardens are living on the island.
You first take the Bressay ferry from Lerwick, then walk or drive the three miles (5km) across Bressay to Noss Sound where the ferry, a small inflatable boat with an nationalism essays in theatre, outboard motor, will take you across the common application 2015 narrow sound to the Noss landing place at Gungstie. For more information or to book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and giant waves. In addition to its ornithological importance, Noss is also of great geological interest. It is made of the same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. The cliff face is usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of processes that can attack it.
There are three types of weathering: physical (eg. Staging In Theatre And National. frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and biological (eg. growth of lichen or large amounts of irene, guano). The products of weathering and weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action. This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of other rocks units is easy. The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites. Noss Sound is a relatively new channel and was probably made by storm waves that breached the sandy spit that once joined Noss to staging in theatre identity Bressay. A clue is that the name Noss is a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'. If it had been an island when they arrived in the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the fact in their name for the place and it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'. There are physical traces of a gigantic wave along the how to make a college out Bressay coast south of essays in theatre identity, Noss Sound, and also a legend of a clifftop croft washed out by the sea at common 2015, Stobister. Because the grazing on Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the cliff vegetation of Noss is more luxuriant than in more heavily grazed areas, despite the staging nationalism in theatre plague of rabbits which each winter's cull only just keeps in check. In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and blue Spring Squill fade, the cliffs present a palette of common application, white Sea Campion and Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and Roseroot and the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to set off the brown Heather moorland with its patches of Cotton Grass, Lousewort and staging nationalism and national orchids.
As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Place name evidence and the remains of a mediaeval chapel on Big Ness ('promontory of the buildings') suggest that Noss was home to a Celtic Christian community before the Viking invasion. What those marauders did to the priests in Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined. From time to thesis auckland time, winter storms shift the sands at Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the nationalism in theatre ancient graveyard. The sandy soils around the 17th century house at Hametoun were easy to work - and to fertilise with seaweed from beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and canada barley could grow and the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to make cheese. From the mid-18th century onwards, whenever the tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of that relative prosperity are still visible in the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on Turr Ness - the traces of ploughing by oxen which were swum across the sound from Bressay at low tide and herded at night in Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at the north end of the big cliffs.
In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and oxen. By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at Setter, half way between the low-lying western end of the isle and the cliffs to the east. By 1861 the population peaked at staging nationalism identity, 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the census night in summer lodges at writing essay, Booth's Voe. From 1871 to and national 1900 the Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for 2015, his County Durham coal mines. A display in the old Pony Pund tells the story of this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the staging in theatre identity higher cliffs to stop the mares falling over. The stallions were kept in Bressay until required. Successive farming tenants and their families lived year-round in Noss until 1939. After that it was occupied in summer only university, until 1969 when the last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and ferryman) gave up the lease. Since 1970 the island has been part of the Garth Estate's home farm and staffed by summer wardens who also provide the ferry service across Noss Sound.
Noss is open to nationalism essays visitors during the summer (except on Mondays and Thursdays) and closed in graduate essay, winter (September to in theatre and national identity mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on the island can visit Noss on irene zanette, any day of the year if the staging essays weather is 2015, suitable. In the staging essays in theatre and national summer season a warden is usually on duty at the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions. Binding. It is also possible to arrange guided tours with groups. If the weather's too bad for the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to staging nationalism and national cross Noss Sound the wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to avoid disappointment you should check with the VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for Noss. If going to Noss by the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to wear sensible footwear - the rocks on both sides of the sound can be slippery. How To A College Essay. Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the weather on Noss can be very changeable. Visitors' dogs are not welcome. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and staging nationalism essays and national identity sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only irene zanette, photos.
Stick to the shore path and nationalism in theatre don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas. If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the dissertation canada perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps. Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to deter the skuas - they're only defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom! For more information see the SNH Noss website. Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart.
Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland. ZE1 0LL. Telephone +44 (0)1595 693345.
Write My Essay Online for Cheap -
Staging Nationalism Essays On Theatre And National Identity
Graffiti Art: An Essay Concerning The Recognition of Some Forms of Graffiti As Art. Phil 651 Aesthetics. Graffiti art is an art form. The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to why it is an art form far outweigh the criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. The objective of this paper is to and national, explain how graffiti art overcomes these concerns and thereby can be considered as an art form. Suppose that Leonardo, Monet, Picasso, or any of the recognized artisans of Western European culture were alive in the present day. Then, suppose that one of common essays 2015, these famous artists decided to paint a masterpiece on the side of your house or on your front door or on a wall in your neighborhood. Would Picasso or Monet's markings be graffiti or art or vandalism or graffiti art? The answer may vary across people, but I would claim that those markings are art in the form of graffiti. Nationalism Essays In Theatre Identity. Their markings would qualify as vandalism only if they appeared on private or public property without permission. Make A College Stand Out. The same answer holds for the present day, genre of graffiti known as graffiti art.
Graffiti art originated in the late 1960's, and it has been developing ever since. Staging Nationalism Identity. However, it is not readily accepted as being art like those works that are found in a gallery or a museum. It is irene zanette not strictly denied the status of genuine art because of a lack of form or other base aesthetic elements. Most of the opposition to graffiti art is due to its location and bold, unexpected, and unconventional presentation, but its presentation and often illegal location does not necessarily disqualify it as art. In this paper, I elucidate how some forms of graffiti can be accepted as art. This type of graffiti is essays in theatre identity known as graffiti art, subway art, or spraycan art. The arguments of vandalism and unconventional presentation as negating the ability of some graffiti to be art is usurped by an explanation of those properties apparent in some forms of graffiti that do qualify it, aesthetically, as art.
To show this, I provide a historical context of graffiti, and then I provide persuasive evidence that graffiti art is art. The origins of graffiti go back to the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and graffiti even was preserved on application, walls in Pompeii. Staging Nationalism Identity. Graffiti is the essay, plural form of the Italian word grafficar. In plural, grafficar signifies drawings, markings, patterns, scribbles, or messages that are painted, written, or carved on a wall or surface. Grafficar also signifies to scratch in reference to different wall writings ranging from cave paintings, bathroom scribbles, or any message that is scratched on walls. Nationalism Essays In Theatre. In reference to present day graffiti, the definition is application 2015 qualified by adding that graffiti is also any unsolicited marking on a private or public property that is usually considered to be vandalism. There are various forms of staging essays and national, graffiti. One of the simplest forms is that of individual markings such as slogans, slurs, or political statements. Abstracts. Examples of this type of graffiti commonly are found in bathrooms or on exterior surfaces, and this graffiti is usually handwritten.
Another simple form is essays identity that of the tag which is a fancy, scribble-like writing of one's name or nick-name. That is, tag signifies one's name or nick-name. Both the tag or individual mark have little or no aesthetic appeal. While they might suggest a flair or style of writing, these forms fail to qualify as example of superb graffiti art because of writing application, a lack of staging nationalism and national, aesthetic qualities and inability to produce a maximal aesthetic feeling in the viewer. Phd Thesis. In fact, the tag or individual mark is not produced for staging nationalism essays in theatre and national artistic purposes. It is basically a means to indicate the writer's presence, i.e., the age old statement of I was here. Gang markings of territory also fit the definition of graffiti, and they mainly consists of tags and messages that provide news of happenings in the neighborhood. Thesis Auckland University. Murals for community enhancement and beautification are also a form of graffiti even though they are not usually thought of this way because most murals are commissioned. These are more colorful and complex. They take considerable amount of skill to complete, and in theatre murals can be done in a graffiti art style or a traditional pictorial scene. The last form of graffiti is irene graffiti art which is the creative use of spraypaint to produce an artwork that is graffiti or done in a graffiti-like style, and this the is the concern of this discussion.
Modern graffiti art originated in New York City, and it was known first as New York Style graffiti. Essays In Theatre Identity. This art form began in the late 1960's when teens used permanent markers to tag or write their names, followed by thesis, the number of the street on which they lived, in subway cars. This trend originated with the staging nationalism in theatre, appearance of Taki 183 which was the tag of a Greek American boy named Demitrius. Tagging soon became a way to get one's name known throughout the city. Irene Zanette Phd Thesis. However, it should be noted that tagging appeared in Philadelphia before New York. Staging Nationalism Identity. The monikers, Cornbread and Top Cat were well known in Philadelphia, and when Top Cat's style appeared in New York, it was dubbed as Broadway Style for its long skinny lettering. The advent of the spraypaint allowed for the tag to develop in size and color. Essays. For it was not enough just to have one's name scrawled over any available and visible surface because everyone was doing this. The spraycan separated the taggers from the artists in that color, form, and style could be emphasized creatively with this new tool to produce s tag as a part of an overall artistic production. The tag which is monochromatic and a writing style that just about anyone can do, gave way to the throw-up, which is a two color tag usually in outline or bubble-like lettering.
Again this style is not too difficult, but soon more complicated styles evolved. The stamp is staging in theatre and national identity a little harder and my family essay kg involves the use straight letters to produce a 3-D effect. The piece, which is nationalism essays and national identity short for kg masterpiece, appeared next, and it is a large multicolor work. A production is a piece that is usually on the scale of a mural, and it involves original or familiar cartoon characters in addition to the writer or graffiti artist's name. It should be noted that every graffiti form listed involves the nationalism in theatre identity, artist's name, whether as the central feature or as an ornament within the piece because writers want to be known. Hence, finding new and writing graduate application creative ways to display one's tag in a highly visible place, as opposed to just scribbling it everywhere, was the fundamental force spurring the development of essays and national, modern graffiti art. In the middle to late 1970's, writers started painting subway trains; thus the name, subway art.
Train painting was instrumental to the development of graffiti art because the dissertation abstracts, trains became the stage for the style wars which was a time when everyone who wanted to be recognized as the best artist or the nationalism essays, King or Queen of a subway line got- up, i.e., painted trains as often as possible. If one's name was on a train in essays a colorful and unique style, it was guaranteed to be seen by many people; most importantly by the other writers, because the subway trains in nationalism in theatre identity New York City travel in circuits throughout different boroughs. To be a King or Queen one could not just get-up or simply paint his or her name in my family kg a thousand different places. On the contrary, style and nationalism essays and national identity artistic talent were and continue to application essay, be extremely important. The goal was and is to create burners which are pieces that stand out because of creativity, color, vibrancy, crisp outlines, i.e. no drips, and overall artistic appeal.
It is the recognizable artistic talent of the graffiti artist that established his or her reign on the subway line and not just the appearance of s name in a thousand different places. The styles that emerged with the previously mentioned forms during this time were round popcorn or bubble letters, wildstyle which is an intricate, interlocking type of calligraphy that is difficult and almost impossible to read, computer and gothic lettering, 3-D lettering, fading which blends colors, and the use of staging and national, cartoon characters. The ability to produce complicated pieces is what separates the tagger from the graffiti artist; graffitist for short. Taggers scribble and graffitists do art. The high visibility of the train and the potential audience encouraged more artists to binding auckland university, participate in this new form of art. Despite New York City's vigorous anti-graffiti efforts the style flourished and soon influenced artists in cities all over the world. The biggest promotional vehicle for graffiti art worldwide has been the Hip-Hop phenomenon which is the culture associated with rap music. Subway art now is termed as spraycan art because subway trains are no longer the canvas of choice. Besides, every graffitist could not possibly do all of his or her work on staging essays in theatre identity, subway cars because of laws, police, and the dangerous environment of the subway yards and lay-up stations.
Ironically, the latest innovation in for junior spraycan art has been that of freight art in which graffitists paint railroad, freight cars with the expectation that their artwork will travel across the nationalism essays in theatre identity, United States and throughout the continent. There are two major questions associated with the binding university, explanation of graffiti. One, who is responsible for nationalism essays and national identity it, and two, why do graffitists produce spraycan art. To the surprise of most people, graffiti art is not the sole possession of my family for junior kg, poor, urban, lower-class American kids. Not only do half of the graffitists come from Caucasian middle-class families, but there are graffitists all over the world.
When asked, What sorts of kids write graffiti?, police officer Kevin Hickey of the New York Transit Police Department's graffiti squad replied, The type of kids that live in essays identity New York City. They range from the irene phd thesis, ultra-rich to the ultra-poor. There is no general classification of the kids Graffitist range in age from 12-30 years old, and essays in theatre identity there are male and female artists. In the thesis binding auckland, past, graffiti artists usually worked alone, but the size and complexity of pieces as well as safety concerns motivated artists to work together in crews, which are groups of graffitists that vary in membership from 3 to 10 or more persons. A member of a crew can be down with, i.e., affiliated, with more than one crew. To join a crew, one must have produced stylish pieces and show potential for developing his or her own, unique style. Nationalism Essays In Theatre. A crew is headed by zanette phd thesis, a king or queen who is usually that person recognized as having the best artistic ability among the members of the crew. The reasons and values for why one might engage in graffiti art are as varied as the artists who produce it. A chief reason is the prospect of fame and identity recognition of application essay, one's artistic talent. Graffiti is also a form of self expression. The art as writing is a creative method of communicating with other writers and the general public.
What it communicates is the staging nationalism in theatre identity, artist's identity, expression, and ideas. Judgments are based solely on writing application, one's artistic ability. This type of staging in theatre identity, communication is of value because it links people regardless of cultural, lingual, or racial differences in common 2015 way that nothing else can. In addition, producing graffiti art with a crew builds team work in that the crew works together for the accomplishment of a common goal. The feeling of this achievement in league with others is of value to staging essays and national, the artist. In his book, Graffito, Walsh notes that some graffitists view their art as a ritual transgression against a repressive political and economic order. For some artists see themselves as revolutionaries reacting against the established art market or gallery system in that art is essay kg not only that which appears in the gallery as determined by the curator. Some artists also view their creations on public and private spaces as a statement against Western ideas of capitalism and private property. Of course, the majority of graffitists enjoy what they do and find it to nationalism essays in theatre identity, be fun, rewarding, and exciting. Although these reasons are valid, they do not conclusively settle the matter as to why graffiti art is how to a college out art or why it is a valid art form despite its illegal origins.
Graffiti as seen and experienced on the New York City subway trains and that which developed into the modern-day form of spraycan art is art. The production of graffiti art includes established techniques and styles, and the art form also is in theatre identity characterized by a standard medium; spraypaint. For example, novices are taught how to use spraypaint according to various styles and how to adjust nozzles as well as how to fit and use other types of aerosol caps onto spraycans for different artistic effects. The forms of graffiti art have developed through the years from the mere gestures of auckland, tagging to established conventional practices of the nationalism and national, graffiti art world such as creating the tag according to a method, like wildstyle, that makes it an integral, flowing element of the application 2015, overall piece. In addition, graffiti art is not a spontaneous activity like tagging in the form of fancy scribble. The completion of a piece or a production involves a great deal of imagination, planning, and effort. The graffitist first does a sketch. Then he or she plans out characters and staging essays in theatre identity selects colors. Next, the artist selects his or her canvas or surface and does a preliminary outline, followed by a filling in of colors and ornamentation, and auckland then the final outline is completed. Graffiti can also be analyzed according to the elements of nationalism essays and national identity, lines, color, and structures that are present in the work in order to produce a narrative about it.
Another significant reason why graffiti art can be viewed as art is by essay kg, considering the producer's intention. Graffitists intend their work to be apprehended as art that can communicate feelings and ideas to the audience. This is in line with Tolstoy's mandate that art must allow people to express ideas and share in each other's feelings via the artwork. Plus, graffiti art has a function of not only communicating to others, but it also beautifies the community by appearing on essays in theatre and national identity, areas that normally would be eyesores, such as a wall in a vacant lot or an abandoned building. Furthermore, all of the essay, aesthetic properties and criteria from the base element of color to the complex issue of artist intention which are ascribed to staging essays in theatre and national identity, other works in order to how to a college stand, characterize them as art can all be found in staging nationalism and national identity examples of how to make a college out, spraycan art. The only difference between those works in a gallery or museum and staging essays in theatre and national graffiti art in terms of how and graduate essay why the latter is not readily accepted as art is due to its location and presentation.
Indeed the issues of location and staging essays and national identity presentation are the most significant obstacles to a wholehearted acceptance of spraycan art as art. Graffiti art cannot be disregarded simply because it is essays 2015 not presented in the conventional location and manner, i.e., framed and placed in a museum or gallery. The location of it on a wall or subway without permission only makes it unsolicited art. As such, it can be called vandalism, but again, this does not disqualify it as art. Rather the categorization of graffiti art as unsolicited art that is vandalism only justifies a removal of it from the surface. On the other hand, the vandalism aspect of essays in theatre identity, graffiti art can be considered as a uniqueness and not a detracting feature of the art form because as vandalism, graffiti art is very temporary. A piece which might be sixty feet long, twelve feet high, and take twenty to application, thirty cans of staging nationalism essays identity, paint and at least eight hours to produce might be gone in a matter of how to essay stand, minutes. Another challenge to graffiti art is that it is forced upon the public because people have no say in its production despite the fact that public funds are used to remove it. Graffitists counter with the argument that buildings, billboards, campaign ads, and flyers are also forced on the public in a similar manner. Spraycan art suffers other criticisms because of the generic characterization of all graffiti as being gang related and staging essays and national simply a matter of tagging. However, only 20% of graffiti is gang related [ed. note: according to Walsh, who mentions this number in _Graffito_.
Because he used anecdotes from LA and San Francisco to obtain his figures, and it is not known what definition of gang he refers to, this number is questionable.], and it should be noted that not all instances of graffiti art are good examples of the writing graduate application, art form; just like not all framed artistic creations are good examples of painting or even worthy of being called art. Graffiti is also criticized for being too hard to staging essays in theatre identity, understand, but certainly this cannot keep graffiti art from essay kg, being art anymore than the obscurity of abstract art or Picasso's cubism prevents either one of those hard to understand art forms from being considered as art. Goldman's aesthetic theory is of use to clarify the problem of location and presentation in relation to graffiti art. Goldman claims that art takes us to other worlds in a manner that is quite fulfilling sensually and aesthetically. Essays And National Identity. This removal from the my family for junior, real world is enhanced by the mood of the gallery or the dark setting of the opera house. Most of the time when we encounter art and are transported by it to other worlds, we are in a location in which we expect this to happen. However, this is not the case with graffiti art.
For it appears suddenly and in unexpected places. Nationalism Identity. Thus, when we apprehend it, we are transported to these other worlds at a time and in a place that we are not accustomed to writing graduate application, doing so. We are not used to art approaching us outside of staging nationalism and national, conventional settings such as a museum. Instead of the audience going to view the art form, spraycan art reaches out to the viewer; sometimes in a startling manner. One can only irene zanette, imagine how shocking and surprising it might have been to see a colorful train moving swiftly through the dingy stations and drab boroughs of New York City.
Spraycan art is an art form that is nationalism and national identity completely open to the public because it is not hemmed in by the confines or laws of the gallery system or the thesis auckland university, museum. Perhaps, this is its only crime. The institutional theory, in brief, mandates that art is that which is displayed by staging essays in theatre and national, the art world to be accepted as art as determined by graduate application, the members of the art world. Since graffiti art is not permanently established in any galleries or museums, often it is argued that it is not art, but even this criticism falls short because there are instances where the staging essays identity, art world has recognized graffiti art as art. In the 1970's, galleries in New York and essay Europe brought graffiti to the attention of the art world. Lee Quinones, a prominent writer in New York and one of the few graffitists to bomb, i.e., paint, a whole train from top to bottom and end to end, was invited to exhibit his work on canvas in identity Claudio Bruni's Galleria Madusa in Rome. Likewise, Yaki Kornblit of Denmark, an art dealer, helped to thesis binding auckland university, launch the staging nationalism essays identity, careers of several graffitists during the years of writing essay, 1984 and 1985 at Museum Boyanano von Beuningen in Rotterdam. Jean Paul Basquiat collaborated with Andy Warhol for joint paintings in 1985. And recently, in 1996, Barry McGee, also known by staging nationalism identity, his tag, Twist, was commissioned to do a graffiti art mural for the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. As graffiti was introduced to the art world, two trends happened.
One, the art world of collectors, dealers, curators, artists, and the like helped graffitists evolve in style, presumably by sharing their artistic knowledge with the newcomers. Two, the exposure helped to expand graffiti to binding, all parts of the world. Furthermore, cities such as LA and Chicago have recognized the talent of graffitists by providing a means for them to do legal graffiti art which has helped to foster the art form and lessened the amount of graffiti art that appears in the city as vandalism. Likewise, organizations of in theatre, graffiti artists such as the Phun Factory or the United Graffiti Artists in New York solicit places to do legal graffiti such as abandoned buildings, businesses, or community walls in parks. What this shows is that some graffiti, particularly in phd thesis the form of spraycan art, is nationalism and national recognized as art by the art world. This recognition of graffiti art by the art world is important for two reasons.
One because of the social, political, and economic influence of the art world, its recognition of graffiti art as art helps to increase the university, awareness and nationalism essays in theatre and national identity overall understanding of the art form. Thesis Auckland. Two, this recognition prevents the sweeping generalization that all graffiti is vandalism and therefore something that always should be eradicated. For in actuality, spraycan art does not necessarily have to be illegal or on a wall to be considered as graffiti art, although, philosophically, this might be the purest essence of the art form. What matters is that the art is produced according to a graffiti art style. So examples of art works that are produced on canvas with spraypaint and in a graffiti style can be considered as spraycan art. And the exhortation that graffiti should be on a visible private or public space in order to be in staging essays in theatre identity its optimal context is not so much to glorify any illegalities but rather, to highlight the idea that graffiti is meant to be completely accessible to the public for binding immediate appreciation. Also, the increasing acceptance of graffiti art is not due so much to nationalism essays in theatre and national, its adoption of traditional techniques. On the contrary, books, magazines, movies, and zanette the artists themselves have helped people to understand how and where graffiti harmonizes with and goes a step beyond traditional methods. For example, wildstyle changes with each artist's interpretation of the alphabet, but it also relies on staging essays in theatre identity, the use of primary colors, fading, foreground and background, and the like to create these letters. Make Stand Out. Thus, it is important and valuable to characterize some forms of graffiti as art because this challenges people, who are conditioned to accept art works as art only if they are created in a traditional manner and appear in institutional setting, to appreciate art works that originate and develop outside of these constraints. In doing so, people come to realize graffiti is not an art form that is done just for staging in theatre and national the sake of rebellious destruction.
Quite the abstracts, opposite, it is an staging essays in theatre and national identity, innovative and irene phd thesis truly original art form that is meant to bring an staging essays in theatre, aesthetic pleasure to the audience like any other recognized art form. In summary, some forms of graffiti become art according to four criteria. First, graffiti art is separated from how to a college stand out, everyday graffiti markings by the artist's intention to nationalism identity, produce a work of thesis university, art. Staging Nationalism Essays. Second, graffiti art has an established history of development in style and technique. Third, graffiti art even has been recognized by the art world. A fourth criterion is that the public response to graffiti art indicates that it is art. Whether or not all of the public agrees that graffiti art is good, bad, or extremely valuable is a different discussion about evaluation and not whether or not graffiti art is art.
The evaluative concerns actually play more into where, when, and how graffiti art should be displayed. The above criteria are defensible in so much as they have been used to legitimize other artistic forms. However, what appears to be the writing graduate application essay, most significant answer to describing how and why graffiti art is art is the notion of understanding where the artist and the audience synchronize in agreement about a particular work being an example of art. Staging Nationalism Essays In Theatre And National Identity. It is writing essay a matter of comprehending what makes a creation art for the artist and staging nationalism essays in theatre and national what makes this same creation art for the audience. When and according to what criteria that these two viewpoints coincide is what thoroughly determines graffiti art as art. And like other art forms, graffiti art is definitively art when both the artist and the audience agree on the works ability to provide maximal aesthetic satisfaction. While it is almost impossible to writing, formulate a theory of necessary conditions or rules specifying when graffiti art is art, I think it is sufficient to draw on already established aesthetic theories and criteria to nationalism essays, point out that some forms of graffiti do qualify as art. Therefore, graffiti in how to out the form of spraycan art is art. It has form, color, and other base properties as well as an arrangement of these elements into structures that qualify it aesthetically as being art.
Just doing something with spraypaint might make it graffiti, but it does not necessarily qualify it as art or graffiti art. In addition, when the spraycan art is staging identity analyzed according to the artist's intention and value to audience, there is even more evidence to suggest that it is genuine art. The only obstacle that has hindered the general acceptance of graffiti art is its location and presentation. Essay For Junior Kg. However, the instances of acceptance of graffiti art by the art world shows that conventional methods of presentation are not all that matters in determining if something is art. And graffiti art is not to essays and national, be disqualified as art simply because it might appear unsolicited. Common Application 2015. In short, graffiti in the form of spray can art is art like any other work that might be found in nationalism in theatre and national a gallery or a museum. Castleman, Craig. Getting Up.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982.
Pay for Essay and Get the Best Paper You Need -
Staging Nationalism Essays In …
Software Development Manager for PROFIT$ (Senior Lead Programmer, AKA Jai Gopal Singh ) After being acquired by this former competitor, I continued to lead development of the nationalism in theatre and national, PROFIT$ Merchandising System described below. Implemented reliable unattended document handling between remote store locations for thesis auckland university, Purchase Orders, Receivers and Transfers. Developed automated client-server utilities using existing pMail wide area network (see below) for nationalism essays in theatre, continuous upgrading of university large installed User base (thousands of stores), enhanced reporting features for large multi-store operations (30..50, 255 max), and other major functional improvements throughout the application. Software and staging nationalism essays in theatre and national identity, computer hardware sales related to the PROFIT$ product grew from four to seven million dollars per year during this period. Co-founder, VP of Software Development (Senior Lead Programmer, AKA Jai Gopal Singh ) Created the PROFIT$ Merchandising System , a proprietary Point-Of-Sale Inventory and Reporting system for single or multi-store retail shoe and clothing outlets. Systems sold widely in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and for junior kg, the Caribbean (with international currency exchange and display issues!). Staging Essays In Theatre Identity. Was software architect and chief among a team that grew to binding auckland university five programmers. The PROFIT$ product eventually supported dozens of staging and national software and canada, hardware support technicians, sales people, assorted executives and generated 20+ million dollars in staging essays in theatre, gross sales. (see CAM Data above) Among other things, two key features made PROFIT$ unique at the time: Report Generator - From the beginning, a powerful custom report generator was key; it offered the ability to produce reports at any level of detail from vendor, department, class, subclass, color and auckland university, material down to and national identity individual SKUs (Stock Keeping Units).
A Group-by feature with associated search criteria, user-defined column headings (choose up to 80 from list, arrange sequence), ability to save pre-defined reports and other features made the Report Generator a centerpiece of any sales demo. UCSD Pascal , an academic leap of the mid '70s similar in portability to today's Java, was used to common essays achieve a powerful multi-user, multi-store application that could be distributed without re-compiling(!) across a variety of hardware (Intel, Motorola) and operating systems including single and multi-user DOS, Atari machines, Novell Networks and staging nationalism and national, large UNIX networks. A massive library of writing application essay general purpose programming tools including database, list and screen handling features was created to support the PROFIT$ application (and others), many using object-oriented techniques pioneered in Smalltalk and Modula-2, translated to Pascal. Implemented first on early super-micro computers using an SQL relational database, performance and data integrity demands eventually dictated a proprietary variable size record file system (VSDO), optimized for staging and national identity, highest performance on UNIX systems. Complete with appropriate file maintenance utilities and supporting multi-partition files far larger than the limits imposed by the UCSD pSystem, this key development allowed PROFIT$ to abstracts canada grow with the nationalism essays in theatre identity, demands of customers having 30..50 stores (255 max) and from 100 to 4000+ receipts per store in a single day. With Jon Bondy , designed and irene zanette phd thesis, implemented pMail , a peer to peer Wide-Area-Network for unattended file and data (message) transfers between remote stores, including object code updates of all software. Logical messaging between applications on staging nationalism essays in theatre and national identity machines in remote locations supported easy, reliable, distributed database updates.
Implemented in 1986 using the portable pSystem and direct dial, point to point modems, prior to graduate application development of the staging nationalism essays identity, commercial Internet as we know it today.
Write my Paper for Cheap in High Quality -
Staging nationalism essays in …
CS 499 Homework 2: MPI Programming. Tue Feb 23 18:26:47 EST 2016 Major updates to include details of how to report timings, what to put in the HW report, and some guidelines on what to staging nationalism essays in theatre identity expect for the grader interview. Dissertation Canada! Ensure that your mpi_heat program can disable output to improve your timing reporting. Review the following updated/new sections. Disabling output in heat and mpi_heat Problem 1 Scripts for Timing Results Problem 2 Scripts for Timing Results Submission and Evaluation. You will also want to get the following new/updated files which are also in nationalism essays in theatre and national, the update code distribution. The assignment involves programming in MPI and thesis auckland answering some questions (TBD) about your programs. It is a programming assignment so dust off your C skills.
We will attempt to spend some class discussing issues related to staging essays and national the assignment as the due date approaches but it will pay to start early to get oriented. Debugging parallel programs can be difficult and irene zanette phd thesis requires time. There are two main problems to solve, parallelizing the heat program from HW1 and parallelizing a provided pagerank algorithm. Both problems involve coding and analyzing the identity, programs you eventually construct. In addition to providing code and a short report, you will be required to essays 2015 meet with the GTA for the course to demonstrate your program running. These meetings will occur after the assignment is due during the week of nationalism essays in theatre identity, 2/29/2016. Details of what will go on in this meeting and my family for junior kg what questions the GTA might ask will be made more clear at a later time. For the staging nationalism essays in theatre and national, moment, get cracking on canada, the code.
2 A Sample MPI Program with Some Utilities. A simple sample program called mpi_hello.c is provided as part of the code distribution. This program includes two useful utilities. pprintf(fmt. ) will have any processor running it print a message like printf does but the message will be appended with the processor ID. It will be useful for debugging to track which proc is doing what. Staging In Theatre! rprintf(fmt. ) also works like printf but has only the root processor print messages. Usually duplicated output is not desired so the root processor should do most output for binding, human consumption. Compiling and running the program can be done locally on in theatre identity, any machine with MPI installed as follows. medusa.vsnet.gmu.edu is the MPI cluster available for use in the class. Use ssh to log in. You must have a VPN connection set up.
Some instructions are here for setting up VPN. Use mpicc to graduate application essay compile on medusa . Use mpirun to test interactively. The login node will be used for this only so programs will not typically get much speedup. Staging Nationalism Essays In Theatre Identity! When your code is in good shape, create a small batch script and submit it to the batch queue using sbatch . Check the status of the job queue with squeue . The main platform we will utilize is the medusa.vsnet.gmu.edu cluster. All students in thesis, CS 499 have been authorized to use the nationalism and national identity, cluster. Log into it using your favorite ssh tool using your standard mason NetID and application password. medusa is a cluster of 14 or so computers and staging nationalism a careful observer will note that the essays, the mpi_run seems to be running everything on nationalism and national, the a single node, host medusa which is the login node. To gain access to other compute nodes, you will need to request that a computation be run via the job queue . The typical approach to this is to writing graduate create a little shell script which will run the job instead and set up the parameters for the job. Any text editor can be used to create such a script. Staging Nationalism In Theatre And National! It is then submitted to the job queue using the sbatch command. One can check on queued jobs using squeue which displays running and application waiting jobs.
Options can also be specified from the command line and nationalism essays in theatre these are identical to the options above in the job file itself. This is application 2015, good for nationalism essays, testing whether. It is more complex to run jobs on a number of processors that is not evenly divisible by 4, so initially restrict your job runs to 4, 8, 12, and 16 processors. When you want to run on an arbitrary number of processors, use the common 2015, following job script as a template. Adjust the staging nationalism, --ntasks option to the desired number of processors and the --output option as needed but leave the other two options unchanged. A slightly modified version of the heat propagation simulation from HW1 and in-class discussion is in the code pack and application 2015 called heat.c . In Theatre! In this problem, create an MPI version of this program which will divide calculation of the heat of each simulation cell over time up among many processors. Key features of this parallelization are as follows.
It will need to be a C program and run with the MPI library provided on the medusa cluster. The serial version of the program provided accepts the number of time steps and the width of the rod as command line arguments. Make sure to preserve it so that a command like. That means the following configurations should work or not work as indicated. 4.1 Written Summary of the Parallel Heat Results. The following script can be used to make essay stand submit jobs to run mpi_heat on various numbers of processors with different widths. It is required that the program take a 3rd commandline argument which will disable printing. Ensure that. runs and produces no output.
See the updated section on disabling output in heat for additional details. After running the script, jobs will be submitted to the batch queue to staging essays and national identity run your mpi_heat on 1,2,4,8,10, and 16 processors and using different widths (6400, 25600, and zanette 102400 columns). Execution time is saved in files named after the width and number of processors. When all jobs are complete, timing info will be in files that start with pr.* . Staging Identity! The time for the jobs is accessible easily using the grep command as demonstrated below. In your written report, include the following table with execution times filled based on my family essay for junior kg, the processors and widths of your runs using the script above. Comment on how whether you achieve any speedup using more processors. Describe any trends or anomalies you see in the timings and speculate on their causes. 4.2 Grader Interview for staging in theatre identity, Problem 1. You will need to writing graduate application essay demonstrate your code for this problem to the GTA for staging in theatre and national, the course.
Expectations of what will go on in this meeting are in the Grader Interview Specifics Section. 4.3 (50 / 50) Grading Criteria for essay, Problem 1#xa0;#xa0;#xa0; grading. (20 / 20) Demonstration of staging in theatre and national identity, your code to the GTA and ability to explain how it works during an in-person meeting. (10 / 10) Cleanly written code with good documentation (10 / 10) Correct execution for the given configurations of processors vs columns. (10 / 10) Written report which includes timings described above and discussion of for junior, them. 4.4 Adjustments to heat.c to omit output. Input and essays in theatre Output can occupy a tremendous amount of execution time and often mask the real performance of application, a program.
To that end, make some adjustments to you mpi_heat.c program to disable printing of the final output matrix. An updated version of heat.c is provided which shows how to do this in the serial context and can largely be copied over to the parallel context. This involves accepting and parsing an additional command-line argument that turns printing on/off. Nationalism Essays! This is handled at the beginning of the program. Later, output of the final heat matrix is conditioned on the variable print : This allows one to run the program without output. While running the program without output seems useless, we are primarily interested in this mode of operation to time program execution without the interference of output time and this is the easiest way get at those timings. 5.1 Overview of Computing Pageranks. A key to Google's early success was its ability of its search engine to identify web pages which seemed important to user search queries. A key component of their engine was and how to make essay stand remains an importance metric metric called Pagerank, so named due to staging nationalism essays identity its ranking a web page and the author of the algorithm is Larry Page (history is has a splendid sense of irony). The pagerank has a beautiful theory behind it which involves modeling web users as random walkers through hyperlinked pages. On arriving at a page, a user randomly selects a link and visits it.
This process is repeated on the next page, and canada the next page, and staging essays in theatre identity so forth. With a small probability, a user may randomly jump to some arbitrary other page which is phd thesis, not linked to the present one. According to this formalism, pagerank represents the probability of finding a user on a given page at a particular moment in time. A page with many incoming links to it has a higher probability of being visited as many other pages have voted for its importance. A page with many outgoing links contributes little to importance of any linked pages: its votes are spread very thin. This rough sort of voting turned out to be a good measure of the staging essays, importance of page, at least in the early 2000s before web denizens learned to manipulate the algorithm. It turns out that if the application, network of links web pages is represented as a certain matrix, the page ranks are identical to a particular eigenvector of that matrix. There are several interesting facets to this relationship for staging nationalism essays in theatre and national identity, the mathematically inclined and good reading on the subject comes from how to essay out a survey by Bherkin. The bottom line is that any algorithms for computing an eigenvector of a matrix can be used to compute page ranks.
A classical iterative technique to compute eigenvectors is the Power Method which involves repeatedly multiplying a vector by a matrix. Matrix-vector multiplication is a ripe operation for parallelization and your primary task will be to parallelize this process for the pagerank computation. A code is provided called dense_pagerank.c which performs pagerank serial computations. In high-level terms the computation breaks down as follows. Load data for a matrix of web page links ( link matrix ). Each page is numbered 0 to N-1 where N is the total number of pages. The file format is simply pairs of numbers of one page pointing to another one. Loading the file involves allocating memory for the entire matrix, zeroing each entry, then filling a 1 into staging nationalism essays in theatre and national, each row/col entry indicated by the file. My Family Essay! Normalize columns by summing each column in the matrix, then dividing each entry in a column by the sum of the column.
Apply a damping factor which allows random warping from one page to another. Staging Nationalism Identity! The math on this is a little funky, but the intent is to how to a college essay make each nonzero entry in in theatre and national identity, the matrix a little smaller and each zero entry nonzero so there is a chance of jumping to an arbitrary page. See the code for thesis binding university, the specific math involved with the update. A typical damping factor is staging essays in theatre, 0.85: 85% chance of visiting a link on essay, the page and 15% change of jumping an arbitrary unlinked page. Nationalism In Theatre! Initialize pageranks to writing essay be equal for each page and so that the pageranks sum to 1. If there are 10 pages, each page initially has a pagerank of 0.1; with 100 pages each has 0.01. Only the relative size between ranks is important. Multiply the staging essays in theatre identity, link matrix by the pageranks according to the standard matrix-vector multiplication algorithm. Writing Graduate Essay! Store the results in a second array of numbers. This second array of nationalism in theatre identity, numbers is now the new pageranks . Assign this back to the array of old pageranks after checking for irene zanette, convergence.
Repeat step 5 of creating new pageranks by multiplying the staging nationalism in theatre identity, link matrix by the old pageranks. Continue repeating this until there is very little change between new and old pageranks. At this point, the dissertation, solution has converged. This algorithm is a good example of nationalism essays in theatre and national identity, iterative algorithms: it is not known ahead of time how many steps will be required to converge but steady progress should be made as indicated by the old and new pagerank vectors being closer and closer together. Note that due to the columns of the link matrix and the vector of pageranks being positive and summing to binding auckland 1, the and national identity, results of their multiplication should also sum to 1 (e.g. the writing essay, new pageranks also sum to 1). The code presently reports the norm of the vector as this sum and it should remain 1 throughout the computation. It should be mentioned that the provided code is a dense version of the pagerank: every element of the link matrix has memory allocated to it. Unsurprisingly, a production version of the code would use sparse matrices instead where the many zero entries of the essays and national identity, matrix are represented implicitly to save a tremendous amount of memory.
While the dense algorithm is easier to parallelize than the sparse, the binding auckland university, dense version is woefully inappropriate for the enormous size of Google-scale pagerank computations involving 30,000,000,000,000+ web pages. Nationalism Identity! It is a computation that necessitates parallelism at a sickening scale but is reasonably approximated by the present code. Take some time to examine the code provided carefully. 5.2 Sample Runs of dense_pagerank.c. Part of the common application essays, code distribution includes some graph files which you can use for experimentation and timing analysis of your code. Each graph is named after its size and content. The notredame graphs are derived from a real dataset of web sites in the Notre Dame domain. Nationalism Essays Identity! The full set is available here though will require a bit of processing to phd thesis be used with this code and is extremely large for a dense pagerank calculation. Start by in theatre and national identity experimenting with the small graphs like tiny-20.txt which has only 20 nodes in it and 200 links between pages. The progress at each iteration is reported: the make a college stand out, DIFF column should get progressively smaller while the nationalism, NORM column should remain 1 throughout.
After convergence, the pageranks of the 20 pages are printed. The largest graph you should work with is essays, notredame-8000.txt which has 8000 web sites involved in it leading to an 8000 by 8000 link matrix. Running this through the serial code looks like the following. Note that the output will be long (8000+ lines) so it is put into the file output.txt and examined using the head command to display the first few lines. Parallelize the provided pagerank code. It is identity, suggested that you start with the code provided serial code and take small steps towards parallelizing. The program starts with reading input from a file which should be done only on the root processor. After reading the whole matrix into the root processor, send chunks of the matrix to each processor for the main part of the algorithm. The serial code uses a densemat structure to store the matrix. Make A College Stand! This structure uses a trick.
All elements are stored in a linear array called all . This allows linear index access via mat-all[i] An array of pointers called data points to the beginning of each row in the matrix. This allows row/col access via mat-data[r][c] . As a consequence of the linear array, sequential rows are stored in adjacent memory. In Theatre And National Identity! In a 10 by 10 matrix, rows 0, 1, and 2 are stored in elements 0-29 of mat-all . Graduate Application Essay! This makes it possible to send multiple adjacent rows with single communications. The main source of parallelism is obtained by dividing up the link matrix so that each processor owns a collection of whole rows. This is staging nationalism in theatre identity, effective as matrix vector multiplication relies on multiplying a whole row by a column vector (the pageranks in this case).
Do not assume that the number of rows in the link matrix is evenly divisible by the number of processors. Irene Zanette! Make your code more flexible than that. This, unfortunately, means dealing with some minutia as not every processor will send or receive the same number of elements. Nationalism And National! As a suggested approach, do the following. First, assume the number of rows is evenly divisible by the number of processors and essay kg use simple MPI calls like MPI_Scatter and MPI_Allgather which assume every processor will receive the nationalism essays and national, same number of elements. Make sure that this version works on some of the input graphs for numbers of processors that evenly divide the size. When you are confident in your code above, make a backup copy of it for safekeeping. My Family Essay Kg! Now take the plunge and switch to the MPI vector calls which allow one to specify then number of elements each processor will receive: functions like MPI_Scatterv and staging nationalism essays in theatre identity MPI_Allgatherv (notice the v at the end) take additional parameter arrays of the counts of elements for each processor and how to make essay stand the offsets into storage arrays where those elements reside.
These more complex invocation may seem tedious, but all that is really required is to set up arrays indicating the counts elements on each processor and pass those in. Establish these arrays near the beginning of the program and use them throughout. 6.3 Parallelizing Column Normalization and Damping. It is suggested that you initially let the root processor read the whole matrix, normalize the staging nationalism in theatre, rows, apply the damping factor, then scatter the matrix rows to each processor. That way the serial code can be used to ensure normalization and damping is correct. Later, revisit the column normalization and damping to parallelize it. Scatter the unnormalized link matrix rows to each process Have each process compute an array of its own column sums Use a all-to-all reduction so that every processor has the sums of all columns. Investigate a good MPI function for this all-to-all reduction and potentially use the MPI_IN_PLACE constant to irene zanette save yourself some allocations of buffers (the manual pages for relevant MPI functions describe this option). Have each processor divide each of its elements by the appropriate column sum. Have each processor apply the nationalism in theatre identity, damping factor adjustment to each of its elements.
6.4 Parallelizing the Repeated Matrix-vector Multiplication. The main computation loop involves repeatedly multiplying the my family for junior kg, link matrix by the vector or pageranks. In the parallel version, each processor has some whole rows of the link matrix. Note the consequences of staging essays in theatre and national, this decomposition. Each processor has some link matrix rows but must have the whole vector of old pageranks to do the multiplication After completing the multiplication, each processor will contain only part of the my family essay for junior, new pagerank vector and essays in theatre must communicate its portion of to all other processors for the next multiplication to dissertation abstracts canada occur.
After each multiplication, each processor must also share how much its new pageranks differ from the equivalent portion of the old pagerank vector so that all processors can determine if the algorithm has converged. This will involve several collective communication operations at each iteration to share. 6.5 Written Summary of Parallel Pagerank Results. The following script can be used to submit jobs to run mpi_dense_pagerank on the provided graphs. After running the staging in theatre and national, script, jobs will be submitted to the batch queue to run your mpi_dense_pagerank on 1-16 processors saving output in files along with the execution time. When all jobs are complete, timing info will be in files that start with pr.* . Canada! The time for nationalism in theatre identity, the jobs is accessible easily using the grep command as demonstrated below. The number in for junior, the last column is the execution time of the run while the file name indicates the number of nationalism in theatre, processors used (1 to 5 are shown). Note that you can adjust parameters in phd thesis, the script to staging nationalism in theatre and national change the input graph which is required. In your HW report, produce a report which shows. Timings of mpi_dnese_pagerank for 1-16 processors on the notredame-8000.txt graph (default) Timings of mpi_dnese_pagerank for 1-16 processors on the notredame-16000.txt graph (change the input file in the script) A brief discussion of how scalable your implementation appears to be based on those timings and irene phd thesis any irregularities you see. Present your results in a table with the following format.
6.6 Grader Interview for Problem 2. You will need to demonstrate your code for this problem to the GTA for staging nationalism essays in theatre and national, the course. Expectations of what will go on in this meeting are in the Grader Interview Specifics Section. 6.7 (50 / 50) Grading Criteria for Problem 2#xa0;#xa0;#xa0; grading. (20 / 20) Demonstration of your code to the GTA and ability to explain how it works during an in-person meeting. (10 / 10) Clean parallelization of the main matrix-vector multiplcation loop along with checks for convergence. (5 / 5) Effective use of MPI's collective communication operations to spread and gather data between processors (5 / 5) Clean parallelization of the computation of column sums and application of the damping factor in the link matrix. (5 / 5) Correct execution for a matrix with any size on thesis binding auckland university, any number of processors. (5 / 5) Report on timings of parallel pagerankfor generated using the staging in theatre and national, script provided along with discussion of writing application essay, those results. Submit the following to Blackboard for this HW. Zip file of program code Should contain at a minimum mpi_heat.c for problem 1 mpi_dense_pagerank.c for problem 2 graphs/ directory with graph data files in essays in theatre and national, it. May contain various other scripts that were provided or you developed to aid you. DOCX or PDF Report Names of all group members: Include full names, NetIDs and G#s such as the below for a group of out, 2.
Grading criteria for submitted work is described in previous sections. 40% of your grade is based on an interview with the course grader in nationalism essays in theatre, which you will be asked to phd thesis demonstrate execution of your code and describe its approach. Staging Nationalism And National! Briefly, this interview may include the following elements. 20-minute interview Demonstrate compiling and running a parallel program interactively on medusa Demonstrate submitting a parallel job on the batch queue with a certain number of processors Outline how the irene, Problem 1: Heat program was parallelized Give a brief walk-through of code for Problem 1: Heat Explain some MPI calls as they appear in the Heat program Outline how the Problem 2: Pagerank program was parallelized Explain some MPI calls as they appear in the Pagerank program Describe timing results associated with parallel Pagerank runs with different numbers of processors and input sizes For groups of 2, interviewer may direct a question at individual group members to assess that both members understand the content. Some sample questions are provided below.
These are meant to guide and the actual questions may be variants of nationalism essays in theatre and national, them.
Order Paper Writing Help 24/7 -
STAGING NATIONALISM ESSAYS ON THEATRE AND NATIONAL IDENTITY
Haas MBA Class of 2016 Admissions Essays: The Song Remains the Same. This is my post on the UC Berkeley Haas MBA Essays for Class of 2016 admission. You can find my post on nationalism identity Haas interviews here. This is canada, how I started my Haas essay analysis last year: “ Haas always asks weird questions. Years ago, they asked who the applicant would invite to dinner and why. In Theatre Identity. Last year, it was “What brings you the phd thesis greatest joy?
How does this make you distinctive? ” Each year brings some new weirdness. Staging Nationalism Essays. Hence their song remains the same.” Indeed, I am right, but this time the song really remains the same because the Song question remains., though some essays were dropped and/or modified. So like last year, this post is music video enabled. I had a dream.
Crazy dream. Anything I wanted to know, any place I needed to go. Hear my song. People won’t you listen now? Sing along. You don’t know what you’re missing now. Any little song that you know. Everything that’s small has to grow.
And it has to abstracts grow! California sunlight, sweet Calcutta rain. Honolulu Starbright – the song remains the same. Sing out Hare Hare, dance the Hoochie Koo. City lights are oh so bright, as we go sliding… sliding… sliding through. -Led Zeppelin, The Song Remains the Same. Well, since Berkeley Haas has again decided to staging nationalism ask applicants about their favorite song, so this blog post will be infused with music. Set back, relax, I will keep it musical and abstracts hopefully valuable to your quest to join the Class of 2016.
I have taken the staging nationalism essays identity questions from the Haas website. BILD: Are you Berkeley enough? Before discussing BILD (Learn more about Berkeley-Haas’ Defining Principles), I could not ask for a better start to our musical journey than DJDAVE and LeaCharles’ Berkeley Enough (Fog and Smog), which will give those not familiar with town of Berkeley some possible insight. I have visited Berkeley since I was a child and lived there at various times in the 1990s, so the following remarks reflect that. If you do not know, Berkeley, also known as the dissertation canada Peoples Republic of Berkeley, is one of my America’s most liberal, alternative, progressive, freaky, eccentric, left-wing, drug infested, intellectual, health food conscious, and gourmet cities. It is thus a place with very different sides to it. Staging Identity. North Berkeley towards the hills is very affluent, while southern Berkeley merges into Oakland, a city with a long and troubled history of poverty and violence. If you are looking to go to common application school in one of America’s safest cities, Berkeley is not it. Students are regularly victims of crime. This could be true of any urban campus in America, so understand that Berkeley is nationalism in theatre, a highly urban environment and thesis not just a relaxed college town filled with happy old hippies drinking gourmet coffee and smoking medical marijuana, Bay Area entrepreneurs working on the next big thing, and nationalism essays in theatre hardworking students.
At Berkeley-Haas, our distinctive culture is defined by four key principles — Question the status quo; Confidence without attitude; Students always; and Beyond yourself. We seek candidates from a broad range of cultures, backgrounds, and industries who demonstrate a strong cultural fit with our program and defining principles. I think it is worth considering these four values when thinking about your fit for Berkeley. Question the status quo : Haas values change agents and non-conformists. Irene. This fits both within the essays larger prevailing worldview of UC Berkeley, the Bay Area, and the Silicon Valley. Confidence without attitude : Haas values humility. My Family Essay. It is important that you don’t come across as an arrogant person or egotistical leader type person in your essays. That might fly for HBS, but not Haas.
Stanford Professor Bob Sutton’s No Asshole Rule surely applies at Haas. It should be reflected in the way you present yourself in your entire essay set. Students always : Haas like UC Berkeley itself is place that values both a sense of staging essays in theatre and national curiosity and auckland university a passion for learning. Staging Essays. Your intellectual capability matters at Berkeley. Beyond yourself : Haas values people who are engaged with the world and dissertation abstracts canada want to make a difference. Those who have demonstrated a commitment to nationalism and national some issue or activity beyond their own personal concerns will be looked upon thesis favorably. This should be reflected in your goals (Essay 4), a personal perspective you have, and/or your extracurricular activities. Essay 1: If you could choose one song that expresses who you are, what is it and why? (250 word maximum) “Pick a song that is meaningful to you — it doesn’t have to be popular, in English, or even have lyrics.”
Anytime you are given a question where you are asked to staging in theatre and national give something symbolic meaning, the first thing to do is think about what you want to express through the song. For example, if your objective was demonstrate your commitment to peace and kg social justice, you might pick Bob Dylan’s Blowin’ In The Wind : How many roads most a man walk down. Before you call him a man? How many seas must a white dove sail. Before she sleeps in the sand? Yes, how many times must the cannon balls fly. Before they’re forever banned? The answer my friend is blowin’ in the wind.
The answer is blowin’ in the wind. Yes, how many years can a mountain exist. Before it’s washed to the sea? Yes, how many years can some people exist. Before they’re allowed to be free? Yes, how many times can a man turn his head. Pretending he just doesn’t see? The answer my friend is blowin’ in the wind.
The answer is blowin’ in the wind. Yes, how many times must a man look up. Before he can see the sky? Yes, how many ears must one man have. Before he can hear people cry? Yes, how many deaths will it take till he knows. That too many people have died? The answer my friend is blowin’ in nationalism in theatre, the wind. The answer is blowin’ in the wind. In this case, you might explain when Dylan’s first caught your attention. What it means to you and common 2015 how it relates to nationalism in theatre and national identity actions you have taken in your own life.
This is phd thesis, just one possible way of and national identity answering this question. Your musical selection does not need to canada have lyrics and does not need to have lyrics in English. Even if the song has lyrics, my suggestion would be only briefly explain the meaning of staging essays in theatre and national identity those lyrics because you should really using most of how to make a college your word count to explain what the song means to you. I think the essays in theatre and national identity advantage of university a song without lyrics, say a jazz instrumental or a classical composition (Western, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, whatever), is that it allows for easily focusing on what the song means to you. For example, I might use a song by India’s master violinist L. Subramaniam to nationalism essays in theatre discuss how the way the music effects me to express who I am. I might discuss 2-3 qualities about myself that are reflected in canada, his music. Clearly with compositional works, you have great freedom to staging nationalism essays attach any meaning you want it to it. For songs with lyrics that are not English, there is no real difference between them and songs that are. You need to provide a brief explanation of what the graduate application essay song means. I see two very different, but equally viable ways to essays in theatre and national actually think about this question within the greater context of the overall essay set:
For those who want to use Essay 1 to be the core operating logic for their entire essay set I would picking song whose theme relates to a dominant idea that connects to your professional goals and canada past actions . This is not easy to do, but if you were, for essays example, also applying to Stanford, it might very well be that the answer to writing graduate essay what matters most you in nationalism essays in theatre, Essay 1, could become the thesis binding theme for nationalism in theatre and national identity this essay. Graduate Application. This requires some real planning and nationalism essays and national identity having the time to really make the connections between at essay kg, least Essay 1 and Essay 5. For those who simply want to answer this totally twisted question and get on with the rest of their essay set , I would suggest that unless something occurs to you immediately, work through the rest of the essay set and staging nationalism in theatre and national then figure out thesis binding auckland what value(s) or quality(ities) about yourself that you have been unable to staging essays identity communicate elsewhere in the essay set. Assuming you have a list of few such qualities, I would then start to think about music and dissertation abstracts come up with some options. Staging Nationalism Essays In Theatre And National Identity. Link those values/qualities to something specific in your background. Again, I think both ways are equally viable. The point is to give Haas admissions insight into what kind of person you are. Whatever kind of person that is, I suggest it be someone who fits at Haas.
On that basis, I can’t recommend picking any music from GWAR: But hey, maybe someone can make that work. If you get into Haas using a song by GWAR, let me know. Drinks are on me. Essay 2: What is your most significant accomplishment? (250 word maximum)
With all your power. -Flaming Lips, Yeah Yeah Yeah Song. This is application 2015, actually a totally standard issue essay topic. And National. What have you done (with your power) so far? Where have you had the biggest impact and/or what accomplishment is most meaningful to you? If your accomplishment meets at thesis binding, least the first two of the nationalism in theatre and national identity above criteria, you likely have a good topic. That said, I have two simple tests for determining whether an accomplishment really belongs in this essay. The first is whether Haas really needs to know about this accomplishment. Thesis. After all, you might consider getting the love of your life to marry you to be one of your most substantial accomplishments, but will Adcom care? The second and final simple test I have for determining whether an accomplishment really belongs in this essay is nationalism in theatre, based on the idea that something that is totally obvious about my family kg, you to anyone looking at your resume and transcript is essays, probably not worth mentioning.
If you were a CPA, having an accomplishment that merely demonstrated you passed the binding auckland university CPA exam would be rather dull. Instead it would be important to show something more specific that reveals something that is not obvious by a mere examination of the basic facts of staging identity your application. Finally, as I mentioned above what you include here is a real test of your judgment, so think deeply and come up a unique accomplishment that reveals something something about you that will compel admissions to make a college out want to interview you. ESSAY 3: Describe a time in the last three years when you overcame a failure. What specific insight from staging this experience has shaped your development? (250 word maximum) In some ways, I think this is the hardest essay in the entire set because you have do so much in very few words. This essay is thesis binding, not just Failure + Learning, but rather Failure + Overcoming Failure + Learning that has Impacted Your Development. Regarding the staging and national identity failure, you might very well succeed from the perspective of others, but fail from your own perspective. Thesis Auckland. In other words, the failure can be as subjective (“I feel like I failed because I did not live up to my own goals.”) or objective (“My team failed to meet the deadline.”). Overcoming a failure can take several forms. For example, you might find a solution to the problem that the failure creates.
Alternatively you might overcome a failure by getting over the financial, psychological, or other pain/negative impact that it creates. Staging Nationalism In Theatre Identity. You might also overcome a failure by taking what you learn from it and simply applying it to common essays 2015 a new situation so that you regain your own or someone else’s confidence. A specific insight means what you learned. Staging. You should be able to my family clearly identify what you learned. You should then be able to explain how you took that learning and applied subsequently. This is a great opportunity to show you are open to changing your thinking and using it for your own self-development. The time described might be professional or not.
It might very well be a personal or academic failure. Just keep the time requirement in staging essays in theatre and national, consideration. A College. Haas is looking for a situation you learned from recently. In Theatre And National Identity. This means that want to see a recent situation that highlights your ability to learn through the process of struggling with something. The basic components of an auckland university, answer: 1. Staging Nationalism In Theatre And National Identity. Clearly state what the situation was. 2. Binding Auckland. Clearly state your role. 3. Nationalism In Theatre And National Identity. Clearly state your failure. 4. Explain how you overcame the failure.
5. Explain how your failure impacted your subsequent development. This quite a bit to do in limited word count so obviously you need to effectively summarize and analyze here. Keep descriptions brief and to my family the point. Finally, cliches are boring, so don’t write stuff like “Rome was not built in a day and essays in theatre and national identity neither was I.” Here is a song about that: ESSAY 4: a. What are your post-MBA short-term and long-term career goals? How have your professional experiences prepared you to achieve these goals? b. How will an MBA from thesis binding university Haas help you achieve these goals? (750 word maximum for 5a. and 5b.) Doing it your way is what any goals essay should be about.
With the exception for the need to discuss your past experience and Berkeley specific content, please refer to my analysis of staging nationalism Stanford Essay 2 for formulating a goals essay. You have 750 words to answer this question, so make the most of them and convince admissions that Berkeley is really your first choice. Irene Phd Thesis. Those who have visited Haas and/or networked with students and/or alumni will have a distinct advantage in nationalism and national, making that case over anyone who simply cuts and pastes some class names into irene zanette phd thesis, their essay. Reapplicant Essay: We strongly recommend that you submit a statement outlining how you have improved your candidacy since your last application, as the Admissions Committee will be looking for substantive change in staging in theatre identity, your qualifications. You can use the optional essay question to provide this information. The whole point of reapplication is to give Haas another chance to love you. Reapplicants should see my reapplication guide. Phd Thesis. Use this space to staging nationalism essays in theatre and national specifically explain what has improved about irene zanette, you since you last applied. You can certainly mention improved test scores, but I would not use very much of your word count for that.
Typical topics include: development of a new skill, promotions that demonstrate your potential for staging essays in theatre future success, involvement in an extracurricular activity, learning significantly more about Haas, and why your goals discussed in Essay 4 now are better than the ones you presented last time. Kg. They want to see career growth or at least personal growth. Help them want to give you a chance.