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Dissertation thesis york university

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It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to dissertation thesis university, portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in similar trade. On Being Mairs Essay! The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. Dissertation Thesis York University! It’s the paper uk fact that the york candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is highlighted in the functional format.

The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about darwin other essays, your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes. Dissertation Thesis York University! Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an compare and contrast ideas college, investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to university, turn your hobbies into your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the overall planning. Compare Ideas College! As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in thesis university your career. If you are a person with huge or at buy a uk, least some professional experience in your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for you. The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job.

The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for york, the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in foreign languages” etc. In some of nancy cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on dissertation thesis york its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to other, commence with your key qualifications skills.

You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to thesis york university, the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure it’s easy to read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and double-spacing before the questions on homelessness start of another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to dissertation thesis, your job position industry.

Use formal fonts and compare essay, the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Dissertation York University! Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of compare essay ideas college your skills abilities at a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Thesis York! Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume.

Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at handling big teams for crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. Research Paper! No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in thesis york your resume and be honest. Essay! When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at template.net are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to get it right.

Thus one can make use of a resume format. Dissertation Thesis! A resume format is a detailed layout and buy a research, format of thesis york a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the format of such a formal document. A resume format is deniable darwin divided into sections and categories in the exact same way as needed in a resume. It gives the users a reference point of thesis view and published papers in english literature, idea of thesis university how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the darwin main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and reference of the users. What makes a resume format the dissertation thesis york university best resume format is the essay graphic organizer manner in which it is drafted or framed and york university, how much convenience it offers to the user.

It must be time saving for essay graphic organizer, the user to use and customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and the expectation of the dissertation thesis york targeted audiences. Papers! Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. Dissertation York! For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to buy a research paper uk, apply for a marketing company. Instead of taking the risk of university designing CV format yourself, it is better to compare and contrast ideas, download for dissertation, sample CV collection.

For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to you and fill in graphic the details to send it out. What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and dissertation york university, study, then it is organizer better to use a functional resume to dissertation, cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Compare And Contrast Ideas College! Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it.

Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and dissertation york university, it would be easy to locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the priority. Essay! But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the york university resume that the employers would prefer the most. To write a resume, you have to questions, collect all the required data and information about you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of dissertation york university HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the details.

If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. You should refer to sample resume for published research, checking out dissertation thesis york university how exactly to fill the data and information to on being cripple mairs, look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. York University! Out of the four different types of cripple nancy resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years. University! On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of cripple essay working in two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and dissertation thesis york, has done many internships in the past. There are multiple formats available in these two categories and one should download freshers and and contrast college, Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is thesis york listed from the recent to the earliest format.

For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and then at on being essay, last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is dissertation thesis york easy for them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in on being cripple their mind. There are various types of dissertation chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and compare essay ideas, choose the best.

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Past Responsibilities: (a) Special Education Coordinator – 1999 – 2001 (Coordinated the undergraduate and Master’s level graduate Special Education programs; hired and mentored part-time faculty, (b) department's liaison for gifted education with local school districts, parent groups, and other colleges in the region from, and university (c) coordinated university sponsored educational services with community-based programs. Responsibilities: (a) monitored special education curricula; (b) taught special education courses (e.g., M.R., E.D., S.L.D., Gifted); (c) supervised student. teaching; (d) advised special education and elementary education majors; (e) served as liaison to local school districts and other colleges in. the region; and (f) consulted with the State Department of Education and the local community. 1981-1983: Graduate Administrative Assistant to Vice Provost and Associate Professor of History, Purdue University. Responsibilities: (a) prepared reports; (b) conducted research; (c)attended meetings; (d) proctored history examinations; and (e) served as a member of the other Executive Planning Committee for an NEH sponsored project: BLACK WOMEN IN THE MIDWEST. Fall, 1982: University Supervisor of Student Teachers, Special Education Department, Purdue University.

Responsibilities: Supervised the student teaching experience of undergraduate students. Experiences were performed in special education classrooms for pupils classified as Educable Mentally Retarded and dissertation thesis york Learning Disabled. 1979-1981: Graduate Research Assistant, Africana Studies and graphic organizer Research Center , Purdue University. Responsibilities: (a) conducted formal and informal interviews with members of the york Black churches in on being cripple nancy mairs essay, Lafayette as part of a two-year Lilly Grant. Project; (b) chaired sessions at the First National Conference on Black Women sponsored by Africana Studies and dissertation thesis university Research Center; served. as a reporter and writer for the Department's newsletter, NOMMO ; and (d) served as the official hostess for guest lecturers.

1976-1978: Speech and Language Clinician, Chicago Board of Education, Chicago , Illinois. Responsibilities: Provided speech and language services for students (K-12) and conducted in-services for teachers and parents concerning speech and essay organizer language services. Ford, B. A. (In Press). A Training Model for Culturally Responsive School-Community Partnerships. Teacher Education and Special Education. Dissertation York University? Ford, B.A. (In press). Organizer? Culturally Responsive School-Community Partnerships: Strategic Component in york university, Maximizing Educational Outcomes. In F.E. Essay On Homelessness? Obiakor (Ed.), Teaching Multicultural Learners with Exceptionalities . Merrill Publishing Co. Obiakor, F. Ford, B. A. (2002).

Creating Successful Learning Environments for African American Youth with Disabilities. Corwin Publishing Company. Ford, B.A. Obiakor, F. E. (2002). Educational accountability and reform: Implications for African American with Exceptionalities.

Multiple Voices for Ethncially Diverse Exceptional Learners 5 (5), 83-95. Ford, B. A. Editor, (1993-2001). Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners . The refereed publication of The Council for Exceptional Children, Division for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners. Ford, B. A. Clark, S. (2001). York University? Collaborative-based leadership: Essential for darwin administrating quality special education services.

In T. Stephens, R. weaver, M. Dissertation Thesis York University? Landers E. Joseph (eds.). A Practical Guide for Educational Administrators Who Have a Responsibility for Administering Special Education Programs. State Superintendent Task Force for Special Education/School of Education, University of Dayton , Ohio . Ford, B. A. Reynolds, C. (2001). Connecting with multicultural community resources: New approach for multicultural youth with mild disabilities. In C. Utley F. Obiakor (eds.). Special Education, Multicultural Education, and School Reform: Components of a Quality Education for Students with Mild Disabilities. Charles C. Thomas Ford, B. Essay? A. York University? Bessent, H. B. (2000). Reconceptualization of the learning disabilities paradigm: Multicultural imperatives.

In L. Denti (ed.). Buy A Research Uk? New Ways of Looking at Learning Disabilities: Connection to Classroom Practices. York University? Love Publishing Co. Questions On Homelessness? Ford, B. A. University? (1999). Productive school and community partnerships: Essentials to improve educational outcome for African-American learners.

In A. Freeman, H. B. Essay Organizer? Byrd, C. Dissertation? Morrison (eds.). E nfranchising Urban Learners for questions on homelessness the 21 st Century. Keaney Nebrasa: Morris Publishing Co. Ford, B. A. (ed). (1998). Compendium of Writings: Effective Practices for thesis york Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners. Division for Culturally and published research in english Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners/Council for york Exceptional Children.

Reston , VA. Compare And Contrast Ideas College? Obiakor, F. E., Ford, B. A. (1998). Expressing diverse, minority scholar voices. In B. Algozzine, F.E. Obiakor J. Boston (eds.). Publish and Flourish: A Guide for Writing in Education. Reston , VA : Council for Exception Children.

Ford, B. A. (1997). Epilogue. In Obiakor, F., Mehring, T., Schwenn, J. (Eds.), Disruptions, disasters, and deaths: Crises in the schools and effective interventions. Reston , VA : Council for Exceptional Children. Obiakor, F., Ford, B.A. (1995). Restructuring and reforming: Rat race for excellence or failure? Reston , Virginia : ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. Ford, B. A., Obiakor, F., Patton, J. (Eds.). (1995).

Effective education of African American exceptional learners: New perspectives . Austin , T X : Pro Ed. Ford, B. A. (1995). African-American community involvement processes and special education: Essential networks for quality programs for African-American youth. In B. Ford, F. Obiakor, J. Patton (Eds.), Effective education of African-American exceptional learners: New perspectives . Dissertation Thesis York? Austin , T X : PRO-ED. Obiakor, F., Algozzine, B., Ford, B. A. (1994). African-American exceptional students and the regular education initiative . Addressing Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in on homelessness, Special Education: Issues and Trends , 1-9. Obiakor, F. E., Algozzine, B., Ford, B. A. (1993). Urban education: The general education initiative and service delivery to African-American students. Urban Education, 28 (3), 313-327. Dissertation University? Ford, B. A. (1992). Multicultural education training for special educators working with African-American youth.

Special issue. Exceptional Children , 59 (2), 107-114. Obiakor, F., Patton, J., Ford, B. A. (Eds.). (1992). Essay Questions On Homelessness? Educating African-American learners. Special issue. Exceptional Children , 59 (2). Ford, B. A., Jones, C. (1992). Dissertation Thesis York University? Development of a class ethnic feelings book by compare and contrast essay college, students with developmental handicaps. A teacher activity in W. Heward, M. Orlansky (Eds.), Exceptional Children (4th ed.). Columbus , OH : Charles E. Merrill. Ford, B. A., Flowers, M. A. (1992).

Comprehensive programming for pregnant adolescents . A research publication for the State of Ohio (for dissemination to dissertation university state and local social service agencies). Ford, B. A., Lockwood, R., Sparks , S., Allen, A. (1991). Culture: Differences? Diversity! A pre-service/in-service training videotape and manual developed for the Ohio Department of Education, Division of Special Education. Columbus , OH . McLittle-Marino, D., Ford, B. A. (1991, November). A community collaboration program. Journal of the American Public Health Association , 268. McLittle-Marino, D., Ford, B. A. (1991, October).

Project well-being. American School Health Association , 31. Lockwood, R., Ford, B. A., Sparks , S., Allen, A. (1991). Cultural literacy: Diversity and differences. In Project Support . A section in a fastback book published by the Ohio State Department of Education. Sparks, S., Ford, B. Questions? A., Lockwood, R., Allen, A. Thesis York? (1991).

Cultural diversity in research uk, Ohio : Critical issues and implications for dissertation york special education service. Deniable Darwin Other Essays? Case In-Point . Ford, B. A., Jones, C. (1990). Dissertation Thesis York University? Development of a class ethnic feelings book by students with developmental handicaps. Buy A Research Paper Uk? Teaching Exceptional Children , 22 (4), 36-39. Crutcher, B., Ford, B. Dissertation York University? A., Comeaux, C. Deniable Essays? (1985, November). Common expectations for field experiences for pre-service teachers . A position paper included in a publication by the Tennessee Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Nashville , Tennessee . Ford, B. A. (1985-87). Educational staff writer for Community Focus news­paper, Jackson , Tennessee . Hine, D. C., Bidelman, P. K., Ford, B. A. (1984). The invisible woman.

History News , 39 (2), 6-11. GRANTS AND RESEARCH PROJECTS. Ford, B. A. Chapple, J. (2001). Perceptions of dissertation thesis, administrators in Ohio and the delivery of special education services from a multicutural context . A collaborative mail survey. On Being Cripple Nancy? Ford, B.A., Gillins, S., Welch, C., Agble, P.(2002). Examining district-wide pre-referral/intervention practices. A collaborative research project funded by Akron Public Schools and york Elementary and Middle Schools Technical Assistance Center . Lockwood, R., Ford, B. Buy A Paper Uk? A., Sparks , S. (1992-1994). National and state evaluation of thesis york, Cultural Differences?

Diversity! A teacher in-service training program. Research project funded by the Ohio State Department of Education--Division of Special Education. Ford, B. A. (1991). Special education administrators: Perceptions about multicultural in-service training. Research project funded by the Ohio Department of compare and contrast essay, Education--Division of Special Education.

Ford, B. A., McLittle-Marino, D. (1990). Project well-being: Community based activities to dissertation thesis york university prevent adolescent pregnancies and to promotional educational motivation among African American youth. A research project funded by the Ohio Board of Regents--Urban Research. Ford, B. A. Flowers, M. A. Essay Questions On Homelessness? (1989). An evaluation of a comprehensive adoles­cent pregnancy program: The Teenage Parent Center of Akron , Ohio . A research project funded by the Ohio Board of Regents-- Urban University Program. Ford, B. A. (2004). Culturally responsive school-community Partnership: maximizing educational outcomes for African American students . Ohio Alliance of Black School Educators Annual Conference, Akron , Ohio , May 1, 2004 . Ford, B. A. (2004). 50 th years after the Brown Decision: Promises and realties. Presentation at the University of Akron , School of Law , Symposium, 50 th Anniversary of Brown v. York? Board of Education, April 2004. Ford, B.A., Broadway, F., Li, H. Queener, J., Wallace, J. (2003). Multicultural Praxis in teacher education: Promise and predicament . American Council on American.

Atlanta , GA. , October 24, 2003 . Ford, B.A., Gillins, S., Agble, P. (2003). Effective district-wide pre-referral/intervention practices: An essential for on homelessness impacting disproportionate representation. Presentation at thesis york university the Special Education Regional Resource Center Disproportionality Conference, Atlanta , GA. , April, 2003. Ford, B. A. Chapple, J.W. (2002). Deniable Darwin Other Essays? Delivering quality Special Education Services to culturally diverse exceptional students: Considerations for administrators . Presentation at the annual conference Council for Administrators of Special Education, Pittsburgh, PA, November, 14, 2002. Ford, B. A. University? (2002). Reaction paper to the National Academy of Science Report (Minority Students in Special Education ). Presentation at the OSEP Leadership and Research Project Directors’ conference, Arlington , VA. Graphic Organizer? , July 11, 2002 . Ford, B.A. (2002). Effective models for school-community collaborations with culturally diverse communities. Online Chat sponsored by Elementary and thesis Middle Schools Technical Assistance Center (EMSTAC), March, 2002.

Ford, B. On Being Cripple Mairs? A. (2001). Connecting with Significant Community Resources: Assets for informing instruction for CLD learners . Presentation at the 4 th annual conference of the dissertation thesis university Maryland Department of Education, Baltimore , MD. Ford, B. A. (Workshop Leader), (October, 2000). Writing for publication. A three hour workshop presented at the Council for Exceptional Children Symposium, Albuquerque , N.M.

Ford, B. Questions On Homelessness? A. (April, 2000). Multiple Voices: Strategies for writing for thesis publication . A Poster session presented at the World Congress Special Education Convention. Vancouver , British Columbia , Canada . Trent, S. C., Artiles, A., Obiakor, F., Ford, B.A. (April, 2000). Critical factors in curriculum and instruction for minority youth with disabilities . Vancouver , British Columbia , Canada . Essay Graphic? Ford, B.A., Trent , S.C. (Co-Strand Leaders). (1999, April). Multicultural education models for tomorrow’s inclusive environments: implications for research, school, and community practices. A Topical Strand presented at the National Association of the Council for dissertation Exceptional Children Convention, Charlotte , North Carolina. Ford, B. Hildreth, B. (November, 1998). Organizer? Optimum high school transition programming for african-american students with learning disabilities . A paper presented at the Council for thesis york Exceptional Children Symposium on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners, Washington , DC . Ford, B. A., Byrd, H. B. Essays? Misaka, J. (1997, April).

Contributions of culturally and linguistically diverse ethnic groups to changing paradigms in special education. A paper presented at the annual Council for Exceptional Children Convention, Salt Lake City Utah . Ford, B. A. (1997, March). Effective special education service delivery: Multicultural essentials. Dissertation Thesis? A workshop presented to darwin other The Ohio Council for Administrators of Special Educators at university the Leadership Conference, Columbus , Ohio . Ford, B. A. (1997, January) Establishing authentic school/community collaborations in culturally diverse communities. A presentation at The Council for Exceptional Children Multicultural Symposium, New Orleans , LA. Ford, B. A. (1996, April). Essays? Principles for thesis york establishing and maintaining authentic “school-community” networks within the African American community.

A presentation at the annual Council for Exceptional Children Convention, Orlando , Florida . Ford, B. A. (1995, March). Connecting with significant community resources. A workshop/in-service training program presented to the Akron Public School HeadStart Staff, Akron , Ohio . Ford, B. A. (1995, November). Questions? Teaching multicultural exceptional learners with a smile! A presentation at thesis university the Illinois Council for Exceptional Children annual Convention, Arlington Heights , Illinois . Ford, B. A. (1995, November). Putting joy back into teaching and learning. A workshop/in-service training program conducted at the Nancy B. Jefferson Alternative School , Chicago Public School System, Chicago , IL . Ford, B. Graphic? A. (1995, November). Teaching multicultural exceptional learners with a smile! A Strand presented at the Illinois Council For Exceptional Children Annual Convention. Arlington Heights , Illinois . Ford, B. A. (1995, July).

Human relations framework for university collaboration . An in-service program conducted for Project Prepare-The Early Childhood Special Education Leadership Institute. Essay? Cleveland , Ohio . Ford, B. A., Obiakor, F. E. (Co-Strand Leaders). Dissertation Thesis York? (1995, April). 25 years later: Where are we in educating African-American exceptional youth. Questions? A Topical Strand presented at the National Association of the Council for Exceptional Children Convention, Indianapolis , IN. Ford, B. A. (1994, November). Preparing school personnel to york establish productive school community networks. A two day workshop presented at the Council for Exceptional Children Multicultural Symposium sponsored by the Division for published papers in english Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners. Thesis York University? San Diego , CA . Ford, B. A. And Contrast Essay Ideas College? (1994, April). Educating African-American exceptional learners: Collaboration and consultation with African-American parents and community . A paper presented at the National Association of the Council for university Exceptional Children Convention, Denver , Colorado . Ford, B. A., Lockwood, R., Sparks , S. (1993, July). Part II - Multicultural education: An interdisciplinary approach to the training of trainers workshop . A two-day workshop conducted for regular and special education personnel, social agencies and other organizations working with youth with disabilities (and families).

Columbus , Ohio . Ford, B. A. (1993). The role of the special educator in organizer, community initiated programming for dissertation york African-American youth . A paper presented at the National Association of the Council for Exceptional Children Convention, San Antonio , Texas . Ford, B. A. Paper Uk? (1992, November). Dissertation York? Effective educational services for papers African-American exceptional- learners . Thesis York University? A paper presented as part of a panel discussion at the Council for Exceptional Children Topical Conference on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Children Conference, Minneapolis , Minnesota . Lockwood, R., Ford, B. A. Essay On Homelessness? (1992, November). Analysis/summary of the 1991 Culture: Differences? Diversity! project . A paper presented at the 1992 Council for Exceptional Children Topical Conference on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Children, Minneapolis , Minnesota . Ford, B. A. (1992, October).

How children learn: A workshop on thesis learning styles . An in-service training program conducted for compare ideas college educators and administrators, at dissertation thesis york the Hudson School District , Hudson , Ohio . Ford, B. A., Lockwood, R., Sparks , S. Essay Graphic? (1992, June). A multicultural perspective: A training of trainers workshop . A two-day workshop conducted for regular and special education administrators from the states of Ohio and Michigan , Central Ohio Regional Resource Center , Columbus , Ohio . Ford, B. A. Dissertation? (1992). Effective integration of African-American learners with disabilities in community educational programs . A paper presented as part of a STRAND, Educating African-American Special Students: What is and What is Not, at the 1992 National Association of the Council for Exceptional Children Conference, Baltimore , Maryland . Lockwood, R., Ford, B. A., Sparks , S., Allen, A. (1992). Essay Questions On Homelessness? Culture differences? Diversity! A leadership workshop sponsored by the Executive Committee of the Council for Exceptional Children at the 1992 National CEC Conference, Baltimore, Maryland. Dissertation Thesis? Ford, B. A. (1991, November).

Project Well-Being: Community based activities to enhance educational motivation and positive decision-making . Darwin Other Essays? A paper presented at the CEC Topical Conference on At-Risk Children and Youth, New Orleans , Louisiana . Ford, B. A., Lockwood, R., Sparks , S., Allen, A. York? (1991). A multicultural in-service/ pre-service packet for special educators . A workshop presented at the National Association of the Council for Exceptional Children Confer­ence, Atlanta , Georgia . Questions? Lockwood, R., Ford, B. A., Sparks , S., Allen, A. (1991). Promoting ethnic/ multicultural programs: Best practices . A leadership workshop sponsored by the Council for Exceptional Children at the National/International Convention in Atlanta , Georgia . Ford, B. A. (1990). Cultural diversity in Ohio . A paper presented at the 68th Annual Meeting of the National Association of the Council for Exceptional Children Conference, Toronto , Canada . Ford, B. Thesis University? A. Buy A? (1990). Dissertation Thesis York? Communicating effectively with culturally and linguisti­cally diverse parents . Chaired session and led discussion at on being cripple mairs the annual confer­ence of the Ohio Federation Council for Exceptional Children, Cleveland , Ohio . Ford, B. A. (1989). The effectiveness of special educational services for dissertation york African- American students in Ohio . A paper presented at the Ohio Federation Council for Exceptional Children, Dayton , Ohio . Ford, B. A. (1989). Promoting involvement of African-American parents within the school system . A workshop presented at buy a a community-based program sponsored by Hills Temple Church , Akron , Ohio . Ford, B. A. (1988). Planning a functional IEP for black moderately develop­mentally handicapped students . A paper presented at the Ohio Federation of the dissertation thesis Council for other Exceptional Children Conference, Toledo , Ohio . Ford, B. A. (1988). Minority issues: A progress report on york African-American students in Ohio . Essay? A paper presented as part of university, a panel discussion at the Ohio Federation of the graphic organizer Council for Exceptional Children Conference, Toledo , Ohio . Ford, B. A. (1987). Developing a multicultural orientation to parental inter­actions and individualized programming . Thesis York University? A workshop presented to personnel (teachers and administrators-) at the Children's Developmental Center , Jackson , Tennessee . Published Research Papers In English Literature? Ford, B. A. York? Belew, B. (1986).

Cultural information needed in the development of a functional curriculum for black moderately handicapped students . A paper presented at the Council for Exceptional Children Symposia on Ethnic and Multicultural Concerns, Dallas , Texas . And Contrast Ideas College? Ford, B. A. (1985). Cultural diversity and educational programming . A paper presented at the Lambuth University Faculty and Community Forum, Jackson , Tennessee . Ford, B. A. (1985). Cultural considerations to enhance educational program­ming . A two-day workshop for special education and regular education teachers in the local education systems, Jackson , Tennessee . Ford, B. A. (1985). Member of a faculty team presenting a workshop on grantsmanship, Lambuth University . Ford, B. Dissertation York? A. (1984). Culture and classroom behavior . Cripple Nancy? A paper presented at the Twelfth Plains International Reading Association Regional Conference, St. Louis , Missouri . Ford, B. A. Dissertation York? (1984). Culturally influenced behavior: Implications for teachers . Essay Graphic? A paper presented at the Tenth Southeastern International Reading Associa­tion Regional Conference, Lexington , Kentucky . Ford, B. A. (1984). The use of black folklore in thesis york university, language arts . A workshop presented at the Second Annual Workshop on Reading and Language Arts, Lambuth College , Jackson , Tennessee . Gay, G., Ford, B. A. (1982). Cultural sensitivities essential for qualitative special education . A paper presented at the Seventh Annual Blumberg Confer­ence, Indiana State University . OTHER EDUCATIONAL AND COMMUNITY RELATED ACTIVITIES.

Executive Committee Member of the International Council For Exceptional Children (CEC) (1995-1998) Field Reader Roster for Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, United States Department of essay organizer, Education, Washington , DC . Thesis York University? (1991-present) Ohio Public School Collaborative Networks: Akron Public Schools, Bedford School District , Cloverleaf School District , and Akron/HeadStart Programs. National Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Subcommittee on Knowledge and Skills (1992-94). Consortium member of the Ounce of Prevention Services, Inc., Akron , Ohio (1992-1994). Deniable Darwin? Responsibilities include planning and conducting teen retreats, developing manuals delineating services and programming appropriate for teens at-risk for pregnancy and school drop-out. Keynote speaker at the 1991 National Council of Negro Women, Akron Chapter, Annual Awards Banquet, Akron , Ohio . Expert witness concerning four-tier diploma system (February, 1991, State Senate). Presentation requested by dissertation university, Family Services of Akron, Ohio, concerning the results of the compare ideas college Teenage Parent Center of Akron research project funded by The Ohio Board of thesis, Regents (1990). Panel member: Grant proposals submitted to the Ohio Department of Health, Division of Maternal and deniable essays Child Health, Early Intervention Unit (1989-1990), services for university minority populations. Member of the Executive Committee of the Ohio Federation of the on being cripple nancy Council for Exceptional Children Member of the Ohio Federation of the Council for Exceptional Children, Ethnic/ Multicultural Concerns Committee State Advisor to the Ohio Association of the Student Council for Exceptional Children (1990-91) Faculty Advisor to the Student Council for dissertation university Exceptional Children, University of ideas college, Akron Chapter (1988-present) Board of Trustees, Big Brothers and Sisters of Greater Akron, Inc. (1989-92) University of thesis university, Akron representative on the Inter-University Council - Gifted/Talented Committee University of Akron , College of Education , Curriculum Writing Committee for Project 21 program Member of Content-Determination Panel for darwin other the Content Mastery Examinations for Educators in Special Education Youth Motivation Task Force, Akron Public School System/private industry program Member of North Central Association Team, Cloverleaf Senior High School , March 7-9, 1988 . Ford, B. (1984). Member of the Tennessee Evaluation Team for the National Teacher's Examination; Specialty Area of Mental Retardation. Ford, B. (1984).

Member of the dissertation university Tennessee Evaluation Team for the Pre-profes­sional skills Test for Pre-service Teachers. Member, Learning Disabilities Project Committee, Lambuth University Jackson , Tennessee . Board of Directors, Wo/Men Rape and Assistance Program, Jackson , Tennessee (1985-87) Chair, Teenage Pregnancy Workshop, Jackson , Tennessee (1986), sponsored by Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. Ohio Special Education Administrator Certificate Ohio Teaching Certification: Speech and Language Impaired Illinois Director of Special Education License Illinois Teaching Certificate, Mental Retardation Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech Pathology Chicago Board of Education Teaching Certificate Illinois Teaching Certificate, Special Area (K-12) PathWise Level I Training. Executive Committee Member of the International Council For Exceptional Children (CEC) (1995-1998) Division for Learning Disabilities (CEC) Teacher Education Division ( CEC) Executive Committee Member of the Division for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners (DDEL-CEC) National Black Caucus of Special Educators ( CEC) Ohio Federation of the Council for Exceptional Children Ethnic/Multicultural Concerns Committee Phi Delta Kappa, (past membership) 2004 Akron Black Women’s Leadership Caucus 1998 Award from CEC/DDEL for essay ideas college Congressional lobbying efforts to dissertation thesis seek broad based support for investigating issues related to disproportionate representation–(CEC/DDEL) 1994 University of nancy mairs essay, Akron , College of Education Award for Excellence in Teaching. 1994 University of Akron , Office of york, Minority Student Retention recognition for service award. Compare And Contrast Essay Ideas College? National Black Caucus of Special Educators of the CEC (1995 1994).

Special recognition for thesis university professional contributions relative to African-American youth at national level. Ohio Board of paper, Regents (1992). Recognition for cultural diversity workshop conducted for school personnel in the State of Ohio and Michigan . The 1991 Black Cultural Faculty Award recipient. Sponsored by The University of Akron , Black Cultural Center. Susan Gorin Certificate of Appreciation Award for dissertation thesis york university contributions as a State and Faculty Advisor. (1991). Sponsored by Interna­tional Student Council for Exceptional Children Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. for work with youth, Jackson , Tennessee . Purdue Doctorate Fellowship. (1979). Awarded by other essays, Purdue University , Lafayette , Indiana . Whose Positions on the Academy's Board Has Been Preserved. for Honorific and Consultative Purposes. A co-founder, resigned as Governor in 2000; however, the Academy continues to honor her as one of its founders. Address: 622 McKinley Avenue, Akron, Ohio 44311. Mrs.

Calhoun is the inspirational leader of the Ida B. Wells Community Academy and serves in conjunction with Dr. Edward W. Crosby as a co-principal developer and administrator. She is a native of Sylacauga, Alabama and is married to Ira Joey Calhoun, Jr. They have resided in Akron for most of their lives and have two daughters and four grandsons. For 28 years, Mrs. Calhoun worked at Akron City Hospital as a Licensed Practical Nurse, during which time she developed her lifelong ambition to serve her people and humanity in general.

She received The Beautification Award from Keep Akron Beautiful in 1995, The Catholic Commission's Certificate of Recognition for Exceptional Work for Peace and Social Justice, November 23, 1993; Award to thesis an Outstanding Community Activist presented by buy a, the African American Cultural Festival and Parade Committee, July 10, 1993; and The Martin Luther King. Jr., FESTAC Institute Certificate of dissertation university, Appreciation, November 30, 1987. As a life member of the research in english NAACP, she has been working diligently over a period of thesis york university, years to and contrast essay increase the membership rolls of this very important community organization. She has served as a Girl Scout Leader at Trinity Lutheran Church. Her hobbies include reading and traveling. She has traveled to Egypt, Israel, Greece, Liberia, Senegal, the Ivory Coast in West Africa, Brazil, Mexico, and various parts of the United States. Never one to forego learning opportunities, Mrs. Calhoun attended the dissertation york University of buy a paper, Akron studying among other things courses in the African American history and culture under the tutorship of thesis university, Professor Neal Holmes. She along with Professor Holmes and a committee worked diligently and with success to have an African American history course taught in the Akron Public Schools.

This course is currently taught at Buchtel, North, East, Ellet, and Firestone High Schools. She is organizer presently working with a Akron Public Schools multi-cultural education committee to infuse African American history content into all grade levels — Kindergarten through 12 — in dissertation, the Akron Public Schools. Questions On Homelessness? In 1989 the thesis parents of school-aged students informed Mrs. Calhoun about the high rate of expulsions and suspensions in the Akron Public Schools. She requested and received data from the Board of essay, Education which demonstrated the accuracy of this assertion. At that time she served on dissertation york university the District's Suspension and Expulsion Committee. Simultaneous with this involvement, Mrs. Calhoun organized the Task Force for Quality Education was formed with the compare and contrast college assistance of Ms. Debra Calhoun, program coordinator, the American Friends Service Committee, Dr. Neal Holmes of the University of Akron, Mr. Ken McClenic, director, West Akron Neighborhood Development Corporation, and Mr.

Cazzell Smith, director, East Akron Community House. The Task Force for Quality Education has conducted a series of. Community Education Forums at the East Akron Community House, on a wide range of topics some of which are indicated below: Symposium: Suspensions and Expulsions of African American Children, September 26,1992; Parents Open Mouth Forum on Expulsions and Suspensions, November 19,1992; Open Discussion Regarding Suspended and Expelled Students, January 14, 1992; School Board Meeting, Task Force Members Present, Rankin Elementary School; March on dissertation university the Board of essay organizer, Education, Save Our Children, September 13,1993; Planning for Careers and College Workshops in collaboration with the University of Akron Educational Talent Search, Saturday, January 22, 1994; Knowledge is Power, Guest Speakers Dr. Edward W. Crosby and Dr. David Whitaker, Esq., Saturday, February 18,1995; Town Meeting One, A Public Discussion on the Humanities, Public Schools and Community Based Academic Programming. Guest Speaker Dr. Mwalimu Shujaa, SUNY at Buffalo, Saturday, December 2, 1995, Black Cultural Center, the University of Akron; The Basis for an African Centered Education, Guest Speaker Dr. Charles S. Finch III, MD, Morehouse University Medical School, Saturday, February 22, 1997, Black Cultural Center, the University of Akron; What Your Child Should Know by the Third Grade, Parent and Student Preparedness,Guest Speaker Mrs.

Myra Lewis Bolar, Educational Talent Search, Saturday, April 25,1998, the dissertation thesis university University of Akron; and buy a paper uk What to Look for in a Good Teacher, Guest Speakers Mrs. Denise Brown and thesis york university Dr. Ronald McClendon, Lawton Street Community Center. Health and Safety, Teacher-Staff Recruitment and Staff-Parent Training, Faculty Development Volunteers, Student Interns, Street Crossing Guards and deniable darwin essays Security, and dissertation university Food Service. Dean L. Seavers, MBA (resigned as Governor in 1999 after joining ADT in Miami, Florida, retained as Financial / Business Affairs Consultant) The following narrative resume was exerpted from a special edition of SimplexGrinnell's Newsletter distributed to its employees and the general republic. SimplexGrinnell is a subsidiary of Tyco International and is headquartered in Boca Raton, Florida.

In February 2004, Dean L. Seavers, after being with the company's major subsidiary ADT for approximately four very successful years as a regional vice president, was elevated to the presidency of SimplexGrinnell. Address: President, SimplexGrinnell. 7747 NW 48th Street, Bldg D, Suite 160, Boca Raton, Florida 33166-5407. 1985 - 1987 Graduate School of essay organizer, Business, Palo Alto, California , Master of Business Administration, Stanford University. Gamma Sigma, AICPA. Dean Seavers took over the reins of the presidency in early February and, from the start, expressed an interest in getting to know employees and working with them toward continued company growth.

We thought you would like to get to know Dean as well — his background, vision and york plans for the future. Therefore, this special issue of New Horizons was compiled to help introduce Dean to published research in english the entire SimplexGrinnell team. We hope you enjoy it. You'll be receiving your regular Spring issue later in March. New President — New Challenges. Asked about his personal commitment, Dean said, I try to model the behavior that we desire from all of our Team members so that employees understand my commitment to university our values. His background certainly reflects both success as well as commitment. After a management career that included Ford Motor Company, PepsiCo, and the presidency of a regional telecom company, Dean joined ADT as regional general manager for the State of Florida in 1999. He refers to it as a turnaround effort in that the organizer area was not doing well and required considerable reorganization.. It was a situation in which we all had to pull together as a team, he says.

We leveraged each other's strengths, recognizing the best among sales representatives, service technicians, and dissertation thesis a brand new regional management Team. I'm proud to say some of those team members went on to receive the Club Excellence Award (similar to President's Award), and a number of them ultimately were promoted to research literature be district managers and regional managers. Dean then assumed the vice presidency of operations in dissertation thesis york, the Southeast region, another turnaround effort, bringing it from cripple mairs a distant fifth place among all regions, to a first place during the first year of his leadership. Dean and Southeast Region Team repeated their first place finish 2 years in a row. A summa cum laude graduate of Kent State University with a degree in business administration, Dean received a Master of Business Administration from the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. tration or project management. Superior service execution is york university what separates SimplexGrinnell from the competition. Dean's vision for compare and contrast essay ideas college achieving success is relatively simple.

He looks for competitive people who want to dissertation win within the rules and who. believe in the Tyco values of integrity, excellence, team-work and accountability. If members of the leadership team are the deniable darwin only ones coming up with ideas, we're in dissertation thesis york, trouble; he says. It's the ideas and implementation from people in the field that can make a big difference.

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A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/. This document specifies a syntax created by subsetting an existing, widely used international text processing standard (Standard Generalized Markup Language, ISO 8879:1986(E) as amended and corrected) for use on on homelessness the World Wide Web. It is a product of the XML Core Working Group as part of the XML Activity. The English version of this specification is the only normative version. However, for translations of this document, see http://www.w3.org/2003/03/Translations/byTechnology?technology=xml. This document is a W3C Recommendation. This fifth edition is not a new version of thesis university, XML. As a convenience to readers, it incorporates the changes dictated by the accumulated errata (available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-4e-errata) to the Fourth Edition of deniable, XML 1.0, dated 16 August 2006. York University. In particular, erratum [E09] relaxes the restrictions on element and attribute names, thereby providing in XML 1.0 the published papers in english literature, major end user benefit currently achievable only by using XML 1.1.

As a consequence, many possible documents which were not well-formed according to previous editions of this specification are now well-formed, and previously invalid documents using the newly-allowed name characters in, for example, ID attributes, are now valid. Please report errors in this document to the public xml-editor@w3.org mail list; public archives are available. For the dissertation york university, convenience of readers, an XHTML version with color-coded revision indicators is also provided; this version highlights each change due to an erratum published in the errata list for the previous edition, together with a link to the particular erratum in that list. Most of the errata in the list provide a rationale for paper the change. The errata list for this fifth edition is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-5e-errata. An implementation report is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/2008/01/xml10-5e-implementation.html.

A Test Suite is maintained to help assessing conformance to this specification. This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by university, software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is endorsed by and contrast college, the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited from another document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to dissertation thesis york draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and interoperability of the on homelessness, Web. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy. Extensible Markup Language, abbreviated XML, describes a class of data objects called XML documents and partially describes the behavior of computer programs which process them. XML is an application profile or restricted form of dissertation thesis york, SGML, the Standard Generalized Markup Language [ISO 8879].

By construction, XML documents are conforming SGML documents. XML documents are made up of storage units called entities, which contain either parsed or unparsed data. Parsed data is made up of characters, some of published papers in english, which form character data, and some of which form markup. Markup encodes a description of the document's storage layout and dissertation thesis york, logical structure. XML provides a mechanism to impose constraints on the storage layout and research paper, logical structure. [Definition: A software module called an XML processor is used to read XML documents and provide access to their content and structure.] [Definition: It is assumed that an XML processor is doing its work on behalf of another module, called the dissertation thesis york university, application .] This specification describes the required behavior of an XML processor in terms of how it must read XML data and the information it must provide to on being cripple nancy mairs the application. XML was developed by an XML Working Group (originally known as the york, SGML Editorial Review Board) formed under the auspices of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1996. It was chaired by Jon Bosak of deniable other, Sun Microsystems with the active participation of an dissertation thesis university XML Special Interest Group (previously known as the SGML Working Group) also organized by the W3C. On Being Cripple Mairs Essay. The membership of the thesis, XML Working Group is given in an appendix. Dan Connolly served as the Working Group's contact with the W3C.

The design goals for XML are: XML shall be straightforwardly usable over deniable other essays, the Internet. XML shall support a wide variety of applications. XML shall be compatible with SGML. It shall be easy to university write programs which process XML documents. The number of research paper, optional features in thesis, XML is to be kept to the absolute minimum, ideally zero. XML documents should be human-legible and reasonably clear. The XML design should be prepared quickly.

The design of research, XML shall be formal and concise. XML documents shall be easy to create. Terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance. This specification, together with associated standards (Unicode [Unicode] and university, ISO/IEC 10646 [ISO/IEC 10646] for characters, Internet BCP 47 [IETF BCP 47] and the Language Subtag Registry [IANA-LANGCODES] for buy a research paper uk language identification tags), provides all the information necessary to understand XML Version 1.0 and construct computer programs to process it. This version of the XML specification may be distributed freely, as long as all text and legal notices remain intact. The terminology used to describe XML documents is dissertation thesis york defined in the body of this specification. The key words MUST , MUST NOT , REQUIRED , SHALL , SHALL NOT , SHOULD , SHOULD NOT , RECOMMENDED , MAY , and OPTIONAL , when EMPHASIZED , are to be interpreted as described in [IETF RFC 2119]. Research Paper Uk. In addition, the terms defined in the following list are used in building those definitions and in dissertation thesis york, describing the essay, actions of an XML processor: [Definition: A violation of the rules of this specification; results are undefined. Unless otherwise specified, failure to observe a prescription of this specification indicated by one of the keywords MUST , REQUIRED , MUST NOT , SHALL and SHALL NOT is an error. Conforming software MAY detect and thesis university, report an error and MAY recover from it.] [Definition: An error which a conforming XML processor MUST detect and report to the application. After encountering a fatal error, the processor MAY continue processing the and contrast, data to search for further errors and dissertation, MAY report such errors to the application.

In order to support correction of errors, the published, processor MAY make unprocessed data from the document (with intermingled character data and markup) available to the application. Once a fatal error is dissertation thesis york university detected, however, the processor MUST NOT continue normal processing (i.e., it MUST NOT continue to pass character data and information about the document's logical structure to the application in the normal way).] [Definition: Conforming software MAY or MUST (depending on the modal verb in the sentence) behave as described; if it does, it MUST provide users a means to research paper uk enable or disable the behavior described.] [Definition: A rule which applies to all valid XML documents. Dissertation Thesis. Violations of validity constraints are errors; they MUST , at user option, be reported by validating XML processors.] [Definition: A rule which applies to all well-formed XML documents. Violations of well-formedness constraints are fatal errors.] [Definition: (Of strings or names:) Two strings or names being compared are identical. Essay Questions. Characters with multiple possible representations in ISO/IEC 10646 (e.g. characters with both precomposed and base+diacritic forms) match only if they have the york university, same representation in both strings. No case folding is performed. (Of strings and rules in the grammar:) A string matches a grammatical production if it belongs to the language generated by that production. (Of content and content models:) An element matches its declaration when it conforms in essay ideas college, the fashion described in the constraint [VC: Element Valid] .] [Definition: Marks a sentence describing a feature of XML included solely to thesis york ensure that XML remains compatible with SGML.] [Definition: Marks a sentence describing a non-binding recommendation included to increase the chances that XML documents can be processed by the existing installed base of SGML processors which predate the WebSGML Adaptations Annex to ISO 8879.] [Definition: A data object is an XML document if it is well-formed, as defined in this specification.

In addition, the XML document is valid if it meets certain further constraints.] Each XML document has both a logical and essay, a physical structure. Thesis. Physically, the document is graphic composed of units called entities. An entity may refer to other entities to cause their inclusion in the document. A document begins in a root or document entity. Logically, the document is dissertation thesis university composed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions, all of college, which are indicated in the document by explicit markup. Thesis York. The logical and physical structures MUST nest properly, as described in 4.3.2 Well-Formed Parsed Entities . [Definition: A textual object is a well-formed XML document if:]

Taken as a whole, it matches the production labeled document. It meets all the well-formedness constraints given in this specification. Each of the parsed entities which is research referenced directly or indirectly within the document is thesis well-formed. Matching the and contrast ideas, document production implies that: It contains one or more elements. [Definition: There is exactly one element, called the root , or document element, no part of which appears in thesis university, the content of any other element.] For all other elements, if the start-tag is in the content of another element, the end-tag is in the content of the compare ideas college, same element. Dissertation York University. More simply stated, the elements, delimited by start- and end-tags, nest properly within each other. [Definition: As a consequence of this, for each non-root element C in the document, there is one other element P in the document such that C is in the content of P , but is papers literature not in dissertation thesis university, the content of any other element that is in the content of P . Research Papers. P is referred to thesis york university as the parent of C , and C as a child of P .] [Definition: A parsed entity contains text , a sequence of characters, which may represent markup or character data.] [Definition: A character is an atomic unit of text as specified by ISO/IEC 10646:2000 [ISO/IEC 10646]. Essay Graphic Organizer. Legal characters are tab, carriage return, line feed, and the legal characters of Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646. The versions of york, these standards cited in A.1 Normative References were current at the time this document was prepared.

New characters may be added to these standards by amendments or new editions. Consequently, XML processors MUST accept any character in the range specified for Char. ] The mechanism for encoding character code points into bit patterns may vary from entity to entity. All XML processors MUST accept the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings of Unicode [Unicode] ; the compare essay ideas college, mechanisms for signaling which of the two is in use, or for bringing other encodings into play, are discussed later, in thesis york, 4.3.3 Character Encoding in cripple nancy mairs, Entities . Document authors are encouraged to avoid compatibility characters, as defined in section 2.3 of dissertation, [Unicode]. The characters defined in the following ranges are also discouraged. They are either control characters or permanently undefined Unicode characters: This section defines some symbols used widely in the grammar. S (white space) consists of one or more space (#x20) characters, carriage returns, line feeds, or tabs. The presence of #xD in other, the above production is maintained purely for dissertation thesis university backward compatibility with the First Edition. As explained in 2.11 End-of-Line Handling , all #xD characters literally present in an XML document are either removed or replaced by #xA characters before any other processing is done. The only deniable darwin other essays, way to get a #xD character to match this production is to use a character reference in an entity value literal. An Nmtoken (name token) is any mixture of york, name characters.

[Definition: A Name is an and contrast Nmtoken with a restricted set of initial characters.] Disallowed initial characters for Names include digits, diacritics, the full stop and the hyphen. Names beginning with the string xml , or with any string which would match (('X'|'x') ('M'|'m') ('L'|'l')) , are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. The Namespaces in XML Recommendation [XML Names] assigns a meaning to university names containing colon characters. Essay Graphic. Therefore, authors should not use the colon in XML names except for namespace purposes, but XML processors must accept the colon as a name character. The first character of a Name MUST be a NameStartChar, and thesis university, any other characters MUST be NameChars; this mechanism is and contrast essay used to thesis york university prevent names from beginning with European (ASCII) digits or with basic combining characters. Almost all characters are permitted in names, except those which either are or reasonably could be used as delimiters. The intention is to be inclusive rather than exclusive, so that writing systems not yet encoded in Unicode can be used in XML names. See J Suggestions for XML Names for suggestions on the creation of names.

Document authors are encouraged to use names which are meaningful words or combinations of words in natural languages, and to avoid symbolic or white space characters in names. Note that COLON, HYPHEN-MINUS, FULL STOP (period), LOW LINE (underscore), and MIDDLE DOT are explicitly permitted. The ASCII symbols and punctuation marks, along with a fairly large group of Unicode symbol characters, are excluded from deniable essays names because they are more useful as delimiters in contexts where XML names are used outside XML documents; providing this group gives those contexts hard guarantees about what cannot be part of an XML name. The character #x037E, GREEK QUESTION MARK, is excluded because when normalized it becomes a semicolon, which could change the meaning of entity references. The Names and Nmtokens productions are used to dissertation thesis york university define the validity of other essays, tokenized attribute values after normalization (see 3.3.1 Attribute Types ).

Literal data is dissertation thesis any quoted string not containing the essay, quotation mark used as a delimiter for that string. Literals are used for specifying the content of internal entities (EntityValue), the dissertation, values of attributes (AttValue), and external identifiers (SystemLiteral). Nancy Essay. Note that a SystemLiteral can be parsed without scanning for york university markup. Although the EntityValue production allows the graphic organizer, definition of a general entity consisting of a single explicit in the literal (e.g., !ENTITY mylt ), it is strongly advised to avoid this practice since any reference to that entity will cause a well-formedness error. [Definition: All text that is not markup constitutes the character data of the thesis, document.] The ampersand character () and essay, the left angle bracket () MUST NOT appear in their literal form, except when used as markup delimiters, or within a comment, a processing instruction, or a CDATA section. Dissertation York. If they are needed elsewhere, they MUST be escaped using either numeric character references or the strings amp; and lt; respectively. The right angle bracket () may be represented using the string gt; , and essay ideas, MUST , for compatibility, be escaped using either gt; or a character reference when it appears in the string ]] in content, when that string is not marking the end of a CDATA section. In the content of elements, character data is any string of characters which does not contain the start-delimiter of any markup and does not include the thesis, CDATA-section-close delimiter, ]] . In a CDATA section, character data is any string of characters not including the CDATA-section-close delimiter, ]] . To allow attribute values to contain both single and double quotes, the apostrophe or single-quote character (') may be represented as apos; , and the double-quote character () as quot; . [Definition: Comments may appear anywhere in a document outside other markup; in addition, they may appear within the document type declaration at places allowed by the grammar.

They are not part of the graphic, document's character data; an XML processor MAY , but need not, make it possible for an application to dissertation york university retrieve the text of comments. Research. For compatibility, the string -- (double-hyphen) MUST NOT occur within comments.] Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized within comments. An example of thesis york, a comment: Note that the grammar does not allow a comment ending in --- . The following example is not well-formed. [Definition: Processing instructions (PIs) allow documents to contain instructions for applications.]

PIs are not part of the document's character data, but MUST be passed through to the application. The PI begins with a target (PITarget) used to identify the application to which the instruction is directed. The target names XML , xml , and so on are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. The XML Notation mechanism may be used for paper formal declaration of PI targets. Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized within processing instructions. [Definition: CDATA sections may occur anywhere character data may occur; they are used to escape blocks of text containing characters which would otherwise be recognized as markup. Thesis University. CDATA sections begin with the string ![CDATA[ and buy a research paper uk, end with the string ]] :] Within a CDATA section, only the CDEnd string is recognized as markup, so that left angle brackets and ampersands may occur in their literal form; they need not (and cannot) be escaped using lt; and amp; . CDATA sections cannot nest. An example of a CDATA section, in which greeting and /greeting are recognized as character data, not markup: 2.8 Prolog and dissertation thesis york, Document Type Declaration. [Definition: XML documents SHOULD begin with an XML declaration which specifies the version of XML being used.] For example, the following is a complete XML document, well-formed but not valid:

The function of the markup in an XML document is to describe its storage and logical structure and to associate attribute name-value pairs with its logical structures. Papers. XML provides a mechanism, the dissertation university, document type declaration, to in english literature define constraints on thesis the logical structure and to support the use of predefined storage units. [Definition: An XML document is published research papers in english valid if it has an associated document type declaration and if the york, document complies with the constraints expressed in essay graphic organizer, it.] The document type declaration MUST appear before the first element in the document. Even though the VersionNum production matches any version number of the dissertation thesis university, form '1.x', XML 1.0 documents SHOULD NOT specify a version number other than '1.0'. When an XML 1.0 processor encounters a document that specifies a 1.x version number other than '1.0', it will process it as a 1.0 document. This means that an XML 1.0 processor will accept 1.x documents provided they do not use any non-1.0 features. [Definition: The XML document type declaration contains or points to markup declarations that provide a grammar for a class of documents. This grammar is known as a document type definition, or DTD . The document type declaration can point to an external subset (a special kind of external entity) containing markup declarations, or can contain the markup declarations directly in an internal subset, or can do both.

The DTD for a document consists of both subsets taken together.] [Definition: A markup declaration is an other element type declaration, an dissertation university attribute-list declaration, an entity declaration, or a notation declaration.] These declarations may be contained in essay graphic, whole or in part within parameter entities, as described in york university, the well-formedness and validity constraints below. For further information, see 4 Physical Structures . Note that it is uk possible to construct a well-formed document containing a doctypedecl that neither points to an external subset nor contains an internal subset. The markup declarations may be made up in whole or in part of the replacement text of parameter entities. The productions later in this specification for individual nonterminals (elementdecl, AttlistDecl, and dissertation university, so on) describe the essay, declarations after all the parameter entities have been included. Parameter entity references are recognized anywhere in york, the DTD (internal and external subsets and external parameter entities), except in graphic, literals, processing instructions, comments, and the contents of ignored conditional sections (see 3.4 Conditional Sections ). They are also recognized in entity value literals. Dissertation Thesis York University. The use of parameter entities in the internal subset is papers literature restricted as described below. Validity constraint: Root Element Type. The Name in the document type declaration MUST match the element type of the root element. Validity constraint: Proper Declaration/PE Nesting.

Parameter-entity replacement text MUST be properly nested with markup declarations. That is to say, if either the thesis york, first character or the last character of a markup declaration (markupdecl above) is contained in the replacement text for a parameter-entity reference, both MUST be contained in buy a research, the same replacement text. Well-formedness constraint: PEs in Internal Subset. In the internal DTD subset, parameter-entity references MUST NOT occur within markup declarations; they may occur where markup declarations can occur. (This does not apply to dissertation thesis university references that occur in external parameter entities or to the external subset.) Well-formedness constraint: External Subset. The external subset, if any, MUST match the production for extSubset. Well-formedness constraint: PE Between Declarations. The replacement text of a parameter entity reference in essay questions on homelessness, a DeclSep MUST match the production extSubsetDecl. Like the internal subset, the external subset and any external parameter entities referenced in a DeclSep MUST consist of a series of complete markup declarations of the types allowed by the non-terminal symbol markupdecl, interspersed with white space or parameter-entity references. However, portions of the contents of the external subset or of dissertation thesis york, these external parameter entities may conditionally be ignored by using the conditional section construct; this is not allowed in the internal subset but is allowed in external parameter entities referenced in the internal subset. The external subset and external parameter entities also differ from the internal subset in that in and contrast ideas, them, parameter-entity references are permitted within markup declarations, not only york university, between markup declarations.

An example of an XML document with a document type declaration: The system identifier hello.dtd gives the buy a research paper uk, address (a URI reference) of a DTD for the document. The declarations can also be given locally, as in this example: If both the external and internal subsets are used, the internal subset MUST be considered to occur before the external subset. York University. This has the effect that entity and attribute-list declarations in the internal subset take precedence over those in the external subset.

2.9 Standalone Document Declaration. Markup declarations can affect the content of the document, as passed from an XML processor to an application; examples are attribute defaults and entity declarations. Mairs Essay. The standalone document declaration, which may appear as a component of the XML declaration, signals whether or not there are such declarations which appear external to the document entity or in parameter entities. Dissertation York University. [Definition: An external markup declaration is defined as a markup declaration occurring in the external subset or in a parameter entity (external or internal, the compare ideas, latter being included because non-validating processors are not required to read them).] In a standalone document declaration, the value yes indicates that there are no external markup declarations which affect the information passed from the XML processor to dissertation the application. The value no indicates that there are or may be such external markup declarations. Questions. Note that the standalone document declaration only dissertation york, denotes the presence of external declarations ; the presence, in a document, of references to external entities , when those entities are internally declared, does not change its standalone status. If there are no external markup declarations, the standalone document declaration has no meaning. If there are external markup declarations but there is no standalone document declaration, the value no is questions assumed. Any XML document for which standalone=no holds can be converted algorithmically to a standalone document, which may be desirable for some network delivery applications.

Validity constraint: Standalone Document Declaration. The standalone document declaration MUST have the dissertation, value no if any external markup declarations contain declarations of: attributes with default values, if elements to which these attributes apply appear in the document without specifications of values for these attributes, or. entities (other than amp , lt , gt , apos , quot ), if references to those entities appear in the document, or. attributes with tokenized types, where the attribute appears in the document with a value such that normalization will produce a different value from uk that which would be produced in the absence of the declaration, or. element types with element content, if white space occurs directly within any instance of those types. An example XML declaration with a standalone document declaration: In editing XML documents, it is york often convenient to use white space (spaces, tabs, and blank lines) to set apart the essay graphic, markup for greater readability.

Such white space is typically not intended for inclusion in the delivered version of the document. On the other hand, significant white space that should be preserved in dissertation thesis york, the delivered version is common, for example in poetry and source code. An XML processor MUST always pass all characters in a document that are not markup through to the application. A validating XML processor MUST also inform the application which of these characters constitute white space appearing in element content. A special attribute named xml:space may be attached to an element to signal an intention that in other essays, that element, white space should be preserved by applications. In valid documents, this attribute, like any other, MUST be declared if it is used. Dissertation Thesis York. When declared, it MUST be given as an paper uk enumerated type whose values are one or both of default and preserve. For example:

The value default signals that applications' default white-space processing modes are acceptable for thesis this element; the value preserve indicates the intent that applications preserve all the research, white space. This declared intent is considered to apply to all elements within the content of the york, element where it is specified, unless overridden with another instance of the xml:space attribute. This specification does not give meaning to any value of xml:space other than default and preserve. It is an essay organizer error for other values to be specified; the XML processor MAY report the error or MAY recover by dissertation university, ignoring the published papers in english, attribute specification or by reporting the (erroneous) value to the application. Applications may ignore or reject erroneous values. The root element of any document is thesis considered to have signaled no intentions as regards application space handling, unless it provides a value for this attribute or the attribute is declared with a default value.

XML parsed entities are often stored in computer files which, for editing convenience, are organized into lines. These lines are typically separated by some combination of the published, characters CARRIAGE RETURN (#xD) and LINE FEED (#xA). To simplify the tasks of applications, the XML processor MUST behave as if it normalized all line breaks in external parsed entities (including the document entity) on input, before parsing, by translating both the two-character sequence #xD #xA and any #xD that is not followed by #xA to a single #xA character. In document processing, it is often useful to identify the natural or formal language in which the dissertation thesis university, content is written. A special attribute named xml:lang may be inserted in documents to specify the language used in the contents and attribute values of graphic organizer, any element in an XML document. In valid documents, this attribute, like any other, MUST be declared if it is used. Dissertation Thesis York. The values of the essay, attribute are language identifiers as defined by [IETF BCP 47], Tags for the Identification of Languages ; in addition, the empty string may be specified. (Productions 33 through 38 have been removed.) The language specified by dissertation thesis university, xml:lang applies to on being nancy essay the element where it is specified (including the values of dissertation thesis york university, its attributes), and to all elements in its content unless overridden with another instance of xml:lang . In particular, the essay organizer, empty value of xml:lang is york used on essay questions on homelessness an element B to override a specification of xml:lang on an enclosing element A, without specifying another language. Within B, it is considered that there is no language information available, just as if xml:lang had not been specified on B or any of its ancestors.

Applications determine which of an element's attribute values and which parts of its character content, if any, are treated as language-dependent values described by xml:lang . Language information may also be provided by external transport protocols (e.g. HTTP or MIME). When available, this information may be used by XML applications, but the more local information provided by xml:lang should be considered to override it. A simple declaration for xml:lang might take the form. but specific default values may also be given, if appropriate. Dissertation Thesis University. In a collection of compare and contrast, French poems for dissertation york university English students, with glosses and notes in English, the compare ideas, xml:lang attribute might be declared this way: [Definition: Each XML document contains one or more elements , the boundaries of which are either delimited by start-tags and end-tags, or, for empty elements, by an empty-element tag. Each element has a type, identified by name, sometimes called its generic identifier (GI), and may have a set of attribute specifications.] Each attribute specification has a name and a value. This specification does not constrain the application semantics, use, or (beyond syntax) names of the element types and attributes, except that names beginning with a match to (('X'|'x')('M'|'m')('L'|'l')) are reserved for dissertation standardization in this or future versions of other essays, this specification. Well-formedness constraint: Element Type Match. The Name in an element's end-tag MUST match the thesis, element type in the start-tag.

Validity constraint: Element Valid. An element is valid if there is a declaration matching elementdecl where the essay, Name matches the dissertation thesis university, element type, and one of the following holds: The declaration matches EMPTY and the element has no content (not even entity references, comments, PIs or white space). The declaration matches children and the sequence of child elements belongs to the language generated by the regular expression in the content model, with optional white space, comments and PIs (i.e. markup matching production [27] Misc) between the start-tag and the first child element, between child elements, or between the last child element and the end-tag. Note that a CDATA section containing only white space or a reference to an entity whose replacement text is character references expanding to white space do not match the published research, nonterminal S, and hence cannot appear in york, these positions; however, a reference to an internal entity with a literal value consisting of organizer, character references expanding to white space does match S, since its replacement text is the white space resulting from expansion of the character references. The declaration matches Mixed, and dissertation thesis york, the content (after replacing any entity references with their replacement text) consists of character data (including CDATA sections), comments, PIs and essay ideas, child elements whose types match names in the content model. The declaration matches ANY , and the content (after replacing any entity references with their replacement text) consists of character data, CDATA sections, comments, PIs and child elements whose types have been declared. 3.1 Start-Tags, End-Tags, and Empty-Element Tags. [Definition: The beginning of york university, every non-empty XML element is marked by a start-tag .]

The Name in the start- and end-tags gives the element's type . On Homelessness. [Definition: The Name-AttValue pairs are referred to dissertation york as the buy a research uk, attribute specifications of the dissertation york university, element], [Definition: with the Name in each pair referred to organizer as the thesis, attribute name ] and uk, [Definition: the dissertation thesis york university, content of the AttValue (the text between the ' or delimiters) as the attribute value .] Note that the order of attribute specifications in a start-tag or empty-element tag is not significant. Well-formedness constraint: Unique Att Spec. An attribute name MUST NOT appear more than once in the same start-tag or empty-element tag. Validity constraint: Attribute Value Type. The attribute MUST have been declared; the value MUST be of the questions on homelessness, type declared for it. (For attribute types, see 3.3 Attribute-List Declarations .) Well-formedness constraint: No External Entity References. Attribute values MUST NOT contain direct or indirect entity references to external entities. Well-formedness constraint: No in dissertation york university, Attribute Values. The replacement text of any entity referred to directly or indirectly in an attribute value MUST NOT contain a . An example of a start-tag: [Definition: The end of every element that begins with a start-tag MUST be marked by an end-tag containing a name that echoes the element's type as given in the start-tag:] An example of an on being mairs essay end-tag: [Definition: The text between the start-tag and end-tag is called the element's content :] [Definition: An element with no content is said to thesis be empty .] The representation of an empty element is either a start-tag immediately followed by an end-tag, or an empty-element tag. Buy A Research Uk. [Definition: An empty-element tag takes a special form:]

Empty-element tags may be used for any element which has no content, whether or not it is declared using the keyword EMPTY . For interoperability, the dissertation thesis york university, empty-element tag SHOULD be used, and SHOULD only be used, for elements which are declared EMPTY. Examples of uk, empty elements: The element structure of an dissertation york university XML document may, for validation purposes, be constrained using element type and attribute-list declarations. An element type declaration constrains the element's content. Element type declarations often constrain which element types can appear as children of the element. On Being Essay. At user option, an XML processor MAY issue a warning when a declaration mentions an element type for which no declaration is provided, but this is not an dissertation error. [Definition: An element type declaration takes the form:] where the Name gives the element type being declared. Validity constraint: Unique Element Type Declaration. An element type MUST NOT be declared more than once.

Examples of essays, element type declarations: [Definition: An element type has element content when elements of that type MUST contain only child elements (no character data), optionally separated by white space (characters matching the nonterminal S).] [Definition: In this case, the constraint includes a content model , a simple grammar governing the dissertation york university, allowed types of the child elements and the order in which they are allowed to appear.] The grammar is built on essay content particles (cps), which consist of names, choice lists of dissertation york, content particles, or sequence lists of nancy essay, content particles: where each Name is the type of an element which may appear as a child. Any content particle in a choice list may appear in dissertation, the element content at the location where the choice list appears in buy a research uk, the grammar; content particles occurring in a sequence list MUST each appear in dissertation york university, the element content in the order given in the list. The optional character following a name or list governs whether the essay questions, element or the dissertation york, content particles in the list may occur one or more ( + ), zero or more ( * ), or zero or one times ( ? ). The absence of such an operator means that the element or content particle MUST appear exactly once. This syntax and meaning are identical to those used in the productions in this specification. The content of an element matches a content model if and only if it is possible to trace out a path through the published papers, content model, obeying the sequence, choice, and repetition operators and matching each element in the content against an element type in the content model. University. For compatibility, it is an error if the content model allows an element to match more than one occurrence of an element type in published research papers, the content model. Thesis. For more information, see E Deterministic Content Models . Validity constraint: Proper Group/PE Nesting. Parameter-entity replacement text MUST be properly nested with parenthesized groups.

That is to say, if either of the opening or closing parentheses in paper, a choice, seq, or Mixed construct is contained in the replacement text for thesis university a parameter entity, both MUST be contained in the same replacement text. For interoperability, if a parameter-entity reference appears in a choice, seq, or Mixed construct, its replacement text SHOULD contain at compare essay ideas college least one non-blank character, and neither the first nor last non-blank character of the replacement text SHOULD be a connector ( | or , ). Examples of element-content models: [Definition: An element type has mixed content when elements of that type may contain character data, optionally interspersed with child elements.] In this case, the types of the child elements may be constrained, but not their order or their number of occurrences: where the Names give the types of elements that may appear as children. The keyword #PCDATA derives historically from the term parsed character data. Validity constraint: No Duplicate Types. The same name MUST NOT appear more than once in a single mixed-content declaration. Examples of mixed content declarations: Attributes are used to associate name-value pairs with elements. Dissertation Thesis York. Attribute specifications MUST NOT appear outside of start-tags and empty-element tags; thus, the productions used to recognize them appear in 3.1 Start-Tags, End-Tags, and on being cripple mairs, Empty-Element Tags . Attribute-list declarations may be used:

To define the set of attributes pertaining to university a given element type. To establish type constraints for published research papers literature these attributes. To provide default values for dissertation thesis york university attributes. [Definition: Attribute-list declarations specify the name, data type, and default value (if any) of each attribute associated with a given element type:] The Name in buy a research paper uk, the AttlistDecl rule is the type of an element. At user option, an dissertation thesis XML processor MAY issue a warning if attributes are declared for an element type not itself declared, but this is compare essay college not an error. The Name in the AttDef rule is the dissertation york university, name of the other, attribute. When more than one AttlistDecl is provided for a given element type, the contents of all those provided are merged. When more than one definition is provided for the same attribute of a given element type, the first declaration is binding and later declarations are ignored. For interoperability, writers of DTDs may choose to provide at dissertation thesis most one attribute-list declaration for a given element type, at college most one attribute definition for a given attribute name in an attribute-list declaration, and at least one attribute definition in dissertation york university, each attribute-list declaration.

For interoperability, an XML processor MAY at on being cripple nancy user option issue a warning when more than one attribute-list declaration is provided for a given element type, or more than one attribute definition is provided for dissertation york a given attribute, but this is compare essay not an error. XML attribute types are of three kinds: a string type, a set of tokenized types, and enumerated types. The string type may take any literal string as a value; the dissertation thesis, tokenized types are more constrained. The validity constraints noted in the grammar are applied after the attribute value has been normalized as described in 3.3.3 Attribute-Value Normalization . Validity constraint: ID. Values of type ID MUST match the Name production. A name MUST NOT appear more than once in essays, an XML document as a value of this type; i.e., ID values MUST uniquely identify the york university, elements which bear them. Validity constraint: One ID per Element Type. An element type MUST NOT have more than one ID attribute specified. Validity constraint: ID Attribute Default.

An ID attribute MUST have a declared default of #IMPLIED or #REQUIRED . Validity constraint: IDREF. Values of type IDREF MUST match the Name production, and deniable other, values of type IDREFS MUST match Names; each Name MUST match the value of an ID attribute on some element in the XML document; i.e. IDREF values MUST match the value of some ID attribute. Validity constraint: Entity Name. Values of thesis university, type ENTITY MUST match the questions, Name production, values of thesis york university, type ENTITIES MUST match Names; each Name MUST match the name of an unparsed entity declared in the DTD. Validity constraint: Name Token. Values of type NMTOKEN MUST match the Nmtoken production; values of type NMTOKENS MUST match Nmtokens.

[Definition: Enumerated attributes have a list of allowed values in buy a, their declaration ]. They MUST take one of those values. Dissertation Thesis University. There are two kinds of enumerated attribute types: A NOTATION attribute identifies a notation, declared in the DTD with associated system and/or public identifiers, to be used in uk, interpreting the element to which the attribute is attached. Validity constraint: Notation Attributes. Values of this type MUST match one of the notation names included in the declaration; all notation names in york university, the declaration MUST be declared. Validity constraint: One Notation Per Element Type. An element type MUST NOT have more than one NOTATION attribute specified. Validity constraint: No Notation on Empty Element. For compatibility, an papers in english attribute of dissertation thesis, type NOTATION MUST NOT be declared on an element declared EMPTY . Validity constraint: No Duplicate Tokens.

The notation names in nancy mairs, a single NotationType attribute declaration, as well as the NmTokens in a single Enumeration attribute declaration, MUST all be distinct. Validity constraint: Enumeration. Values of this type MUST match one of the Nmtoken tokens in dissertation york university, the declaration. For interoperability, the same Nmtoken SHOULD NOT occur more than once in the enumerated attribute types of a single element type. An attribute declaration provides information on whether the darwin essays, attribute's presence is REQUIRED , and if not, how an XML processor is to dissertation thesis york university react if a declared attribute is essay absent in a document. In an york attribute declaration, #REQUIRED means that the essay questions, attribute MUST always be provided, #IMPLIED that no default value is dissertation thesis york provided. [Definition: If the declaration is neither #REQUIRED nor #IMPLIED , then the AttValue value contains the declared default value; the organizer, #FIXED keyword states that the attribute MUST always have the default value. When an XML processor encounters an element without a specification for an attribute for which it has read a default value declaration, it MUST report the attribute with the declared default value to the application.] Validity constraint: Required Attribute. If the default declaration is the keyword #REQUIRED , then the dissertation york, attribute MUST be specified for all elements of the type in the attribute-list declaration.

Validity constraint: Attribute Default Value Syntactically Correct. The declared default value MUST meet the syntactic constraints of the on homelessness, declared attribute type. That is, the default value of an attribute: of type IDREF or ENTITY must match the Name production; of type IDREFS or ENTITIES must match the Names production; of type NMTOKEN must match the Nmtoken production; of type NMTOKENS must match the Nmtokens production; of an enumerated type (either a NOTATION type or an enumeration) must match one of the enumerated values. Note that only the syntactic constraints of the type are required here; other constraints (e.g. that the value be the name of a declared unparsed entity, for dissertation york university an attribute of type ENTITY) will be reported by a validating parser only if an element without a specification for published papers in english literature this attribute actually occurs. Validity constraint: Fixed Attribute Default. If an dissertation university attribute has a default value declared with the #FIXED keyword, instances of that attribute MUST match the compare college, default value.

Examples of attribute-list declarations: Before the dissertation, value of an attribute is passed to the application or checked for validity, the XML processor MUST normalize the attribute value by applying the algorithm below, or by using some other method such that the value passed to the application is the same as that produced by the algorithm. All line breaks MUST have been normalized on input to deniable darwin other essays #xA as described in 2.11 End-of-Line Handling , so the dissertation thesis york university, rest of this algorithm operates on buy a research paper text normalized in this way. Begin with a normalized value consisting of the empty string. For each character, entity reference, or character reference in the unnormalized attribute value, beginning with the first and continuing to the last, do the following: For a character reference, append the referenced character to the normalized value. For an entity reference, recursively apply step 3 of this algorithm to the replacement text of the entity. For a white space character (#x20, #xD, #xA, #x9), append a space character (#x20) to the normalized value. For another character, append the character to the normalized value. If the attribute type is not CDATA, then the thesis university, XML processor MUST further process the normalized attribute value by discarding any leading and trailing space (#x20) characters, and by replacing sequences of space (#x20) characters by a single space (#x20) character.

Note that if the unnormalized attribute value contains a character reference to a white space character other than space (#x20), the normalized value contains the referenced character itself (#xD, #xA or #x9). This contrasts with the case where the unnormalized value contains a white space character (not a reference), which is organizer replaced with a space character (#x20) in the normalized value and also contrasts with the case where the thesis university, unnormalized value contains an entity reference whose replacement text contains a white space character; being recursively processed, the other essays, white space character is dissertation thesis york university replaced with a space character (#x20) in the normalized value. All attributes for which no declaration has been read SHOULD be treated by a non-validating processor as if declared CDATA . It is an error if an attribute value contains a reference to essay on homelessness an entity for thesis which no declaration has been read. Following are examples of attribute normalization. Darwin Other. Given the following declarations: the attribute specifications in the left column below would be normalized to the character sequences of the middle column if the attribute a is declared NMTOKENS and to dissertation york university those of the right columns if a is declared CDATA . Note that the last example is invalid (but well-formed) if a is declared to be of type NMTOKENS . [Definition: Conditional sections are portions of the document type declaration external subset or of external parameter entities which are included in, or excluded from, the logical structure of the DTD based on the keyword which governs them.] Validity constraint: Proper Conditional Section/PE Nesting. If any of the ![ , [ , or ]] of compare and contrast essay, a conditional section is contained in the replacement text for dissertation york university a parameter-entity reference, all of them MUST be contained in the same replacement text. Like the internal and external DTD subsets, a conditional section may contain one or more complete declarations, comments, processing instructions, or nested conditional sections, intermingled with white space. If the keyword of the conditional section is INCLUDE , then the contents of the conditional section MUST be processed as part of the DTD. If the keyword of the conditional section is IGNORE , then the contents of the conditional section MUST NOT be processed as part of the DTD.

If a conditional section with a keyword of INCLUDE occurs within a larger conditional section with a keyword of other essays, IGNORE , both the dissertation york, outer and the inner conditional sections MUST be ignored. The contents of an ignored conditional section MUST be parsed by ignoring all characters after the [ following the keyword, except conditional section starts ![ and darwin other essays, ends ]] , until the dissertation thesis york university, matching conditional section end is graphic organizer found. Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized in this process. If the keyword of the conditional section is a parameter-entity reference, the parameter entity MUST be replaced by its content before the processor decides whether to include or ignore the conditional section. [Definition: An XML document may consist of one or many storage units. These are called entities ; they all have content and are all (except for thesis university the document entity and the external DTD subset) identified by entity name .] Each XML document has one entity called the document entity, which serves as the starting point for the XML processor and may contain the on homelessness, whole document. Entities may be either parsed or unparsed. [Definition: The contents of dissertation thesis university, a parsed entity are referred to as its replacement text; this text is considered an integral part of the document.] [Definition: An unparsed entity is published literature a resource whose contents may or may not be text, and if text, may be other than XML. Each unparsed entity has an associated notation, identified by name. Beyond a requirement that an XML processor make the dissertation thesis york university, identifiers for research paper uk the entity and notation available to the application, XML places no constraints on the contents of unparsed entities.] Parsed entities are invoked by name using entity references; unparsed entities by name, given in thesis university, the value of ENTITY or ENTITIES attributes.

[Definition: General entities are entities for essay use within the document content. In this specification, general entities are sometimes referred to with the thesis university, unqualified term entity when this leads to no ambiguity.] [Definition: Parameter entities are parsed entities for use within the buy a, DTD.] These two types of entities use different forms of reference and are recognized in different contexts. Dissertation. Furthermore, they occupy different namespaces; a parameter entity and a general entity with the same name are two distinct entities. 4.1 Character and Entity References. [Definition: A character reference refers to papers in english literature a specific character in dissertation, the ISO/IEC 10646 character set, for example one not directly accessible from available input devices.]

Well-formedness constraint: Legal Character. Characters referred to using character references MUST match the production for Char. If the character reference begins with #x , the paper, digits and letters up to the terminating ; provide a hexadecimal representation of the character's code point in ISO/IEC 10646. Thesis York. If it begins just with # , the deniable other, digits up to the terminating ; provide a decimal representation of the character's code point. [Definition: An entity reference refers to the content of a named entity.] [Definition: References to parsed general entities use ampersand ( ) and semicolon ( ; ) as delimiters.] [Definition: Parameter-entity references use percent-sign ( % ) and dissertation thesis, semicolon ( ; ) as delimiters.] Well-formedness constraint: Entity Declared. In a document without any DTD, a document with only an internal DTD subset which contains no parameter entity references, or a document with standalone='yes' , for an entity reference that does not occur within the external subset or a parameter entity, the essay questions on homelessness, Name given in the entity reference MUST match that in an entity declaration that does not occur within the external subset or a parameter entity, except that well-formed documents need not declare any of the following entities: amp , lt , gt , apos , quot . York. The declaration of a general entity MUST precede any reference to it which appears in a default value in an attribute-list declaration. Note that non-validating processors are not obligated to read and essay, process entity declarations occurring in dissertation thesis university, parameter entities or in the external subset; for such documents, the rule that an entity must be declared is a well-formedness constraint only if standalone='yes' . Validity constraint: Entity Declared. In a document with an external subset or parameter entity references , if the document is not standalone (either standalone='no' is specified or there is no standalone declaration), then the Name given in the entity reference MUST match that in an entity declaration . For interoperability, valid documents SHOULD declare the entities amp , lt , gt , apos , quot , in the form specified in published in english, 4.6 Predefined Entities . The declaration of dissertation thesis, a parameter entity MUST precede any reference to it. And Contrast College. Similarly, the thesis york, declaration of a general entity MUST precede any attribute-list declaration containing a default value with a direct or indirect reference to that general entity.

Well-formedness constraint: Parsed Entity. An entity reference MUST NOT contain the name of an unparsed entity. Unparsed entities may be referred to only in buy a research uk, attribute values declared to be of type ENTITY or ENTITIES . Well-formedness constraint: No Recursion. A parsed entity MUST NOT contain a recursive reference to itself, either directly or indirectly. Well-formedness constraint: In DTD. Parameter-entity references MUST NOT appear outside the DTD. Examples of character and york, entity references: Example of darwin, a parameter-entity reference: [Definition: Entities are declared thus:] The Name identifies the entity in an entity reference or, in the case of an dissertation university unparsed entity, in research papers literature, the value of an ENTITY or ENTITIES attribute.

If the same entity is declared more than once, the dissertation thesis york, first declaration encountered is binding; at user option, an XML processor MAY issue a warning if entities are declared multiple times. [Definition: If the papers in english, entity definition is an EntityValue, the defined entity is called an internal entity . There is no separate physical storage object, and the content of the entity is given in the declaration.] Note that some processing of entity and dissertation thesis, character references in the literal entity value may be required to essay questions produce the correct replacement text: see 4.5 Construction of Entity Replacement Text . An internal entity is a parsed entity. Example of an internal entity declaration: [Definition: If the dissertation thesis york, entity is not internal, it is an external entity , declared as follows:] If the NDataDecl is present, this is a general unparsed entity; otherwise it is on being cripple nancy essay a parsed entity. Validity constraint: Notation Declared. The Name MUST match the declared name of dissertation thesis york university, a notation. [Definition: The SystemLiteral is called the entity's system identifier . It is meant to be converted to essay organizer a URI reference (as defined in thesis university, [IETF RFC 3986]), as part of the process of dereferencing it to obtain input for the XML processor to construct the essay on homelessness, entity's replacement text.] It is an error for a fragment identifier (beginning with a # character) to be part of a system identifier. Unless otherwise provided by information outside the scope of this specification (e.g. a special XML element type defined by york, a particular DTD, or a processing instruction defined by a particular application specification), relative URIs are relative to questions on homelessness the location of the resource within which the entity declaration occurs. This is defined to be the external entity containing the '' which starts the york, declaration, at the point when it is parsed as a declaration. Research Paper Uk. A URI might thus be relative to thesis the document entity, to the entity containing the external DTD subset, or to some other external parameter entity.

Attempts to retrieve the resource identified by a URI may be redirected at the parser level (for example, in an entity resolver) or below (at the protocol level, for example, via an HTTP Location: header). In the absence of additional information outside the scope of this specification within the resource, the base URI of a resource is always the URI of the actual resource returned. In other words, it is the URI of the resource retrieved after all redirection has occurred. System identifiers (and other XML strings meant to be used as URI references) may contain characters that, according to [IETF RFC 3986], must be escaped before a URI can be used to retrieve the referenced resource. The characters to ideas be escaped are the thesis university, control characters #x0 to #x1F and #x7F (most of which cannot appear in XML), space #x20, the delimiters '' #x3C, '' #x3E and '' #x22, the unwise characters ' ' #x7D, '|' #x7C, '' #x5C, '^' #x5E and '`' #x60, as well as all characters above #x7F. Since escaping is not always a fully reversible process, it MUST be performed only cripple mairs essay, when absolutely necessary and as late as possible in a processing chain. In particular, neither the process of converting a relative URI to an absolute one nor the process of passing a URI reference to a process or software component responsible for dereferencing it SHOULD trigger escaping. When escaping does occur, it MUST be performed as follows: Each character to be escaped is represented in UTF-8 [Unicode] as one or more bytes. The resulting bytes are escaped with the URI escaping mechanism (that is, converted to % HH , where HH is the hexadecimal notation of the byte value).

The original character is replaced by the resulting character sequence. In a future edition of this specification, the XML Core Working Group intends to replace the thesis york, preceding paragraph and list of steps with a normative reference to darwin other essays an upcoming revision of IETF RFC 3987, which will define Legacy Extended IRIs (LEIRIs). Dissertation University. When this revision is deniable darwin other available, it is the intent of the XML Core WG to use it to replace language similar to thesis york the above in any future revisions of XML-related specifications under its purview. [Definition: In addition to a system identifier, an external identifier may include a public identifier .] An XML processor attempting to research uk retrieve the entity's content may use any combination of the public and dissertation, system identifiers as well as additional information outside the scope of this specification to try to generate an alternative URI reference. If the processor is papers unable to do so, it MUST use the URI reference specified in the system literal. Dissertation Thesis York. Before a match is attempted, all strings of white space in the public identifier MUST be normalized to single space characters (#x20), and leading and trailing white space MUST be removed. Examples of external entity declarations: External parsed entities SHOULD each begin with a text declaration . The text declaration MUST be provided literally, not by buy a research paper uk, reference to a parsed entity.

The text declaration MUST NOT appear at any position other than the beginning of an external parsed entity. The text declaration in an external parsed entity is york not considered part of ideas, its replacement text. The document entity is well-formed if it matches the production labeled document. An external general parsed entity is well-formed if it matches the production labeled extParsedEnt. All external parameter entities are well-formed by definition. Only parsed entities that are referenced directly or indirectly within the dissertation thesis, document are required to uk be well-formed. Well-Formed External Parsed Entity. An internal general parsed entity is well-formed if its replacement text matches the production labeled content. Dissertation Thesis York University. All internal parameter entities are well-formed by definition. A consequence of well-formedness in essay questions, general entities is that the logical and physical structures in an XML document are properly nested; no start-tag, end-tag, empty-element tag, element, comment, processing instruction, character reference, or entity reference can begin in one entity and end in another. 4.3.3 Character Encoding in Entities.

Each external parsed entity in an XML document may use a different encoding for its characters. All XML processors MUST be able to read entities in both the thesis york, UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings. The terms UTF-8 and UTF-16 in this specification do not apply to buy a related character encodings, including but not limited to UTF-16BE, UTF-16LE, or CESU-8. Entities encoded in thesis york university, UTF-16 MUST and entities encoded in UTF-8 MAY begin with the Byte Order Mark described by Annex H of [ISO/IEC 10646:2000], section 16.8 of [Unicode] (the ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK SPACE character, #xFEFF). This is an deniable darwin essays encoding signature, not part of either the markup or the character data of the XML document. Thesis. XML processors MUST be able to use this character to differentiate between UTF-8 and UTF-16 encoded documents.

If the replacement text of an external entity is to begin with the character U+FEFF, and no text declaration is present, then a Byte Order Mark MUST be present, whether the entity is encoded in UTF-8 or UTF-16. Although an XML processor is required to read only entities in buy a research, the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings, it is thesis york recognized that other encodings are used around the world, and it may be desired for XML processors to deniable read entities that use them. In the dissertation york, absence of external character encoding information (such as MIME headers), parsed entities which are stored in an encoding other than UTF-8 or UTF-16 MUST begin with a text declaration (see 4.3.1 The Text Declaration ) containing an encoding declaration: In the document entity, the encoding declaration is part of the XML declaration. The EncName is the name of the encoding used.

In an deniable other essays encoding declaration, the values UTF-8 , UTF-16 , ISO-10646-UCS-2 , and dissertation university, ISO-10646-UCS-4 SHOULD be used for essay questions on homelessness the various encodings and transformations of Unicode / ISO/IEC 10646, the values ISO-8859-1 , ISO-8859-2 , . ISO-8859- n (where n is the thesis york university, part number) SHOULD be used for the parts of ISO 8859, and essay graphic, the values ISO-2022-JP , Shift_JIS , and EUC-JP SHOULD be used for the various encoded forms of JIS X-0208-1997. It is RECOMMENDED that character encodings registered (as charset s) with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority [IANA-CHARSETS], other than those just listed, be referred to using their registered names; other encodings SHOULD use names starting with an x- prefix. XML processors SHOULD match character encoding names in a case-insensitive way and SHOULD either interpret an IANA-registered name as the encoding registered at IANA for that name or treat it as unknown (processors are, of course, not required to support all IANA-registered encodings). In the absence of york university, information provided by mairs, an external transport protocol (e.g. HTTP or MIME), it is a fatal error for an entity including an encoding declaration to be presented to thesis york university the XML processor in an encoding other than that named in the declaration, or for an entity which begins with neither a Byte Order Mark nor an encoding declaration to use an encoding other than UTF-8. Note that since ASCII is a subset of essay questions, UTF-8, ordinary ASCII entities do not strictly need an encoding declaration.

It is a fatal error for thesis york a TextDecl to occur other than at the beginning of an external entity. It is essay a fatal error when an XML processor encounters an entity with an encoding that it is unable to process. Dissertation York. It is a fatal error if an buy a research uk XML entity is determined (via default, encoding declaration, or higher-level protocol) to thesis be in a certain encoding but contains byte sequences that are not legal in that encoding. Research Papers In English Literature. Specifically, it is a fatal error if an entity encoded in UTF-8 contains any ill-formed code unit sequences, as defined in section 3.9 of Unicode [Unicode] . Unless an encoding is determined by a higher-level protocol, it is thesis york also a fatal error if an XML entity contains no encoding declaration and its content is essay not legal UTF-8 or UTF-16. Examples of text declarations containing encoding declarations:

4.4 XML Processor Treatment of Entities and References. The table below summarizes the contexts in which character references, entity references, and invocations of thesis york university, unparsed entities might appear and the REQUIRED behavior of an XML processor in each case. The labels in the leftmost column describe the recognition context: Reference in buy a research paper, Content. as a reference anywhere after the start-tag and before the end-tag of an element; corresponds to the nonterminal content. Reference in Attribute Value. as a reference within either the value of an dissertation thesis attribute in essay questions on homelessness, a start-tag, or a default value in dissertation thesis, an attribute declaration; corresponds to the nonterminal AttValue. Occurs as Attribute Value. as a Name, not a reference, appearing either as the value of an attribute which has been declared as type ENTITY , or as one of the space-separated tokens in essay, the value of an attribute which has been declared as type ENTITIES . Reference in thesis york university, Entity Value. as a reference within a parameter or internal entity's literal entity value in the entity's declaration; corresponds to the nonterminal EntityValue. Reference in DTD.

as a reference within either the internal or external subsets of the DTD, but outside of an EntityValue, AttValue, PI, Comment, SystemLiteral, PubidLiteral, or the contents of an ignored conditional section (see 3.4 Conditional Sections ). Outside the DTD, the % character has no special significance; thus, what would be parameter entity references in nancy mairs essay, the DTD are not recognized as markup in content. Similarly, the names of unparsed entities are not recognized except when they appear in dissertation thesis york university, the value of an appropriately declared attribute. [Definition: An entity is included when its replacement text is research papers in english retrieved and processed, in thesis york university, place of the reference itself, as though it were part of the document at the location the reference was recognized.] The replacement text may contain both character data and (except for parameter entities) markup, which MUST be recognized in the usual way. (The string ATamp;T; expands to ATT; and the remaining ampersand is not recognized as an entity-reference delimiter.) A character reference is included when the indicated character is processed in place of the reference itself. When an XML processor recognizes a reference to a parsed entity, in on being mairs essay, order to validate the document, the processor MUST include its replacement text. If the entity is thesis university external, and the processor is not attempting to validate the XML document, the processor MAY , but need not, include the compare and contrast ideas college, entity's replacement text. If a non-validating processor does not include the replacement text, it MUST inform the dissertation thesis york university, application that it recognized, but did not read, the cripple nancy mairs, entity. This rule is based on the recognition that the automatic inclusion provided by the SGML and XML entity mechanism, primarily designed to support modularity in authoring, is not necessarily appropriate for other applications, in particular document browsing.

Browsers, for example, when encountering an external parsed entity reference, might choose to provide a visual indication of the entity's presence and retrieve it for dissertation york university display only on essay on homelessness demand. The following are forbidden, and york, constitute fatal errors: the appearance of a reference to an unparsed entity, except in the EntityValue in an entity declaration. the appearance of any character or general-entity reference in the DTD except within an EntityValue or AttValue. a reference to essays an external entity in thesis university, an attribute value. When an entity reference appears in an attribute value, or a parameter entity reference appears in a literal entity value, its replacement text MUST be processed in place of the graphic, reference itself as though it were part of the thesis university, document at the location the reference was recognized, except that a single or double quote character in the replacement text MUST always be treated as a normal data character and essay graphic organizer, MUST NOT terminate the literal. For example, this is dissertation thesis university well-formed: while this is not: When the essay ideas college, name of an unparsed entity appears as a token in the value of an attribute of declared type ENTITY or ENTITIES , a validating processor MUST inform the thesis york, application of the compare essay ideas, system and public (if any) identifiers for both the entity and its associated notation. When a general entity reference appears in dissertation thesis york university, the EntityValue in an entity declaration, it MUST be bypassed and left as is. Just as with external parsed entities, parameter entities need only in english literature, be included if validating . When a parameter-entity reference is recognized in the DTD and included, its replacement text MUST be enlarged by the attachment of one leading and one following space (#x20) character; the intent is to constrain the replacement text of dissertation thesis university, parameter entities to contain an integral number of grammatical tokens in the DTD. Other. This behavior MUST NOT apply to parameter entity references within entity values; these are described in thesis university, 4.4.5 Included in darwin other essays, Literal . It is an error for a reference to thesis york university an unparsed entity to appear in the EntityValue in cripple essay, an entity declaration.

4.5 Construction of Entity Replacement Text. In discussing the treatment of entities, it is useful to dissertation university distinguish two forms of the entity's value. [Definition: For an internal entity, the literal entity value is the quoted string actually present in mairs essay, the entity declaration, corresponding to the non-terminal EntityValue.] [Definition: For an external entity, the literal entity value is the dissertation thesis university, exact text contained in darwin other, the entity.] [Definition: For an thesis internal entity, the replacement text is the essay on homelessness, content of the entity, after replacement of character references and parameter-entity references.] [Definition: For an external entity, the replacement text is the content of the entity, after stripping the dissertation thesis, text declaration (leaving any surrounding whitespace) if there is uk one but without any replacement of character references or parameter-entity references.] The literal entity value as given in dissertation thesis university, an internal entity declaration (EntityValue) may contain character, parameter-entity, and general-entity references. Such references MUST be contained entirely within the essay questions on homelessness, literal entity value. The actual replacement text that is included (or included in literal) as described above MUST contain the replacement text of any parameter entities referred to, and MUST contain the character referred to, in place of any character references in the literal entity value; however, general-entity references MUST be left as-is, unexpanded. For example, given the following declarations: then the replacement text for the entity book is: The general-entity reference rights; would be expanded should the reference book; appear in the document's content or an attribute value. These simple rules may have complex interactions; for a detailed discussion of a difficult example, see D Expansion of Entity and york university, Character References . [Definition: Entity and character references may both be used to escape the left angle bracket, ampersand, and college, other delimiters.

A set of general entities ( amp , lt , gt , apos , quot ) is specified for dissertation thesis york university this purpose. Numeric character references may also be used; they are expanded immediately when recognized and MUST be treated as character data, so the numeric character references #60; and #38; may be used to escape and when they occur in character data.] All XML processors MUST recognize these entities whether they are declared or not. For interoperability, valid XML documents SHOULD declare these entities, like any others, before using them. If the entities lt or amp are declared, they MUST be declared as internal entities whose replacement text is a character reference to the respective character (less-than sign or ampersand) being escaped; the double escaping is REQUIRED for these entities so that references to them produce a well-formed result.

If the entities gt , apos , or quot are declared, they MUST be declared as internal entities whose replacement text is the single character being escaped (or a character reference to that character; the double escaping here is OPTIONAL but harmless). For example: [Definition: Notations identify by name the format of unparsed entities, the format of research paper, elements which bear a notation attribute, or the application to which a processing instruction is york university addressed.] [Definition: Notation declarations provide a name for buy a research paper the notation, for use in entity and attribute-list declarations and in attribute specifications, and an external identifier for the notation which may allow an XML processor or its client application to locate a helper application capable of processing data in the given notation.] Validity constraint: Unique Notation Name. A given Name MUST NOT be declared in more than one notation declaration. XML processors MUST provide applications with the name and thesis, external identifier(s) of nancy essay, any notation declared and referred to in an attribute value, attribute definition, or entity declaration. They MAY additionally resolve the external identifier into the system identifier, file name, or other information needed to allow the application to call a processor for data in the notation described. (It is not an dissertation thesis university error, however, for XML documents to declare and refer to notations for which notation-specific applications are not available on the system where the XML processor or application is running.) [Definition: The document entity serves as the root of the entity tree and a starting-point for an XML processor.] This specification does not specify how the darwin, document entity is to be located by an XML processor; unlike other entities, the document entity has no name and might well appear on a processor input stream without any identification at thesis university all. 5.1 Validating and Non-Validating Processors. Conforming XML processors fall into two classes: validating and non-validating.

Validating and non-validating processors alike MUST report violations of this specification's well-formedness constraints in the content of the document entity and any other parsed entities that they read. [Definition: Validating processors MUST , at user option, report violations of the constraints expressed by the declarations in the DTD, and failures to fulfill the validity constraints given in this specification.] To accomplish this, validating XML processors MUST read and process the entire DTD and buy a research, all external parsed entities referenced in thesis, the document. Non-validating processors are REQUIRED to check only the document entity, including the entire internal DTD subset, for well-formedness. [Definition: While they are not required to check the document for validity, they are REQUIRED to process all the buy a research uk, declarations they read in dissertation thesis, the internal DTD subset and in any parameter entity that they read, up to the first reference to a parameter entity that they do not read; that is to say, they MUST use the information in those declarations to on being cripple nancy mairs essay normalize attribute values, include the replacement text of internal entities, and dissertation thesis university, supply default attribute values .] Except when standalone=yes , they MUST NOT process entity declarations or attribute-list declarations encountered after a reference to a parameter entity that is not read, since the entity may have contained overriding declarations; when standalone=yes , processors MUST process these declarations. Note that when processing invalid documents with a non-validating processor the application may not be presented with consistent information. For example, several requirements for uniqueness within the document may not be met, including more than one element with the same id, duplicate declarations of elements or notations with the same name, etc. In these cases the behavior of the parser with respect to deniable darwin other essays reporting such information to york university the application is undefined. The behavior of a validating XML processor is highly predictable; it must read every piece of essay, a document and report all well-formedness and dissertation york university, validity violations. Less is required of a non-validating processor; it need not read any part of the document other than the document entity. This has two effects that may be important to users of essay questions on homelessness, XML processors: Certain well-formedness errors, specifically those that require reading external entities, may fail to be detected by a non-validating processor. Examples include the constraints entitled Entity Declared , Parsed Entity , and No Recursion , as well as some of the cases described as forbidden in 4.4 XML Processor Treatment of Entities and dissertation thesis, References . The information passed from the compare essay college, processor to the application may vary, depending on whether the processor reads parameter and dissertation york university, external entities.

For example, a non-validating processor may fail to normalize attribute values, include the compare essay college, replacement text of york university, internal entities, or supply default attribute values , where doing so depends on having read declarations in external or parameter entities , or in compare essay ideas college, the internal subset after an unread parameter entity reference . For maximum reliability in interoperating between different XML processors, applications which use non-validating processors SHOULD NOT rely on any behaviors not required of such processors. Applications which require DTD facilities not related to validation (such as the declaration of default attributes and internal entities that are or may be specified in external entities) SHOULD use validating XML processors. The formal grammar of XML is given in thesis university, this specification using a simple Extended Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) notation. Each rule in deniable, the grammar defines one symbol, in the form. Symbols are written with an initial capital letter if they are the start symbol of a regular language, otherwise with an initial lowercase letter. Literal strings are quoted. Within the dissertation university, expression on the right-hand side of a rule, the following expressions are used to match strings of one or more characters: where N is compare essay ideas college a hexadecimal integer, the expression matches the character whose number (code point) in ISO/IEC 10646 is N . The number of leading zeros in the #xN form is insignificant. matches any Char with a value in the range(s) indicated (inclusive). matches any Char with a value among the dissertation thesis york, characters enumerated. And Contrast. Enumerations and ranges can be mixed in one set of brackets.

matches any Char with a value outside the range indicated. matches any Char with a value not among the university, characters given. Enumerations and ranges of forbidden values can be mixed in one set of brackets. matches a literal string matching that given inside the double quotes. matches a literal string matching that given inside the single quotes. These symbols may be combined to match more complex patterns as follows, where A and B represent simple expressions: expression is treated as a unit and may be combined as described in this list. matches A or nothing; optional A . matches A followed by B . This operator has higher precedence than alternation; thus A B | C D is identical to (A B) | (C D) . matches any string that matches A but does not match B . matches one or more occurrences of A . Concatenation has higher precedence than alternation; thus A+ | B+ is identical to paper (A+) | (B+) . matches zero or more occurrences of A . Concatenation has higher precedence than alternation; thus A* | B* is identical to (A*) | (B*) . Other notations used in the productions are: well-formedness constraint; this identifies by name a constraint on well-formed documents associated with a production. validity constraint; this identifies by dissertation thesis york, name a constraint on valid documents associated with a production.

Because of changes to questions on homelessness productions [4] and dissertation thesis york, [5], the productions in this Appendix are now orphaned and not used anymore in determining name characters. This Appendix may be removed in a future edition of this specification; other specifications that wish to refer to the productions herein should do so by means of darwin other essays, a reference to university the relevant production(s) in questions on homelessness, the Fourth Edition of this specification. Following the thesis, characteristics defined in essay on homelessness, the Unicode standard, characters are classed as base characters (among others, these contain the alphabetic characters of the Latin alphabet), ideographic characters, and dissertation university, combining characters (among others, this class contains most diacritics). Digits and papers, extenders are also distinguished. The character classes defined here can be derived from the Unicode 2.0 character database as follows: Name start characters must have one of the categories Ll, Lu, Lo, Lt, Nl.

Name characters other than Name-start characters must have one of the york, categories Mc, Me, Mn, Lm, or Nd. Characters in the compatibility area (i.e. with character code greater than #xF900 and less than #xFFFE) are not allowed in XML names. Characters which have a font or compatibility decomposition (i.e. those with a compatibility formatting tag in questions, field 5 of the database -- marked by field 5 beginning with a ) are not allowed. The following characters are treated as name-start characters rather than name characters, because the property file classifies them as Alphabetic: [#x02BB-#x02C1], #x0559, #x06E5, #x06E6. Characters #x20DD-#x20E0 are excluded (in accordance with Unicode 2.0, section 5.14). Character #x00B7 is classified as an extender, because the thesis, property list so identifies it. Character #x0387 is added as a name character, because #x00B7 is its canonical equivalent. Characters ':' and '_' are allowed as name-start characters. Characters '-' and '.' are allowed as name characters. XML is designed to be a subset of SGML, in that every XML document should also be a conforming SGML document. For a detailed comparison of the additional restrictions that XML places on buy a uk documents beyond those of SGML, see [Clark].

D Expansion of Entity and york, Character References (Non-Normative) This appendix contains some examples illustrating the nancy, sequence of entity- and dissertation thesis university, character-reference recognition and expansion, as specified in 4.4 XML Processor Treatment of papers in english, Entities and References . If the DTD contains the declaration. then the dissertation, XML processor will recognize the character references when it parses the entity declaration, and resolve them before storing the following string as the value of the entity example : A reference in the document to example; will cause the text to be reparsed, at which time the start- and end-tags of the p element will be recognized and in english literature, the three references will be recognized and expanded, resulting in a p element with the following content (all data, no delimiters or markup): A more complex example will illustrate the rules and their effects fully. In the following example, the line numbers are solely for reference. This produces the following: in line 4, the reference to character 37 is expanded immediately, and the parameter entity xx is dissertation thesis stored in compare and contrast, the symbol table with the value %zz; . Dissertation Thesis University. Since the replacement text is not rescanned, the reference to parameter entity zz is not recognized. (And it would be an error if it were, since zz is research uk not yet declared.) in line 5, the character reference #60; is expanded immediately and thesis, the parameter entity zz is stored with the replacement text !ENTITY tricky error-prone , which is a well-formed entity declaration. in line 6, the reference to xx is questions on homelessness recognized, and the replacement text of xx (namely %zz; ) is parsed. The reference to zz is recognized in its turn, and its replacement text ( !ENTITY tricky error-prone ) is parsed.

The general entity tricky has now been declared, with the dissertation thesis york, replacement text error-prone . in line 8, the reference to the general entity tricky is recognized, and it is expanded, so the full content of the essay on homelessness, test element is the self-describing (and ungrammatical) string This sample shows a error-prone method. In the following example. the replacement text of x is the four characters lt; because references to thesis university general entities in entity values are bypassed . The replacement text of lt is a character reference to deniable darwin essays the less-than character, for example the five characters #60; (see 4.6 Predefined Entities ). Since neither of these contains a less-than character the result is well-formed. If the definition of x had been. then the document would not have been well-formed, because the dissertation york, replacement text of x would be the single character which is not permitted in attribute values (see WFC: No in Attribute Values ).

E Deterministic Content Models (Non-Normative) As noted in 3.2.1 Element Content , it is required that content models in element type declarations be deterministic. This requirement is for compatibility with SGML (which calls deterministic content models unambiguous); XML processors built using SGML systems may flag non-deterministic content models as errors. For example, the content model ((b, c) | (b, d)) is non-deterministic, because given an initial b the XML processor cannot know which b in the model is being matched without looking ahead to see which element follows the b . In this case, the two references to b can be collapsed into a single reference, making the model read (b, (c | d)) . An initial b now clearly matches only a single name in the content model. Nancy Essay. The processor doesn't need to look ahead to see what follows; either c or d would be accepted. More formally: a finite state automaton may be constructed from the content model using the standard algorithms, e.g. algorithm 3.5 in section 3.9 of Aho, Sethi, and Ullman [Aho/Ullman].

In many such algorithms, a follow set is constructed for each position in the regular expression (i.e., each leaf node in the syntax tree for the regular expression); if any position has a follow set in which more than one following position is dissertation thesis university labeled with the same element type name, then the content model is in error and essay graphic organizer, may be reported as an thesis university error. Algorithms exist which allow many but not all non-deterministic content models to be reduced automatically to equivalent deterministic models; see Bruggemann-Klein 1991 [Bruggemann-Klein]. F Autodetection of Character Encodings (Non-Normative) The XML encoding declaration functions as an internal label on each entity, indicating which character encoding is in use. Before an XML processor can read the internal label, however, it apparently has to compare essay college know what character encoding is in use—which is what the internal label is trying to indicate. In the general case, this is a hopeless situation.

It is dissertation not entirely hopeless in XML, however, because XML limits the general case in two ways: each implementation is graphic organizer assumed to support only york university, a finite set of research papers literature, character encodings, and dissertation thesis york, the XML encoding declaration is restricted in position and content in order to make it feasible to essay questions autodetect the character encoding in use in each entity in normal cases. Also, in university, many cases other sources of buy a, information are available in dissertation, addition to the XML data stream itself. Two cases may be distinguished, depending on whether the deniable, XML entity is presented to the processor without, or with, any accompanying (external) information. Thesis University. We will consider these cases in research, turn. F.1 Detection Without External Encoding Information. Because each XML entity not accompanied by external encoding information and not in thesis university, UTF-8 or UTF-16 encoding must begin with an XML encoding declaration, in which the essay graphic organizer, first characters must be ' ?xml ', any conforming processor can detect, after two to four octets of input, which of the following cases apply. Thesis York. In reading this list, it may help to paper uk know that in UCS-4, '' is #x0000003C and '?' is #x0000003F , and the Byte Order Mark required of university, UTF-16 data streams is #xFEFF . The notation ## is on homelessness used to denote any byte value except that two consecutive ## s cannot be both 00.

With a Byte Order Mark: Without a Byte Order Mark: In cases above which do not require reading the encoding declaration to dissertation determine the encoding, section 4.3.3 still requires that the darwin essays, encoding declaration, if present, be read and that the encoding name be checked to match the actual encoding of the entity. Dissertation University. Also, it is possible that new character encodings will be invented that will make it necessary to use the encoding declaration to graphic organizer determine the encoding, in cases where this is not required at present. This level of autodetection is enough to read the XML encoding declaration and thesis university, parse the character-encoding identifier, which is still necessary to distinguish the individual members of each family of encodings (e.g. to tell UTF-8 from 8859, and questions on homelessness, the parts of 8859 from each other, or to dissertation thesis york distinguish the specific EBCDIC code page in graphic organizer, use, and so on). Because the contents of the encoding declaration are restricted to characters from the ASCII repertoire (however encoded), a processor can reliably read the entire encoding declaration as soon as it has detected which family of encodings is in use. Since in practice, all widely used character encodings fall into one of the categories above, the XML encoding declaration allows reasonably reliable in-band labeling of character encodings, even when external sources of information at the operating-system or transport-protocol level are unreliable.

Character encodings such as UTF-7 that make overloaded usage of ASCII-valued bytes may fail to dissertation thesis york university be reliably detected. Once the deniable essays, processor has detected the character encoding in dissertation thesis york, use, it can act appropriately, whether by invoking a separate input routine for on being cripple nancy essay each case, or by calling the dissertation thesis, proper conversion function on each character of input. Like any self-labeling system, the papers in english, XML encoding declaration will not work if any software changes the entity's character set or encoding without updating the encoding declaration. Implementors of character-encoding routines should be careful to ensure the accuracy of the thesis york, internal and external information used to label the cripple nancy mairs essay, entity. F.2 Priorities in the Presence of External Encoding Information. The second possible case occurs when the XML entity is accompanied by encoding information, as in dissertation thesis, some file systems and other essays, some network protocols. Dissertation Thesis University. When multiple sources of information are available, their relative priority and graphic organizer, the preferred method of handling conflict should be specified as part of the thesis university, higher-level protocol used to deliver XML. In particular, please refer to [IETF RFC 3023] or its successor, which defines the text/xml and application/xml MIME types and nancy mairs essay, provides some useful guidance. In the york, interests of interoperability, however, the on being cripple essay, following rule is recommended. If an XML entity is in a file, the Byte-Order Mark and encoding declaration are used (if present) to determine the character encoding.

G W3C XML Working Group (Non-Normative) This specification was prepared and dissertation, approved for publication by the W3C XML Working Group (WG). WG approval of on being cripple nancy mairs, this specification does not necessarily imply that all WG members voted for its approval. The current and former participants of the XML WG are: Jon Bosak, Sun ( Chair ) James Clark ( Technical Lead ) Tim Bray, Textuality and Netscape ( XML Co-editor ) Jean Paoli, Microsoft ( XML Co-editor ) C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, U. of Ill. ( XML Co-editor ) Dan Connolly, W3C ( W3C Liaison ) Paula Angerstein, Texcel Steve DeRose, INSO Dave Hollander, HP Eliot Kimber, ISOGEN Eve Maler, ArborText Tom Magliery, NCSA Murray Maloney, SoftQuad, Grif SA, Muzmo and Veo Systems MURATA Makoto (FAMILY Given), Fuji Xerox Information Systems Joel Nava, Adobe Conleth O'Connell, Vignette Peter Sharpe, SoftQuad John Tigue, DataChannel. H W3C XML Core Working Group (Non-Normative) The fifth edition of this specification was prepared by the W3C XML Core Working Group (WG). The participants in the WG at the time of publication of dissertation university, this edition were: John Cowan, Google Andrew Fang, PTC-Arbortext Paul Grosso, PTC-Arbortext ( Co-Chair ) Konrad Lanz, A-SIT Glenn Marcy, IBM Henry Thompson, W3C ( Staff Contact ) Richard Tobin, University of Edinburgh Daniel Veillard Norman Walsh, Mark Logic ( Co-Chair ) Francois Yergeau. This edition was encoded in essay graphic organizer, a slightly modified version of the XMLspec DTD, v2.10. The XHTML versions were produced with a combination of the xmlspec.xsl, diffspec.xsl, and REC-xml.xsl XSLT stylesheets.

J Suggestions for dissertation university XML Names (Non-Normative) The following suggestions define what is believed to be best practice in the construction of essay organizer, XML names used as element names, attribute names, processing instruction targets, entity names, notation names, and the values of attributes of type ID, and are intended as guidance for document authors and schema designers. All references to Unicode are understood with respect to a particular version of the Unicode Standard greater than or equal to 5.0; which version should be used is left to the discretion of the document author or schema designer. The first two suggestions are directly derived from the rules given for identifiers in Standard Annex #31 (UAX #31) of the dissertation thesis, Unicode Standard, version 5.0 [Unicode], and on being nancy mairs essay, exclude all control characters, enclosing nonspacing marks, non-decimal numbers, private-use characters, punctuation characters (with the noted exceptions), symbol characters, unassigned codepoints, and white space characters. The other suggestions are mostly derived from Appendix B in previous editions of university, this specification. The first character of any name should have a Unicode property of ID_Start, or else be '_' #x5F. Characters other than the first should have a Unicode property of ID_Continue, or be one of the characters listed in the table entitled Characters for deniable other essays Natural Language Identifiers in UAX #31, with the exception of ' #x27 and york, ’ #x2019. Characters in and contrast ideas college, names should be expressed using Normalization Form C as defined in university, [UnicodeNormal]. Ideographic characters which have a canonical decomposition (including those in the ranges [#xF900-#xFAFF] and [#x2F800-#x2FFFD], with 12 exceptions) should not be used in names.

Characters which have a compatibility decomposition (those with a compatibility formatting tag in field 5 of the Unicode Character Database -- marked by published research papers in english literature, field 5 beginning with a ) should not be used in names. Dissertation York University. This suggestion does not apply to compare and contrast characters which despite their compatibility decompositions are in regular use in their scripts, for example #x0E33 THAI CHARACTER SARA AM or #x0EB3 LAO CHARACTER AM. Combining characters meant for thesis university use with symbols only (including those in the ranges [#x20D0-#x20EF] and deniable darwin other, [#x1D165-#x1D1AD]) should not be used in dissertation, names. The interlinear annotation characters ([#xFFF9-#xFFFB]) should not be used in names. Variation selector characters should not be used in names.

Names which are nonsensical, unpronounceable, hard to read, or easily confusable with other names should not be employed.

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Cette statue inquiète : d'une part parce qu'elle a des yeux blancs angoissants, et d'autre part, parce qu'elle a déjà provoqué un accident : elle est tombée sur Jean Coll, l'un des ouvriers ayant participé à son exhumation, lui brisant la jambe à cette occasion. L'accueil à Ille est chaleureux. Dissertation Thesis York University! Le narrateur dîne chez les Peyrehorade; le maître de maison lui présente sa femme et son fils. Essay Graphic! M. Thesis! de Peyrehorade évoque avec enthousiasme la statue de Vénus et indique à son hôte qu'il se fait un plaisir de lui montrer dès le lendemain. Le narrateur se fait conduire dans sa chambre. Published Literature! Une fois seul, il ouvre sa fenêtre et aperçoit au loin la statue . Dissertation York University! Il assiste aussi à une assez scène insolite : deux jeunes garçons interpellent la statue. On Being! L'un d'eux lui jette une pierre. York University! Celle-ci rebondit et frappe en retour le front du garnement. Essay Questions! Ce dernier, effrayé, s'enfuit. Le lendemain matin, c'est M. Dissertation Thesis University! de Peyrehorade lui-même qui vient réveiller son hôte; l'antiquaire a hâte de faire admirer sa Vénus à l'archéologue. Research Paper! Celle-ci a des traits magnifiques, cependant son visage semble exprimer une certaine dureté.

L'antiquaire fait remarquer à son visiteur l'étrange inscription figurant sur le socle : Cave amantem . Thesis! L'auteur la traduit en ces termes : prend garde à toi si elle t'aime . Buy A Paper! Puis les deux personnages tentent de décrypter d'autres inscriptions de la statue, notamment celle figurant sur le bras droit de Vénus . Dissertation York! La discussion entre les deux hommes est vive. Deniable Other Essays! Les arguments de l'antiquaire sont quelque peu fantaisistes, mais le narrateur se garde bien de contredire son hôte. Thesis York! Il se borne à admirer la statue. Après le déjeuner, Alphonse, le fils de M. Compare College! de Peyrehorade, converse avec le narrateur. Dissertation Thesis York University! Il évoque sa fiancée, une jeune fille charmante et aussi très riche. Buy A Uk! Il lui montre également une jolie bague sertie de diamants, anneau destiné à sa future épouse. Le soir, il y a un dîner chez les Puygarrig, les parents de la future épousée. Dissertation Thesis! Le narrateur peut admirer la grâce et la beauté de la fiancée, mais il note également l'attitude malicieuse de la jeune fille. On Being Mairs Essay! De retour à Ille, chez les Peyrehorade, la discussion porte sur le mariage qui doit avoir lieu le lendemain. University! Le narrateur fait remarquer qu'il est assez rare qu'un mariage ait lieu un vendredi.

Il existe une superstition attachée à ce jour. Cripple Mairs! Mme de Peyrehorade est plutôt contrariée. York University! Mais son mari s'en tire par une pirouette : il fait remarquer que Vendredi est le jour de Vénus, la déesse de la beauté. Le jour du mariage. Cripple Nancy! Le narrateur dessine le portrait de Vénus, tandis que M. Dissertation Thesis University! de Peyrehorade offre des roses à la statue. On Being Nancy! Il les dispose aux pieds de la déesse et lui demande de protéger le nouveau couple. Thesis York! Arrive Alphonse, le futur marié, déjà habillé pour la noce. On Being Mairs Essay! Il assiste à une partie de jeu de paume opposant l'équipe locale à une équipe d'espagnols.

Les espagnols prennent rapidement l'avantage. Thesis! Voulant venir au secours des siens, Alphonse se jette dans la partie. Paper! Mais sa bague de diamants le gêne dans ses mouvements. Thesis! Il la retire, et pour ne pas la perdre, il la passe au doigt de la statue. Published Research Papers Literature! La partie tourne à l'avantage de l'équipe locale. Thesis University! Vexé, le capitaine de l'équipe espagnole rumine sa défaite et marmonne, à l'intention d'Alphonse Me lo pagaras, tu me le paieras.

Alphonse remonte dans la calèche pour se rendre chez sa fiancée. Essay Graphic Organizer! Le parcours a lieu sous les acclamations. York University! Alphonse se rend compte qu'il a oublié la bague. Questions! Il hésite, mais finalement de peur d'être ridicule, n'envoie personne la chercher. Dissertation Thesis York! Une autre bague fera l'affaire. Après la cérémonie, le déjeuner a lieu chez les Puygarrig. Research Literature! Durant l'après-midi la jeune mariée fait des adieux émouvants à sa tante. Le soir, la réception a lieu chez les Peyrehorade . Dissertation Thesis York University! Le narrateur est choqué par l'ambiance grivoise et débridée qui y règne. Cripple! Heureusement la mariée relève le niveau général. Thesis! M. Research In English! de Peyrehorade offre à l'assistance quelques couplets sur les deux Vénus : la statue romaine et la jeune mariée.

Une fois au salon, Alphonse confie au narrateur son angoisse soudaine : il ne parvient pas à retirer l'anneau du doigt de la statue. Dissertation Thesis York! Le narrateur est dubitatif . Published Research! Alphonse lui propose d'aller vérifier lui-même. Dissertation Thesis York! Mettant cette affirmation sur le compte d'un repas trop arrosé, le narrateur n'en fait rien et va se coucher sans avoir rendu visite à la statue. Compare And Contrast Ideas College! Une fois dans sa chambre, le narrateur a une longue méditation sur le mariage. La nuit est agitée. Dissertation! Le narrateur entend plusieurs bruits : tout d'abord des pas légers qu'il attribue à la mariée. In English! Puis il lui semble entendre des pas beaucoup plus pesants dans l'escalier. University! Il pense cette fois avoir reconnu les pas du jeune marié. Graphic Organizer! Au petit matin, il entend à nouveau ces pas lourds puis ce sont des cris et des plaintes. Dissertation Thesis University! Le narrateur se lève et court aux nouvelles.

Le jeune marié gît sur le lit nuptial. Deniable Other! Il a le corps couvert de contusions. Dissertation Thesis University! Sa femme est en proie à une crise d'hystérie. Le narrateur examine le corps du marié. Essay Questions! Il n'y décèle aucune trace de sang. Dissertation Thesis York University! Ses soupçons se portent sur le capitaine de l'équipe espagnole de jeu de paume, mais il ne dispose d'aucune preuve. Graphic! En continuant ses investigations, le narrateur découvre sur le tapis la bague de diamants qui normalement aurait dû se trouver au doigt de la statue. Dissertation! Il constate aussi qu'il n'y aucune trace d'effraction dans la maison. Mairs! Dehors les seules empreintes que l'on peut relever sont celles qui mènent à la statue. Le narrateur apprend ensuite de la bouche du procureur que la mariée est devenue folle. Dissertation Thesis York University! Il lui dévoile la déposition qu'elle a faite : elle s'est couchée la première.

Puis elle a entendu quelqu'un pénétrer dans la chambre . Darwin Essays! Elle a pensé que c'était son mari. Thesis University! Cette personne s'est couchée dans le lit et elle a senti la présence d'un corps glacé. Published Research In English! Plus tard une seconde personne est entrée dans la chambre, qui cette fois lui a dit ces quelques mots : Bonsoir ma petite femme. Thesis University! La jeune mariée a vu alors la statue qui était dans son lit enserrer son mari jusqu'à l'étouffer. Questions On Homelessness! La jeune femme s'est alors évanouie et n'a retrouvé ses esprits qu'au petit matin. Thesis University! Elle a alors vu la statue quitter la chambre. Le procureur convoque ensuite le capitaine de l'équipe espagnole. And Contrast Essay College! Ce dernier récuse l'accusation et fournit au procureur un alibi incontestable. University! Le narrateur, craignant pour sa réputation, refuse d'explorer la piste surnaturelle. Après l'enterrement, le narrateur quitte Ille et rentre à Paris.

Il apprend quelques mois après que M de Peyrehorade est mort lui aussi et que Mme de Peyrehorade a décidé de faire fondre la statue pour en faire une cloche. Compare And Contrast Essay College! Visiblement ceci n'a pas suffi à faire disparaître la malédiction, car depuis que cette cloche sonne, les vignes d'Ille ont déjà gelé deux fois. Contexte de l'écriture de la Vénus d'Ille. Nouvelle de Prosper Mérimée (1837) Mérimée a eu l'idée de cette nouvelle lors de son voyage dans le Roussillon en 1834. Thesis! Il y avait découvert un site antique où des fouilles archéologiques avaient révélé un temple antique dédié à Vénus. Uk! Mêlant imagination et érudition (Mérimée a été inspecteur des Monuments Historiques), il nous offre avec la Vénus d'Ille , l'une des plus célèbres de ses Nouvelles fantastiques.

Dans sa correspondance, Mérimée évoque une histoire de revenants : c'est suivant moi, mon chef d'œuvre . Ille-sur-la-Têt est une petite ville de Catalogne, située sur la route de Perpignan à Prades, à 24 km à l'ouest de Perpignan. Thesis York! Mérimée a visité cette région au cours de son voyage dans le midi de la France entre le 12 et le 14 novembre 1834. Archéologue parisien, il n'est jamais nommé dans le récit. Organizer! Il est accueilli très cordialement par M. Dissertation York! de Peyrehorade, antiquaire à Ille, mais il ne peut s'empêcher de regarder ces honnêtes provinciaux avec une certaine condescendance. Questions! Alors qu'il souhaitait simplement satisfaire sa passion pour l'archéologie, le narrateur se retrouve, malgré lui, plongé au cœur d'un drame. Notable cultivé d'Ille, M. Thesis University! de Peyrehorade est antiquaire. On Being Nancy Mairs! C'est lui qui accueille très chaleureusement le narrateur.

C'est un bourgeois de province, qui se prendrait bien volontiers pour un savant. University! Il est amoureux d'une statue de Vénus découverte récemment, dans ses terres. Organizer! Il mourra quelques mois après la mort de son fils, sans doute de chagrin. C'est le fils de M. Dissertation York University! de Peyrehorade. Essay College! Il doit épouser, le lendemain de l'arrivée du narrateur, Mlle de Puygarrig, une jeune fille fortunée de la région. Dissertation York University! Le jour de son mariage, il passe bien imprudemment sa bague au doigt de la statue. Essay Questions! Il en mourra. Mlle de Puygarrig, une jeune fille fortunée de la région. Dissertation York University! Elle est belle et raffinée. Essay Questions! Elle devient Mme Alphonse, en épousant le fils Peyrehorade. York University! Elle perdra dans la tragédie son mari et selon les témoins son équilibre mental.

L'épouse de M. Nancy Mairs! de Peyrehorade. Dissertation York! Elle incarne l'étroitesse d'esprit de la bourgeoisie provinciale . And Contrast Ideas! A la différence de son mari qui est subjugué par la Vénus, elle, se méfie : Savez vous (dit M. University! de Peyrehorade au narrateur), que ma femme voulait que je fondisse ma statue pour en faire une cloche à l'église ? ). A la fin du récit son fils et son mari sont morts, et Mme de Peyrehorade fait fondre la statue pour en faire une cloche . Quelques jugements sur Mérimée et ses nouvelles. Mérimée, agnostique et qui n'a jamais été baptisé, nourri de Voltaire, des Encyclopédistes et des Idéologues, rivalisant avec son ami Stendhal de sarcasmes contre l'Eglise, les prêtres et toutes les religions, affichait l'impiété, un matérialisme intrépide, une confiance hautaine dans la science et la raison. Cripple! En fait, il n'est sûr de rien, il est torturé par le doute, obsédé par une présence qu'il n'appelle pas Dieu parce qu'il se refuse au dogme comme à la révélation, mais qu'il décèle dans les forces mystérieuses de l'Univers, dans la toute puissance du destin, dans l'innommable comme dans l'ineffable . Thesis York! Stendhal, lui, n'avait aucune inquiétude religieuse ni métaphysique : aussi n'a-t-il jamais écrit de conte fantastique . Organizer! Pour en rêver, ne fût-ce qu'un seul, il faut avoir le sens du mystère, de l'au-delà, d'une transcendance de quelque nature qu'elle soit. Marcel Schneider, La littérature fantastique en France , Fayard, 1964. Il sait faire vingt pages, où les romantiques s'évertuent à souffler un volume.

Aussi quelle plénitude dans cette brièveté. Dissertation! Un paysage est complet en cinq ou six lignes. Research! Les caractères se dessinent par une action significative, que le romancier a su choisir en faisant abstraction du reste. Il est simple aussi : ni sensibilité, ni grandes phrases; un ton uni, comme celui d'un homme de bonne compagnie qui ne hausse jamais la voix. University! On peut imaginer l'effet de cette voix douce et sans accent quand elle raconte les pires atrocités. Questions! Car Mérimée est cruel, il conte avec sérénité toutes sortes de crimes, de lâchetés et de vices, les histoires les plus répugnantes ou les plus sanglantes; ne croyant ni à l'homme ni à la vie, il choisit les sujets où son froid mépris trouve le mieux à se satisfaire.

Gustave Lanson, Histoire de la Littérature française , 1894, Hachette. Thierry Ozwald, Colomba, La Vénus d'Ille (Nathan) Michel Viegnes, Colomba, La Vénus d'Ille (Hatier) Kléber Haedens Une Histoire de la Littérature française , Grasset 1970. Dictionnaire de la Littérature française du XXème siècle (Albin Michel, Encyclopaedia Universalis) Le Robert des Grands Ecrivains de langue française.

Achetez des livres à propos de merimee venus chez l'un de nos partenaires. Retrouvez les grands moments. du Festival de Cannes Molière, ce grand peintre de l'homme tel qu'il est. Dissertation! Shakespeare seul a enfanté une humanité aussi large et aussi vivante. Research Papers Literature! Emile Zola, 1881. Aujourd'hui, maman est morte. Thesis York University! Ou peut-être hier, je ne sais pas. Cripple Nancy! J'ai reçu un télégramme de l'asile : Mère décédée. Thesis! Enterrement demain. On Being Cripple Nancy Essay! Sentiments distingués.

Cela ne veut rien dire. Thesis York! C'était peut-être hier. Compare And Contrast Essay Ideas! mais il y a au monde une chose sainte et sublime, c'est l'union de deux de ces êtres si imparfaits et si affreux. York University! On est souvent trompé en amour, souvent blessé et souvent malheureux; mais on graphic aime, et quand on dissertation thesis york est sur le bord de sa tombe, on essay graphic se retourne pour regarder en arrière et on thesis university se dit : j'ai souffert souvent, je me suis trompé quelquefois, mais j'ai aimé. Essay Graphic! C'est moi qui ai vécu, et non pas un être factice créé par mon orgueil et mon ennui.

Alfred de Musset. Dcouvrez sur aLaLettre un rsum de Candide de Voltaire.