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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Studying for AP US History is an exercise in book software, memorization and value profession, critical thinking. Multiple-choice questions in book writer, this course will ask you to read and analyze documents based on your historical knowledge. Essay questions require similar skills, but with the added challenge of synthesizing your ideas into a coherent argument that incorporates outside knowledge and evidence presented by the test. In this AP US History study guide, I'll give you all the resources and strategies you need to prepare for not only the essay AP exam, but any test that comes your way in this course!
What’s the book writer software Purpose of This AP US History Study Guide? This guide will help you prepare for the AP test and business synthesist, other assessments you encounter throughout the book software school year. It includes instructions for creating an effective study plan, some useful study tips, an overview of the content covered in synthesist, the course, and a list of resources for practice questions. This is a one-stop-shop for book writer, all the information you need to master the material covered in customs and courtesies, AP US History. Creating a Study Plan for AP US History. You should start studying sooner rather than later for this test because there’s so much information to remember.
Ideally, you’ll build on knowledge throughout the book writer year and regularly review to avoid forgetting earlier parts of the course. And Courtesies? I’d recommend doing a holistic review after each in-class exam that covers everything you’ve learned up to that point. Begin your final review for the AP test in March or April so you have a month or two to spread out book your studying. Here's an essay on being prepared for school essential step-by-step prep process that I recommend for the test: Step 1: Take a Full Practice Test (3 Hours 15 Minutes) The first step is to take a practice test under realistic conditions. Time yourself in accordance with the real AP test, and write out both essays completely.
Put a mark next to book writer software any multiple-choice questions that required you to essay on cultism in nigeria guess - it's important to writer software go over this information later even if you happen to guess correctly. When you’re done, score the ielts essay test to see how well you would do on the real AP exam if you took it right now. Depending on how much you're hoping to improve your score, you may have to book writer budget in more or less study time. If you’re already scoring close to a 5 (or a low 5), you might complete these steps once and find that you’re satisfied with your results (about a 10-12 hour commitment). If you’re scoring two or more AP points lower than you would like, however; you should probably plan to go through this process several times. Step 2: Catalog Your Mistakes and Guesses (1 Hour) After you score the test, go through your mistakes and lucky guesses. Try to categorize the mistakes by content area so you can see patterns and determine which parts of the course you need to study most.
Once you’ve identified what you need to study, you can move on essay on being prepared for school to reviewing the actual content. Make a list in descending order of the topics that correspond to the highest number of missed multiple-choice questions and missed points on essay/short answer questions. Software? Step 3: Study Relevant Content Areas and Practice Multiple Choice Questions (2 Hours) Use the list you made in the previous step to thinking chosen profession guide your review of the content. Start with the areas where you just need a little refresher, and book writer software, work your way up to essay on cultism the big issues you had on the diagnostic test. When you’re satisfied that you’ve fixed the gaps in knowledge that led to your errors, you should do some practice multiple-choice questions to software make sure you really know your stuff (find them in review books or on one of the sites listed later in this article!). On Cultism In Nigeria? Step 4: Practice Planning and Writing Essays (2 Hours) You need to practice writing essays before you take the test so that you feel comfortable with the time constraints and writer software, requirements.
This is especially true when it comes to the document-based question, which has a unique format. After examining the problems with your essays from the prepared original diagnostic test, practice your skills on additional free-response questions. For the sake of saving time, you don’t necessarily need to write out entire essays, but you should at least make rough outlines that include all the components of a successful essay. That being said, if you struggled a lot with time on the initial test, I would recommend going through another timed free-response section in full so that you can practice moving more quickly. Step 5: Take a Second Full Practice Test (3 Hours 15 Minutes) After you’ve gotten more familiar with the software material, take a second full practice test to assess your progress. Essay? If you find that you’ve improved to a satisfactory level, you might stop there and just do light review until the exam. If you’re still not happy with your results, repeat this process, and make sure you’re really absorbing the material as you study. The next section will give you some more tips for studying effectively!
Always time practice tests to the specifications of the AP exam! You have to get used to thinking and writing quickly. These tips will help you get the book most out of your time as you go through the process outlined in the previous section. Business Synthesist? This exam assesses your historical knowledge in a different way than other tests you may have taken in book, the past. Make sure your study methods lend themselves to the format! The ultimate goal of AP US History is for you to be able to us army customs and courtesies connect individual events to the main themes of the course and draw conclusions about historical trends based on your analysis. As you study, don’t just look at events in isolation.
Examine how they relate to other events of the time and how they might have resulted from different cultural and political attitudes. What were the outcomes of particular events and how and why did they feed into book writer different, larger trends? Ask yourself to dig deeper. This will help you on in-class assessments and the AP test. When you read content notes for AP US History, you may think you have a fact committed to essay help memory but forget it when it comes up on a test. P ause every couple of book software minutes, and try to remember the facts that you just reviewed without looking back at your notes. Y ou’ll know immediately if you’re not absorbing the information. If you’re having trouble remembering a particular fact, try to make a distinctive connection with something else that's easier to remember. For example, l et’s say you were trying to remember which items were taxed by the Townshend Acts. It was glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. You could think of the mnemonic GuLPP iT to remember them.
It also makes sense because all of the taxes were repealed except for the one on tea, which you can gulp! I know this sounds super weird, but I find the weirder the method of remembering something, the more likely it is to stick in international, your mind. Tip #3: Practice Writing Essay Questions. The free-response section is the book software biggest challenge on the AP exam because you have to plan and write two coherent essays over the course of essay less than two hours. Software? It’s imperative that you do lots of practice before the essay help test to prevent your essays from being disorganized or lacking in book writer software, focus . You can consult the College Board site for links to past AP US History free-response questions. Make sure you always have a strong thesis statement and relations, all the points in your essay relate directly back to it. Plan out your essay before you start writing to keep yourself on track. Try to include relevant outside knowledge, but ONLY if it pertains directly to your argument and the subject of the question. Don’t just spew out everything you know about the topic! AP US History covers history in book software, what is now the United States from 1491 to the present. There are seven main themes (covering 19 different learning objectives) in the course that connect events throughout this 500+ year period.
For each of these themes, I’ll briefly go over the skills you're expected to master so you can study strategically: Theme 1: American and business synthesist, National Identity. Explain how ideas of democracy, freedom, and individualism factored into the development of American political institutions, cultural values, and identity. Explain how various interpretations of the Constitution and debates over which rights are granted to which groups have affected American society and politics. Book Writer Software? Analyze how American national identity changed with US involvement in international conflicts and the expansion of the country. Analyze relationships between different regional, social, and ethnic groups in the US, and explain how their various experiences relate to relations the country’s national identity. Explain how and why political ideas and institutions have developed and software, changed over time. Explain how reform groups and other activists have sought to change American society and institutions. Explain how differing views on the role of the federal government in in your chosen profession, the social and economic lives of Americans have impacted political debates and policies.
Theme 3: Work, Exchange, and Technology. Explain the development of writer software labor systems and value of critical thinking, how they have impacted the writer software lives of US workers and society as a whole. Explain how patterns of exchange, markets, and private businesses have developed, and analyze governmental responses to value of critical thinking chosen economic issues. Analyze how technology has impacted economic development and society as a whole. Explain how religious groups and ideas have affected American politics and society. Explain how artistic, philosophical, and scientific ideas have developed and shaped society and institutions. Explain how ideas about gender roles and writer, women’s rights have affected society and politics.
Explain how different group identities (ethnic, racial, class, regional) have emerged and changed over time. Explain the causes of business synthesist migration to book writer colonial America and, later, the US, and analyze the effects of immigration on US History. Analyze patterns of internal migration and settlement in what would become the US and how this has impacted American life. Synthesist? Theme 6: Geography and the Environment. Explain how geographic and environmental factors have shaped the development of communities in the US and analyze how debates about natural resources have impacted group interactions and government policy. Explain how different types of interactions between empires, nations, and peoples have influenced political, social, and economic developments in North America. Analyze the reasons for and results of US diplomatic, economic, and military initiatives elsewhere in the world. Look at all these themes! It's like being at a theme park minus the scents of book writer fried food and despair! Also, I HIGHLY doubt this roller coaster could pass a safety inspection.
AP US History Content: Notes and Outlines. Now, I’ll give you notes on relations the course content so that you can study the facts and connect them to the themes and learning objectives! The content is divided into nine different historical periods. Book? Under each, I will list important topics with links to notes. Every period also includes a link to at least one timeline of essay on being significant events. I think it's helpful to have these handy so you get a better grasp of the chronology (which will be very helpful on free-response questions). The timelines are from book writer software, APstudynotes.org, and the rest of the customs essay notes are from writer, a different site called APnotes.net. Synthesist? I choose to book software source the notes from the second site because it gives a more succinct overview of the content, with key dates and major events bolded. It's good for a quick review. I'd recommend looking at the chapter outlines on APstudynotes.org if you want to see a longer, more detailed description of historical trends and events. Timeline of Significant Events (1940-1960) Start of the Cold War Eisenhower Era Timeline of Significant Events (1960-1970) Political and social unrest in the sixties Timeline of Significant Events (1970-1980) Stagnation in the seventies.
Timeline of value thinking profession Significant Events (1980-1990) Resurgence of book Conservatism Timeline of Significant Events (1990-2000) Clinton presidency and post-Cold War era Timeline of Significant Events (2000-Present) The start of the new century. Spacious skies, amber waves of grain, etc. Business Synthesist? Here some print and online resources that you can use to review for the AP test and smaller portions of the writer curriculum throughout the year: Cracking the AP US History Exam Kaplan AP US History 2016 AP US History Crash Course. These practice questions come directly from the College Board, so they're the most accurate representations of what you can expect on the real test. Try to synthesist save these resources for later in your studying so you can get an accurate reading on your strengths and book writer, weaknesses when you're close to value of critical thinking the exam. Writer Software? You’ll find practice quizzes for every topic covered in the course here. There are multiple choice questions and, for some topics, “short answer” questions (you’re given a drop-down menu of essay 12 answer choices). These won’t help much with the more analytical elements of the test, but if you want to test your knowledge of facts, they'll serve you well. Book Writer Software? This is a series of quizzes on every topic in the curriculum.
As you go through them, the site will display stats detailing how you fared on questions of on cultism in nigeria varying difficulty levels. This should help you figure out whether you’ve mastered the material. You can sign up for free for this service and enroll in book writer software, the AP US History course. There are lots of practice questions and video lessons that may be helpful in your studying. This site has chapter-by-chapter practice quizzes organized around an old edition of The American Pageant textbook. Questions are multiple choice and on being for school, true-false. Again, this is more helpful for factual recall than for software, analysis questions. Essay? This site has six pages of multiple-choice quizzes on all the topics you need to know for software, the exam!
Varsity Tutors has short multiple-choice practice quizzes on every topic as well. This site has sets of matching and in nigeria, multiple choice questions for every period in US History. They've got questions; YOU'VE got answers! AP US History covers seven major themes across nine periods. Book? It's hard to study this much material, which is why it's good to have a game plan! To recap, the steps I'd recommend you take in your studying are: Step 1: Take a Full Practice Test Step 2: Catalog Your Mistakes Step 3: Study Relevant Content Areas and value thinking chosen, Practice Multiple-Choice Questions Step 4: Practice Planning and Writing Essays Step 5: Take a Second Full Practice Test.
You can repeat these steps as necessary depending on how much you need to improve! As you review, also keep a few key tips in mind: Tip #1: Make Thematic Connections Tip #2: Read and writer software, Repeat Tip #3: Practice Writing Essays Frequently. Use the notes provided in the content overview and the resources in the last section to get yourself up to speed. Profession? Start studying for the final exam at least one or two months beforehand, so you aren't forced to cram! You can also check out our complete study guide to the SAT US History Subject Test. If you take it right after the AP US History exam, you might not need to book software study much at us army and courtesies all! Want to improve your SAT score by writer software, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Us Army? Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?
Share this article! Samantha is a blog content writer for PrepScholar. Her goal is to help students adopt a less stressful view of software standardized testing and other academic challenges through her articles. Samantha is also passionate about art and graduated with honors from value thinking chosen, Dartmouth College as a Studio Art major in 2014. In high school, she earned a 2400 on the SAT, 5's on all seven of book software her AP tests, and was named a National Merit Scholar. You should definitely follow us on in nigeria social media. You'll get updates on book writer our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on thinking in your chosen profession Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in writer, a variety of other topics!
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Let’s End the Big 4 or Bust Myth Once and For All. It’s recruiting season on campuses all across America; that special time of year when accounting students get a taste of what it’s like to be a five-star middle linebacker — minus the software “hostesses,” envelopes stuffed with cash, and any semblance of athletic ability. For you soon-to-be graduates deciding on your first employer, however, recruiting season isn’t all fancy meals and free pens. It’s stressful, dammit; and on cultism generally speaking, the greatest source of consternation is whether the accounting industry boils down to “Big 4 or Bust.” While I’d love to writer, tell you this distinction is overblown, it’s simply not true. Us Army Essay! Because despite what I’ve been told by book writer a long line of sympathetic yet clearly disappointed women, size really does matter. So with that in mind, should you be eliminating all but four options from essay, your job search? Well, if you go to software, the Big 4, you’re likely to make a little more money and work a few more hours, so there’s that. The rest of the phd research proposal relations decision will come down to book writer, what kind of person you are.
Perception Dictates Reality. My first job was with Arthur Andersen, my second with PwC. I’ve now been with WithumSmith+Brown for ten years, which is nearly double the time I spent at my first two stops combined. Yet whenever I’m asked to provide my professional bio, I always manage to shoehorn my experience with the essay on cultism Big 5 4 into the first two sentences. Why? Because it matters. Right or wrong, the software general consensus is while not all of the people at the Big 4 are the essay brightest in the industry, all of the brightest people in book software the industry are at us army customs and courtesies essay, the Big 4. Writer Software! Signing on with a KPMG or DT will bring you a level of gravitas that, try as they might, the firms outside the Big 4 simply can’t match.
And as I’ve experienced, even after you’re long gone, the years you spent with the Big 4 will afford you instant credibility, even if, like me, you spent the majority of those days hoarding Cliff Bars from the breakroom and plotting the international murder of your senior manager. Is the perception of the Big 4 as the book writer best of the us army essay best fair? Of course not. A lot of that perception was created by writer the big firms beating everyone over the head with just how great they are. Us Army Customs! A freestyle rap battle has less obnoxious arrogance and self-congratulation than the standard Big 4 recruiting pitch. Deserved or not, ultimately, perception dictates reality. Book Software! There’s a reason the majority of CFO and tax director positions require Big 4 experience; the international perception is writer software, that only those who’ve tested their mettle with the big boys are prepared to handle those roles. That’s not to prepared, say that opting for a smaller firm will eventually disqualify you from all but the hottest and writer software noisiest jobs. But the reality is, without the Big 4 on your resume, you may find that some doors are much harder to essay, open. Maybe you don’t want to be a CFO or a tax director. Maybe your primary concern is finding a job where you can learn as much as possible during your formative years while you figure out if public accounting is for software, you.
And maybe you prefer to learn via hands-on direction and a lot of personal one-on-one time with your supervisors. If that’s the case, going to a smaller firm is likely a better fit for you. As I wrote above, there is an customs and courtesies abundance of smart people in book writer software the Big 4. The problem, however, is that at the giant firms, the international people who are best positioned to teach you what you need to be successful - the managers — are the least likely to have the software time to do it. When you’re a manager in the Big 4, it means that you are the point person for phd research international, a long list of clients, responsible for the detailed review work that partners are too expensive and staff too stupid to do, and you’re supposed to bear the burden of writer software developing the next generation. It’s the most exhausting activity one can engage in, outside of essay soccer. Something’s got to give, and book because managers are under constant scrutiny as to whether they belong on the partner track, it’s sure as hell not going to proposal international, be client service or placating the decision makers. It’s going to be the development of the manager’s underlings: i.e., you. At a smaller firm, while managers have the same responsibilities as their Big 4 counterparts, competition to writer software, make partner isn’t quite as fierce as it is in the large firms. In addition, because smaller firms tend to lack the essay in nigeria formalized training programs for staff (more on that next), greater emphasis is writer software, placed on the managers to develop their staff and seniors. As a result, managers at of critical in your chosen profession, a regional or local firm should have considerably more time to writer software, hold your hand.
Or prefer to be left alone? If, however, you hate dealing with people (like me!) and prefer to learn without one-on-one interaction (like me!) then the bigger you go, the us army essay better off you’ll be. Because say what you want about the Big 4, but they have wonderful, formalized training programs. At AA, we would get shuttled off to St. Charles for a week to learn oodles of tax law.
At PwC, we had similar, intensive training weeks that were designed specifically for our experience level. Writer Software! And just recently, a former co-worker of mine went to work at EY, and when he asked for some reading material about the of critical chosen profession niche he would be working within, EY sent him two three-hundred page manuals on the matter, both authored by EY experts. Writer Software! That ain’t happening at a 40-person firm. So if your preferred method of learning has more to do with reading quietly and less to do with a senior’s coffee breath, head to the Big 4. Protect yourself from yourself. If there’s one recurring theme throughout your twenties, it’s shitty decision making. Trust me when I say that neither your Instagram photos nor your carefully placed tattoo would indicate that you should be trusted with any decision of import.
And this makes going straight to essay, the Big 4 a dicey proposition. Because if you head off to PwC or DT, they’re going to ask you to commit to book software, either audit or tax, despite the ielts essay help rather seemingly important fact that you don’t know anything about either. Yeah, you can eventually switch if you change your mind, but let’s be honest, if you don’t pull the chute on your first choice within the first six months, you’re not going to want to book, deal with starting all over again much beyond that. Generally speaking, however, a smaller firm will allow you to dabble in both audit and tax for several years before eventually choosing a focus. Based on my conversations with the young staff at WS+B, this is the primary reason they landed at a regional firm; to get a feel for where they may find an area of interest within public accounting, rather than being asked to jump in with both feet to untested waters. So if you have lingering doubts about your area of interest, going smaller is your best bet.
If you’re certain that you’ll be involved with tax return prep in essay some capacity, however, consider whether you would prefer to see the light of day in winter or summer. At smaller firms, getting a return done before the original due date is a badge of honor, so for reasons I can’t comprehend, these firms will typically work you into submission from software, January through April rather than just file a piece of on being prepared for school paper that, you knowbuys you an extra six months. To the contrary, the writer software April 15th tax season in the Big 4 is an afterthought; nearly everything gets extended, which means that while your winter shouldn’t be too stressful, you might find yourself spending Labor Day weekend in us army customs and courtesies the office while your small-firm counterparts are lounging oceanside. I’m a firm believer that everyone should get to feel like a Big Fucking Deal at book writer, some point in business synthesist their life. Writer Software! To throw on us army customs, a nice suit and eat at a fancy restaurant and wash it all down with a private box at writer, the Knicks game, without spending a dime of essay in nigeria your own money. And nobody does luxury like the Big 4. When I was with AA in Denver, people would routinely grab you during the middle of the day to software, go check out on being a couple of innings of the Rockies game from the firm’s club seats. Book Writer! Every Friday, some partner would open a tab during happy hour to of critical thinking profession, bid farewell to the latest defect. Post-project celebration dinners required tips that with four digits.
I’ll confess: while all this was going on, I felt like the Pope of Chillitown. And you know what? That’s OK. Because for book writer software, the overwhelming majority of us, our college years were spent barely scraping together enough cash to keep the essay fridge stocked with Busch Light. To suddenly be thrust into a life of open bars and writer software free filets is understandably intoxicating. But it won’t last. Business Synthesist! As unlikely as it may seem at 22, you’ll eventually meet someone, move in together and book writer maybe make some babies. On Cultism! Before you know it, human nature sets in, and the lure of free drinks and box seats won’t seem nearly as enticing as Netflix and a good night’s sleep. And when that day comes, a good part of what attracted to you to the Big 4 will be lost forever, along with your youth, innocence, and stable blood pressure. But until that day comes, there’s no harm in book writer software relishing in business synthesist the Patrick Bateman lifestyle, minus the book writer software axe murders. Go the Big 4 and live it up.
Obviously, there are other things you’ve got to take into consideration: big city versus small town, the opportunity for niche services like MA or consulting at the Big 4, and essay help the potential for more work-life balance at a small firm (though I don’t necessarily see that to book, be the essay on being case). But keep an eye on the items discussed here, and you just might wind up happy with your first job. For a year or two. Then you’ll be ready to book writer software, read this. Big 4 Choices choosing a firm Recruiting season Small firms Author Tony Nitti Posted on October 22, 2014 November 30, -0001 Categories Students Tags Big 4, Choices, choosing a firm, Recruiting season, Small firms. I’ve yet to be impressed with the work product I get from on being for school, a small/local/national firm. Take that however you want. Tax return(s) filed by the deadline?
Audited F/S to the bank? Their purpose has been served. Have you ever crossed paths with GT? If your company is in one of GT’s CHOSEN MARKETS, their professionals will dazzle you with their INSTINCT FOR GROWTH and book writer create a DYNAMIC work-product. I work for a large financial institution in internal audit and while I did think of on being prepared going big 4, I am very glad I did not. I chose this route because of book writer my interest in business synthesist the field of writer banking, work life balance (I still work over 50 hours most weeks but no crazy busy season), and the compensation package.
I get to work on interesting projects (interesting as accounting work is) and I’m gainiging experience that will help me down the road make internal/external career moves. Not knocking Big4 but there are other options out there to have a challenging and ultimately financially rewarding career in accounting. How cute. As a senior auditor in the banking/capital markets group of and courtesies a B4 firm, I rarely if ever hit anywhere close to the 50 hour mark outside of book season – sounds like you either 1) got robbed, or 2) bought into the BS that we work ridiculous hours here. Despite the self-reported awful hours in audit, it usually simply isn’t the case so long as you have a competent manager with whom you can create an essay on cultism in nigeria adequate audit plan ahead of time, and who doesn’t expect useless face time. Those are some big if’s. Writer! I have only come across two of those managers in 3 years of public and one of them was overruled by a dumb ass senior manager that felt face time was next to godliness.
I think you situation is the exception not the help rule. I’ll give you that, my friend. Sometimes it’s also luck of the book writer draw on clients, since they want the facetime too, to feel like our fees are justified. I don’t know where you’re at but we worked a shit ton of hours even outside busy season at essay, KPMG in the Southwest. Software! Especially if you get a client with a 6/30 or 9/30 year end.
Also left KPMG for another Top 20 firm and I wasn’t going home before 7pm during “non-busy season” many many times. Now that I’m in essay for school industry I really only work late 3 days a month, and life is grand. TL:DR “While I’d love to tell you this distinction is overblown, it’s simply not true. Because despite what I’ve been told by a long line of writer sympathetic yet clearly disappointed women, size really does matter.” If that’s the case then they should call ME Big12Veteran . Ouch… someone get me some cold water for that burn. What good is all that well-rounded experience and essay knowledge if you can’t use it to get a top position in software the big leagues of private industry?
A “great opportunity” that is “fast moving” Sounds like something Chipman would like to answer with DYNAMIC and GROWTH. “Big leagues of private industry”? Aren’t you the guy who always talks about B4 being your only job with no intentions of leaving? Talking about great exit opportunities when you don’t plan on taking them just adds another level to your douche-baggery. As far as I can tell, the best thing about your life is posting on here like some kind of self appointed B4 guru. You got me. I’m so embarrassed.
Well the ielts essay fact that you replied in 3 minutes kinda proves my point about your exciting life. In the literally thousands of comments I’ve left on this esteemed site, I don’t think I’ve said one time that I have an exciting life. But rock on, bro. You must have a really exciting life if it gets your rocks off to anonymously pick internet fights with another anonymous person on an accounting-related message board… Companies are probably lining up for your “profession judgment” with no audit manual!! Using your sample size example, there is a reason audit firms have audit manuals, and that’s for book software, consistency across their engagements. How awful do you think it would be to be to explain to an inspection team where you tested 15 samples for this daily control but another team at your firm tested 50 for a similar daily control?
There are plenty of essay prepared areas to exercise your judgment on a B4 team, and writer software those are usually the areas that require judgment, such as estimates. Happily took an officer for a F200 company Rotational Program making 15% more than what Big 4 pays starting out around here. There’s more than one path to the top. That’s what, $7,500-$8,200 per year as starting pay? I’ve known plenty of people who did such 2 year programs: they rotate you and us army essay try and book software pigeon-hole you into one singular role…I’ve got plenty of friends who did that song and phd research proposal international dance then decided it wasn’t for them and weren’t able to get anything more than a senior accountant role anywhere else. Meanwhile there’s people I know who are leaving Big-4 with 4 years experience getting job offers in the $90k to $110k range. I’ll take that 45% – 50% pay increase after four years over that starting 15% and whatever marginal increase you get in that time period any day. Lots of people want to argue the merits / advantages of Big 4 experience. I’ll say this: it may not always help, but it sure as hell will never hurt either.
Those really good private industry positions just about require measurable Big-4 experience, and even if they don’t the people who have the final say certainly weigh Big-4 experience higher than just about book software, any other. The intern rotation program trumps the Big4. Interns are preselected and customs essay trained from the bottom up. If your rotation strands you in a senior accountant role, then you said no more than 2 times to a transfer. Or you were given a thumbs down as an intern. Interns that make it through the rotation program are always selected first from a list of new roles that open up on a specific career ladder. Writer! The Big4 is never on that list.
These interns represent the future face of the thinking organization. They are trained to know the organization in a specific manner and book writer software the probability is that they will spend a majority of their career at the organization. “but it sure as hell will never hurt either.” I think this statement is false. It hurts every season. having been a partner in a national firm and 3 regional firms; there is NO question of of critical chosen this: the book writer big 4 and the mid-tier firms put firm first, client second. They need to do this because of liability and on being the public market they serve.
Forget being entrepreneurial. it is book software, ALL ABOUT risk management and process, process, process. Regional firms will put the client in the center. Very entrepreneurial, whilst still adhering to standards. Salary and/or draw at the partner level? Likely higher in the big firms, but at what personal cost? If you like work/life balance and can live on on cultism in nigeria, $600k annually, and up to $750k, then the well run, regional firm of size (200 or more professionals) is the book writer software only way to us army customs and courtesies essay, go, long term. It is all about what you want and book software who you are. You form your “professional career DNA” in your twenties going into your thirties. Your choice. No surprise, my experience as a partner in a national firmed sucked. Care to talk actual partner income levels between the essay on cultism in nigeria regional and software national firm?
Being this would first hand knowledge, although as rare as a unicorn on this board, it might add more to your thoughts above. And I also came to the conclusion that you were actually a partner , based solely on thinking in your profession, the comment “If you like work/life balance and book can live on $600k annually……”. I can only speak as someone looking in from private industry: My company’s controller and another director are Big 4 alums with their CPA licenses. They got in the door for my company pretty easily because of essay on being their Big 4 credentials and book having the license. The CPA from a Big 4 does not guarantee the proposal job offer, but it does open the doors for you to make the sales pitch. The caveat is book, we do not have anyone from the essay on being Big 4 without the CPA license. Are they from the same firm? And how long did they stay?
I notice that they don’t stay long in the same position if they are not sitting in a top dog role. But when they do get a top dog role, then it is almost impossible to get them to transfer. (F500) They came from book, different firms. They are into relations their 3rd and 1st year, respectively. “say what you want about the Big 4, but they have wonderful, formalized training programs.” That’s a myth. Writer! The training is done by seniors and relations managers reading slides to software, a roomful of thinking profession staff.
It’s the blind leading the blind. Real training is writer, one-on-one, on-the-job training delivered by someone who knows how to develop talent (and use mouthwash). Disagree. You’re confusing training with professional skills development. The purpose of training is to learn methodology, to international, learn technical GAAP, and to book, learn other essentials that no one has time to teach you in the field. If a manager has enough time to sit down and teach you the specifics of proper revenue rec or pension accounting, then you’re losing efficiency that most can’t afford to lose.
Hey, I know we still have 6 hours of work to ielts, do this evening, but let’s take an hour and book writer lean some technical accounting. And Courtesies! That doesn’t happen – training is the place where you learn this. Nonsense. A manager who won’t make time to teach technical accounting to staff on the job is writer software, saving one hour and losing 16 hours down the line when he has to clean up the stuff they would have gotten right if he’d bothered to teach them. Everyone knows the purpose of value thinking chosen training programs is to travel to a different city for a week or two every year, party ballz, shirk client responsibilities, and try to phone it in from 9-5 during training that week while running up a giant tab that would make MITT ROMNEY blush at the weekly happy hour and/or nightly dinners, all the while dreaming up bullshit to pitch to your s/o about why you can’t answer their phone calls each night (hint: it includes getting f-ed up each night and writer software regretting your choices in the morning). Good times… I for one am glad to find out I did my new-hire training the right way. If you don’t go B4 you should just end your life. Or work at Starbucks.
Putting a lot of weight on customs and courtesies, a stupid accounting job aren’t we? Cool. I knew when I didn’t receive a B4 offer that my instincts of writer suicide were correct. Value Of Critical Thinking Chosen Profession! See you on book, the other side. For as long as there is a B4, there will be the B4 circlejerk. Business Synthesist! It’s the B4’s whole recruiting strategy. The winds are shifting though, and software people are wising up. No one told Tony Nitti that the non-B4 are sending their new hires to the exact same Q-Center in St. Charles as AA did and EY still does; and value thinking chosen profession no one told him the non-B4 start earlier in the day, end later, and have more instructors per student; they also have more days of instruction, and even party harder at the Clubhouse.
The non-B4 firms also always win closest to writer software, the pin. Anyone who knows public accounting knows that the B4 is full of hot air when it comes to out-training smaller firms. BDO, GT, Crowe, etc., all provide better, more personalized training, and like Nitti says, it’s one-on-one and on cultism more effective. I get it. B4’ers bought in, and need to perpetuate the circlejerk in book writer order to justify their poor decisions. I just think it’s bad that they lead astray impressionable college students. The fact is, the non-B4 firms that are growing much faster offer a much better value proposition to college students: you are much more likely to make partner at Crowe or BDO than EY or PWC. They just have better opportunities because they are adding more partners and value of critical thinking more offices much more quickly. Clients are wising up too. Book Software! The B4’ers can continue to ielts essay, jerk themselves off as to how great they are, and book writer software meanwhile the smaller firms will continue to siphon off clients because when it comes down to it, they’re offering a better value proposition than the B4: an equally good product, with better service, for a lower price. With the exception of myself, the non-B4 also have fewer insufferable and value chosen pretentious staff, which is nice.
B4 is kinda like the really hot girl in school. You really want her to like you and go on a date with you. You dream of how great it will be. But, when it happens, she turns out to be a bitch and a lousy lay. But you will get many other dates because they saw that the hottie they idolize dated you. lmao I love this analogy.
What would the author suggest for those not receiving B4 offers ? Should one take what they can get with the hopes of eventually working for B4? Or is it better to cut your losses and move on to another field while you still can? Dude…Big 4 are shedding people like crazy as the economy picks up. It’s pretty easy to go from Mid tier to Big 4 after like 2 years. When I see resumes for open accounting positions without Big 4 experience, I ask if them if they are interested in book writer a position that better fits their skill set, such as working in AP or at ielts essay, the front desk answering the phones. More accounting majors need to just skip audit/tax and book writer go into advisory, management consulting, finance, F500 rotational programs.
Much better fields.
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10 Questions Never to book writer, Ask in Job Interviews. You know enough to business, bring a list of questions to a job interview. When the interviewer asks you, “So, do you have any questions for writer, me?” the last thing? You want to say is “No.” But that could be the best option if you’re at a loss for help, words, because some interview questions are better left unasked. Here are 10 highly unsuitable interview questions that should never make an appearance, unless you don’t want the job: This was a reasonable interview question in book writer 1950 or in 1980, before the Internet existed. In Nigeria. Today, it’s your job to research any company you’re interviewing with before setting foot in writer the door. Essay. We need to show up for book writer software, a job interview knowing what the employer does, who its competitors are, and which of its accomplishments (or challenges) have made the and courtesies essay news lately. 2. “Are you going to do a background check?” It is writer, amazing how many job candidates ask this question, which provokes alarm on the part of the customs interviewer, instead of the more general, “Can you please tell me a little about your selection process, from writer software, this point on?” Lots of people have credit issues that cause them worry during a job search, or aren’t sure how solid their references from a previous job might be.
If you’re invited for a second interview, you can broach any sensitive topics from your past then. Asking “Will you do a background check?” makes you look like a person with something to essay on cultism in nigeria, hide. Companies fear underpaying people almost as much as they fear overpaying them, because a person who’s underpaid vis-a-vis his counterparts in the job market is a person with one eye on the career sites. Writer. Instead of asking about your first raise before you’ve got the job, you can ask (at a second interview) “Does your organization do a conventional one-year performance and salary review?” A job search requires quick thinking about straight talk, and if a job is far below your abilities, you’re better off saying so than beating around the bush with this question.
You don’t have to take yourself out proposal international relations of the writer running; you can say, “The job sounds interesting, but frankly I was earning 30% more and supervising people in synthesist my last job. Could you help me understand the writer software career path for this role?” That’s the cue for the interviewer, if he or she is on the ball, to highlight another job opening that might exist. 5. “How soon can I transfer to another position?” You’re broadcasting “I’m outta here at the first chance” when you ask this question. Prepared For School. If you like the job, take the job. If it’s not for you, wait for book software, the right opportunity. Almost every employer will keep you in essay for school your seat for at least one year before approving an software, internal transfer, so a job-search bait-and-switch probably won’t work out the way you’d hoped.
6. “Can you tell me about bus lines to phd research proposal international, your facility?” Get online and book writer software research this yourself. It’s not your employer’s problem to figure out how you get to work. If you’re working in retail or in a call center, you could ask about customs essay breaks. Everyone else, keep mum; if your need to smoke intrudes so much on your work life that you feel the need to ask about it, ask your best friend or significant other for smoking-cessation help as a new-job present. Lots of book writer software, companies don’t permit smoking anywhere on the premises, and some don’t like to hire smokers at phd research proposal international all.
Why give an employer a reason to book, turn you down? 8. “Is [my medical condition] covered under your insurance?” This is a bad question on two counts. You don’t want to tell a perfect stranger about your medical issues, especially one who’s deciding whether or not to hire you. Ask to see a copy of the company’s benefits booklet when an offer has been extended. This is also a bad question from a judgment standpoint; no department managers and only a tiny percentage of value thinking profession, HR people could be expected to book writer software, know on customs and courtesies, a condition-by-condition basis what’s covered under the health plan.
Anyway, your pre-existing condition won’t be covered under most corporate plans for at least a year. If you have a philosophical objection to drug tests, wait until they ask you to take a drug test and tell them about your objection. Otherwise, your question sounds like, “I’d fail a drug test,” so don’t ask. 10. “If you hire me, can I wait until [more than three weeks from now] to start the job?” Employers expect you to writer software, give two weeks’ notice. If you’re not working, they’d love to see you more quickly. On Being Prepared. If you ask for writer software, tons of time off before you start working — unless you have a very good reason — the employer may think, “How serious is this candidate about essay on cultism in nigeria working?” In any case, a start-date extension is something to request after you’ve got the book software offer in hand, not before. Liz Ryan is a 25-year HR veteran, former Fortune 500 VP and essay in nigeria an internationally recognized expert on careers and the new millennium workplace.
Contact Liz at book email@example.com or join the Ask Liz Ryan online community at http://www.asklizryan/group. The opinions expressed in this column are solely the author’s. Many people start networking only after they’ve lost their jobs. Effective networking means creating contacts and relationships while you’re still employed. If you’re heading to a networking event, make sure you know why you’re going. Essay On Cultism. Do you want a job? If so, are you seeking something specific, or will anything do? Are you looking for contacts or a mentor to provide guidance ? As soon as someone starts talking with you, you have to hold up your end of the conversation. If you don’t know what you want, you can’t do that. Thinking you know what you want is not the same as knowing it. Treat networking the same way you would an appearance at Carnegie Hall.
Practice your pitch as well as your answers to questions about your career goals that might arise. There is writer, nothing more embarrassing than establishing a good relationship with someone, extracting a pledge of help and us army customs essay then searching around for a cocktail napkin to write on. Spend a few extra bucks to print professional-looking cards on good-quality paper . Sure, your friends know you as “SexyMama4U” or “TimeForHemp,” but when looking for work, stick to a serious email address, such as your real name. While you’re networking , you need to listen to book writer, what everyone else is saying. People help by offering advice . On Being. They are not interested in hearing how much you already know. At a networking event, everyone wants to mingle. And if you’re networking over book writer software the phone or by on cultism, email, understand that the person you’re speaking with has a life that extends beyond you. Look sharp at networking events. Mind your manners, shake hands firmly, stand up straight, make eye contact and show respect in any way you can. A networking event can be a dress rehearsal for a job interview, but no one will help you get your foot in the door if you give the book writer software impression that you’ll slouch through it once it’s open. Men and women with contacts and business synthesist power meet many people; they remember only those who stand out from the crowd.
Be assertive, and act like a leader. But don’t go overboard. You want to convey self-assurance, not obnoxiousness. If someone says, “Sorry, we don’t have anything right now,” take a minute or two to ask follow-up questions: “Well, what’s the outlook for future possibilities? Do you know anyone else in the industry who might have something? Any thoughts on what my next step should be?” Persistence shows true interest on your part and may help the person you’re networking with come up with ideas he might otherwise overlook. It’s tempting to say, “So-and-So gave me your name and writer told me to and courtesies essay, call.” It might even get you a meeting. Writer. But eventually Such-and-Such will learn that So-and-So did not tell you to call. And you’ll have burned not one, but two bridges. No one likes to of critical, be used. Follow up every conversation with a thank-you note, email or call.
Let your contact know whether his suggestions panned out or not. Book Writer Software. When your job search ends — for essay, whatever reason — inform the book writer software person who has helped you. You may think your networking is over, but your paths may cross again. Anyone who has ever networked, whether successfully or not, owes an obligation to all those who will network in the future. Return the customs and courtesies essay favor and help someone else. Why You Need a Job Search Champion. Posted by: Meridith Levinson in Best Practices. Job search champions aggressively market job seekers to prospective employers, helping job seekers land new jobs more quickly. Job search experts and hiring managers agree that networking is the most effective way to land a new job . But more important than an extensive network is a network that includes one or more job search champions. Job search champions are people in your network who know you well and whose names would appear on your list of professional references were it not for the fact that they don’t wait for prospective employers to software, call them to endorse you; they proactively and aggressively help you find work by drawing on their networks and marketing you to prospective employers, says Howard Seidel , a partner with Essex Partners , which provides career management and job transition services. “The champions are real advocates for you,” says Seidel . For School. “They grease the skids and say, ‘This guy is fantastic.
You have to talk to writer software, this person. He did a great job here and would be terrific for you.’ They get prospective employers really excited.” Having a job search champion can make all the difference in the length of your job search. Seidel , a career and executive coach, believes job seekers with champions land jobs faster because champions give job seekers entree into proposal, potential job opportunities. “Getting in book the door is the biggest obstacle today for job seekers,” notes Seidel. On Cultism In Nigeria. “There are hundreds of resumes for a role and software so many screeners. A champion can get you through the screeners to on being prepared for school, the people hiring. If you can get in book that way, the hiring process tends to go faster and proposal relations you come in with a lot of good will.” Moreover, adds Seidel , by book software, championing the job seeker, champions predispose hiring managers to liking the phd research international candidate.
This is particularly helpful in a recession, when hiring managers are inundated with applicants for opens positions, asking gotcha questions during job interviews, and looking for software, any reason to screen out candidates. “If you’re being introduced [to a prospective employer] by a champion, you’re going in there with a leg up because the hiring manager is [now] excited about what you can do for them,” says Seidel. “If you’re not going in there with a champion, you’ve got to do all the work yourself.” In a market where job searches for CIO positions are lasting an phd research, average of a year , having a champion gives a job seeker a clear advantage over book writer the competition. The more champions you have, the essay help more effective and powerful your search is software, going to be. Use Numbers to Highlight Your Accomplishments. If you were an employer looking at business synthesist a resume , which of the book writer following entries would impress you more? Wrote news releases. Wrote 25 news releases in a three-week period under daily deadlines. Clearly, the essay on being prepared for school second statement carries more weight. Why? Because it uses numbers to quantify the software writer’s accomplishment , giving it a context that helps the interviewer understand the degree of difficulty involved in the task.
Numbers are powerful resume tools that will help your accomplishments get the attention they deserve from prospective employers. With just a little thought, you can find effective ways to quantify your successes on business, your resume . Here are a few suggestions: Organizations are and always will be concerned about book writer software money. So as you contemplate your accomplishments and prepare to business synthesist, present them on your resume , think about software ways you’ve saved, earned or managed money in your internships, part-time jobs and and courtesies extracurricular activities so far. A few possibilities that might appear on book software, a typical resume: Identified, researched and recommended a new Internet service provider, cutting the essay prepared for school company’s online costs by 15 percent. Wrote prospect letter that has brought in more than $25,000 in donations so far.
Managed a student organization budget of book software, more than $7,000. You’ve heard the old saying, “Time is money,” and essay on cultism in nigeria it’s true. Book Writer. Companies and organizations are constantly looking for ways to save time and do things more efficiently. They’re also necessarily concerned about on cultism meeting deadlines, both internal and external. Book. So whatever you can do on your resume to essay on cultism in nigeria, show that you can save time, make time or manage time will grab your reader’s immediate attention.
Here are some time-oriented entries that might appear on writer software, a typical resume: Assisted with twice-monthly payroll activities, ensuring employees were paid as expected and on time. Suggested procedures that decreased average order-processing time from essay on being, 10 minutes to five minutes. It’s very easy to neglect mentioning how much or how many of book writer, something you’ve produced or overseen. There’s a tendency instead to simply pluralize your accomplishments — e.g., “wrote news releases” or “developed lesson plans” -– without including important specifics — e.g., “wrote 25 news releases” or “developed lesson plans for two classes of 20 students each.” Don’t fall into synthesist, the trap of excluding numbers. Instead, include amounts, like these: Recruited 25 members for a new student environmental organization.
Trained five new employees on restaurant operations procedures. Book Software. Created process that bolstered production 25 percent. The more you focus on money, time and amounts in relation to your accomplishments , the better you’ll present your successes and highlight your potential — and the more you’ll realize just how much you really have to offer prospective employers. Add it all up, and you’ll see that playing the numbers game is yet another way to convince employers that you should be a part of their equation for success. With the economy ailing, stock markets in free fall and job cuts making headlines day after day, it’s easy to give in to the doom and gloom. Especially if you’re looking for employment . And yet, people are still working, consumers are still buying goods and proposal international factories are still churning out products. Even companies laying off employees in book writer software some areas are still hiring in others. There may be fewer jobs out there, but they haven’t disappeared entirely. So how do you find a job when times are hard? In this article, we’ll bypass standard job-hunting techniques and focus on timely strategies for business synthesist, finding work when the economy’s stuck on life support. Here’s your prescription:
Get your skills working for you! List your top skills and the achievements you’re most proud of, and play them up in book writer software interviews. Now’s not the essay on being prepared time to be shy. Pay special attention to soft skills that can be transferred to software, a wide variety of positions, like communication, teamwork and leadership. If your resume is essay on being for school, looking a little sparse, volunteer or work part-time work to give it a shot in the arm. Like it or not, you’ve got to software, sell yourself to prospective employers. Step 1 focused on perfecting your product (that’s you!). Now it’s time to think about the packaging.
Start with a flawless resume and compelling cover letters. Then dress for success, rehearse your sales pitch and practise your interview techniques to on being for school, make sure you communicate clearly and effectively. Finally, you’ve got to get that project to market. Writer Software. Develop a marketing plan that utilizes all available resources to find job leads, including research, job fairs, recruiters and personal referrals, and lets you effectively represent yourself to prospective employers. Set realistic goals and determine your time frame. Make your plan as detailed as possible. If you can stick to it, you’ll set yourself apart from everyone else who has lost confidence and phd research given up the search. When times are tough, some younger job seekers choose to go back to book writer, school or prolong their studies.
Others put off or abandon their job search all together. For you, this is an excellent opportunity to get in there early . Value Of Critical In Your. By looking for book software, employment while others are sidelined, you cut your competition in half. If you’re a student, take advantage of campus career centres and job fairs as early as possible. Work all your contacts, not just for job leads but also for introductions to employees at companies that interest you and people who can provide vital information on trends affecting your field. Get the word out that you’re looking for synthesist, work. Talk to professional associations, fellow job seekers, past employers, school career placement staff and even your Great Aunt Matilda. Don’t be shy to book writer, ask friends of friends for favours, and and courtesies essay don’t forget online networks like LinkedIn and Facebook . Concentrate your job search on book writer, organizations most likely to be hiring . Read the business section of essay on being for school, local newspapers to learn which companies are expanding or what new projects are getting under way. You can also find out what industries are still experiencing job growth by using websites like the Canadian government’s Job Futures or Looking Ahead, employment indexes and information on industry trends. Good bets include small to medium-sized businesses of writer, 200 to 300 people, which experts say account for most hiring across the country , along with “recession-proof” industries like healthcare, education, environmental sciences, security and government. Broaden your search techniques.
To improve your chances of finding employment, try new ways of getting in touch with employers. Ask job holders in your industry for us army customs and courtesies essay, an “ informational interview ” just to book writer, sound them out on industry trends and labour market realities. Or place “cold calls” (calls to proposal relations, people who can hire you but whom you don’t know) to ask employers if you can meet with them—even if they haven’t advertised a position. Book Software. Use the opportunity to bring up your skills and qualifications. Informational interviewing and cold calls are great ways to get your foot in the door and tap into the hidden job market, the proposal international relations great majority of jobs that are never advertised in writer newspapers. We all go into proposal relations, the job market with visions of scoring a cushy $100K dream job with full benefits and a company car. Well, best put that dream on hold a little longer! As a new recruit, you may have reduce your expectations and writer settle for an entry-level position, a lower salary or fewer benefits. You might also have to essay, consider moving—literally—to a hotter job market. To really put the odds in your favour, you may even have to shift career tracks—at least in the short term. Instead of insisting on a position as an writer software, investment advisor, for business synthesist, instance, consider starting in a related field like banking instead. (Remember those transferable skills?
This is where they come in handy.) Consider part-time or casual work. Don’t rule out temporary assignments, part-time positions, job-sharing, leave replacements and other short-term contracts, internships and project-oriented roles—maybe even volunteer work and unpaid contract work, for book writer software, a limited time. While opportunities like these may not be what you had in mind, they can provide steady income, a chance to network and invaluable experience while you continue to look for full-time employment. They can also give you exposure to on cultism in nigeria, fields you might not get to explore otherwise. Who knows, some could even turn into full-time jobs down the book software road! Think outside the cubicle. If you’re the entrepreneurial type, why not create your own job? With employers reticent to take on essay, extra staff, this could be the ideal time to leverage your skills through self-employed contract or consulting work. Hunting for a job hunt is always an writer software, emotionally charged process.
In a challenging economy, it’s twice as stressful. In the last major economic downturn, many first-time job hunters reacted by abandoning their job search or picking up a study program that really didn’t interest them. Be careful not to make rash decisions , and customs and courtesies essay understand that finding a job may take a lot of time and work. Tackle each step as it comes up, and keep your sight firmly on book writer software, your goals. In time, you’ll get there! To learn more about our FREE services including help with my resume, volunteer resume, free resume rewrite, resume rewriting, cover letters free and the help my resume blog follow us on Twitter and become a FaceBook Fan !
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An Analysis of Outcomes of Reconstruction or Amputation after Leg-Threatening Injuries. Michael J. Bosse, M.D., Ellen J. MacKenzie, Ph.D., James F. Book Software? Kellam, M.D., Andrew R. Burgess, M.D., Lawrence X. Webb, M.D., Marc F. Swiontkowski, M.D., Roy W. Sanders, M.D., Alan L. Proposal International Relations? Jones, M.D., Mark P. McAndrew, M.D., Brendan M. Patterson, M.D., Melissa L. McCarthy, Sc.D., Thomas G. Book Writer Software? Travison, Ph.D., and Renan C. Castillo, M.S. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:1924-1931 December 12, 2002 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa012604. Limb salvage for severe trauma has replaced amputation as the primary treatment in many trauma centers. However, long-term outcomes after limb reconstruction or amputation have not been fully evaluated. We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study to determine the functional outcomes of essay in nigeria 569 patients with severe leg injuries resulting in reconstruction or amputation. Book? The principal outcome measure was the Sickness Impact Profile, a multidimensional measure of self-reported health status (scores range from 0 to 100; scores for the general population average 2 to 3, and scores greater than 10 represent severe disability). Business Synthesist? Secondary outcomes included limb status and the presence or absence of major complications resulting in rehospitalization. At two years, there was no significant difference in scores for the Sickness Impact Profile between the software, amputation and reconstruction groups (12.6 vs. 11.8, P=0.53).
After adjustment for the characteristics of the patients and their injuries, patients who underwent amputation had functional outcomes that were similar to those of patients who underwent reconstruction. Predictors of a poorer score for the Sickness Impact Profile included rehospitalization for a major complication, a low educational level, nonwhite race, poverty, lack of private health insurance, poor social-support network, low self-efficacy (the patient's confidence in being able to resume life activities), smoking, and involvement in chosen profession disability-compensation litigation. Patients who underwent reconstruction were more likely to book writer, be rehospitalized than those who underwent amputation (47.6 percent vs. 33.9 percent, P=0.002). Help? Similar proportions of book writer patients who underwent amputation and patients who underwent reconstruction had returned to work by two years (53.0 percent and 49.4 percent, respectively). Patients with limbs at high risk for amputation can be advised that reconstruction typically results in two-year outcomes equivalent to ielts essay help, those of amputation. Medical and surgical advances of the past two decades have improved the ability to writer software, reconstruct severely injured legs. 1-3 Limbs that once would have been amputated are now routinely managed with complex reconstruction protocols. 4,5 Because most studies evaluating reconstruction have been small and retrospective, the results are not definitive. 2,3,6,7 Although the results are contradictory, some investigators have suggested that functional outcome is often poorer after successful limb reconstruction than after treatment with early amputation and a good prosthesis.
4,6-9 We performed a prospective observational study comparing functional outcomes of a large cohort of patients from eight level I trauma centers who underwent reconstruction or amputation. Our hypothesis was that after adjustment for the severity of the thinking in your chosen profession, limb injury, the book software, presence and severity of other injuries, and other characteristics of patients, those undergoing amputation would have better outcomes than those undergoing reconstruction. Patients 16 to thinking in your chosen, 69 years old who were admitted to eight level I trauma centers for the treatment of high-energy trauma below the distal femur were eligible. 10 High-energy trauma was defined as complicated fractures (Gustilo grade IIIB and IIIC fractures 11 and selected grade IIIA fractures), dysvascular limbs (knee dislocations, closed fractures of the tibia, or penetrating wounds with vascular injury), major soft-tissue injuries (degloving or severe crush or avulsion injury), and writer severe foot and ankle injuries (Gustilo grade IIIB ankle fractures, all grade III intraarticular fractures of the value thinking in your chosen, distal tibia [pilon], 11 and severe hind or midfoot injuries). (The specific types of fractures are defined in writer software Supplementary Appendix 1, available with the full text of this article at http://www.nejm.org.) Excluded were patients with a score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of customs less than 15, indicating some impairment in consciousness, 21 days after hospitalization or discharge 12 ; patients with a spinal cord deficit, prior amputation, or third-degree burns; patients who were transferred more than 24 hours after the injury; patients who did not speak English or Spanish; patients with a documented psychiatric disorder; and patients who were on active military duty. We enrolled 601 patients between March 1994 and June 1997. For the present analysis, 32 patients who had bilateral injuries that met the study criteria were excluded. An additional 24 patients were excluded owing to a lack of follow-up (i.e., they were enrolled at the time of hospital discharge but could not subsequently be located). Writer Software? Of the remaining 545 patients, 149 underwent amputation during the initial hospitalization (including 37 traumatic amputations). After the initial hospital discharge, 25 additional patients underwent amputation: 12 by three months, 6 by six months, and 7 after six months.
Most injuries resulted from motor vehicle collisions (29 percent), motorcycle collisions (22 percent), or collisions involving pedestrians and motor vehicles (13 percent). The study was approved by the institutional review board at the coordinating center and each study site. Written informed consent was obtained from ielts all study participants. The patients were evaluated at book software base line (before hospital discharge) and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the essay, injury. At each point, patients were evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon to ascertain limb status and the presence or absence of complications, by a physical therapist to evaluate the extent of impairment, and by software a research nurse to assess the patients' perception of functional outcome. Of the 545 patients, 502 (92.1 percent) were evaluated at 3 months, 503 (92.3 percent) at essay prepared for school 6 months, 493 (90.5 percent) at 12 months, and 460 (84.4 percent) at 24 months. All available data on these 545 patients were used in software the outcome analysis. Although patients with incomplete follow-up data were more likely to proposal international relations, be male, nonwhite, and without a high-school education than those with complete follow-up data (P0.05 for all comparisons), the writer software, rates of follow-up did not differ significantly between the amputation group and the reconstruction group. Functional outcome was measured with use of the Sickness Impact Profile. 13 The Sickness Impact Profile is a multidimensional measure of business self-reported health status, consisting of 136 statements about limitations in 12 categories of function: ambulation, mobility, body care and movement, social interaction, alertness, emotional behavior, communication, sleep and rest, eating, work, home management, and recreation.
Respondents are asked to endorse statements that describe their health status on a given day. Scores are computed for the overall instrument, for each of the 12 categories and for 2 major dimensions of writer software health (physical health, which reflects limitations noted in the first 3 categories, and psychosocial health, which reflects limitations noted in the second 3 categories). Customs? The reliability and validity of the book, Sickness Impact Profile have been well tested, 14 especially with respect to the outcome after injury. 15 The overall scores can range from 0 to 100; scores greater than 10 represent severe disability, and differences in scores of 2 to 3 points reflect meaningful differences in function. 16 Scores average between 2 and business synthesist 3 points for the general population.
17. Patients were evaluated by the orthopedic surgeon, and the subsequent limb treatment was based on the best clinical judgment of the surgeon and, in some cases, the desires of the patient. 18 Because treatment assignments were not randomized, comparisons of outcomes based on writer software the Sickness Impact Profile were adjusted for us army and courtesies essay potential confounders, including the characteristics of the patients and their injuries. The injuries were prospectively characterized according to the type and extent of bony damage, the extent of soft-tissue injury, and book the initial pulse assessment and plantar sensation (Supplementary Appendix 1). Two orthopedic trauma surgeons who were unaware of the patients' injury classification and eventual treatment reevaluated the case histories by reviewing radiographs, photographs of the wounds, and operative findings. Forty-one (7.5 percent) injuries were reclassified on the basis of this second evaluation. Amputations were further classified according to the level and type of closure (typical elective skin-flap design or atypical, best-possible skin coverage, including split-thickness skin grafts and free-tissue transfers). Associated injuries were classified with the use of the Abbreviated Injury Scale, 19 the Injury Severity Score, 20 and two scores on the Abbreviated Injury Scale denoting the maximal severity of nonstudy injuries to the contralateral and ipsilateral leg and pelvis. Shock was defined by a systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mm Hg before the initiation of resuscitation. 21 To account for us army and courtesies essay the effect of complications on recovery, a variable was constructed to indicate rehospitalization for one or more of the software, following conditions: late amputation or stump revision, fracture nonunion, hardware failure, flap failure, wound infection, or osteomyelitis. Data collected on us army customs and courtesies the characteristics of the patients that were hypothesized to influence the treatment assignment or outcome have previously been described in detail.
10 They included age; sex; race or ethnic group; education; income level 22 and insurance status before the injury; work status, occupation, 23 and physical demands of the job before the injury 24 ; personality characteristics, as measured by the Neuroticism, Extroversion, and Openness (NEO) Personality Inventory 25 ; social support, measured with use of a modified version of the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors, which assesses a patient's level of support in terms of tangible assistance, directive guidance and emotional support 26,27 and self-efficacy 28 (how confident patients were at the time of hospital discharge in their ability to resume their chief life activities). Additional measures were self-rated health and the presence or absence of chronic conditions before the injury; exercise, smoking, and drinking habits before the injury 29,30 ; and whether compensation was received for the injury and book writer software legal services were retained. Essay On Cultism? 31. Longitudinal multivariate regression techniques were used to assess associations between treatment and outcomes over a two-year period, after adjustment for characteristics of the patients and their injuries. 32 Both additive and multiplicative regression models were considered, but the multiplicative model was chosen because we observed that although scores for the Sickness Impact Profile continually improved, the book writer software, rate of this improvement declined over time.
Treatment was defined with the proposal international relations, use of five categories: amputations above the knee, through the knee, below the knee, or of the whole or partial foot and reconstruction. The 12 amputations that occurred within the book, first three months after injury were classified according to the site of the amputation. The 13 patients who underwent amputation more than three months after injury were considered to have undergone reconstruction. An analysis was performed including and excluding these 13 patients. When included, they were identified as having a major complication. Essay? The results of both analyses were similar; therefore, the results presented reflect the inclusion of book writer these patients. Because the number of variables describing the nature and extent of thinking profession injuries was large, a summary score, indicating the writer software, likelihood of undergoing amputation given a patient's injury profile, was derived with the use of logistic regression that modeled the decision to amputate or reconstruct as a function of the characteristics of the essay help, injury. Book Writer Software? 18 Traumatic amputations (for which underlying characteristics of the injury itself were not documented) were assigned a summary score of 1. Multivariate models that included all characteristics of the injury as separate covariates yielded results similar to those obtained with the use of models that included the relations, summary scores; therefore, results based on the more parsimonious model, which used the summary score, are presented. Stepwise modeling techniques were used to construct the book software, final model, which included the treatment variables, the summary score, the occurrence of a major complication resulting in rehospitalization, and all characteristics of the patients that remained associated with an relations outcome at a P value of writer less than 0.10. The extent to business synthesist, which the effect of these variables on the outcome varied according to the time since injury or to treatment was examined, and interaction terms were incorporated where indicated.
There were no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between patients who underwent reconstruction and those who underwent amputation ( Table 1 Table 1 Base-Line Characteristics of the 545 Patients Who Underwent at Least One Follow-up Evaluation. ). Patients who underwent amputation had more severe injuries, as evidenced by book writer their greater frequencies of bone loss, soft-tissue damage, initial pulse deficit, and lack of help plantar sensation. Table 2 Table 2 Clinical Status of 460 Patients Evaluated 24 Months after Injury. summarizes the writer, clinical status of patients 24 months after injury. A moderate proportion of patients had not fully recovered, as indicated by the fact that 10.9 percent of essay prepared for school patients who underwent reconstruction had unhealed fractures, 3.9 percent of those who underwent reconstruction and 9.1 percent of those who underwent amputation had unhealed soft-tissue injuries, and 19.1 percent of software those who underwent reconstruction and 5.0 percent of those who underwent amputation had an anticipated need for additional surgery. The last known status of patients who were followed for less than 24 months (15.6 percent of all patients) was similar to essay for school, that of patients with complete 24-month follow-up. There were no significant differences between the treatment groups in the percentage of patients with an unhealed fracture, the percentage with an writer software unhealed soft-tissue injury, or the percentage requiring additional surgery.
More than one third of the patients were rehospitalized at least once for a complication; patients who underwent reconstruction were more likely to have been rehospitalized than those who underwent amputation (47.6 percent vs. 33.9 percent, P=0.002). Mean scores for value of critical thinking chosen profession the Sickness Impact Profile were 14.5 at 12 months and 12.0 at 24 months; at 24 months, 42.0 percent of the patients had scores greater than 10. There were no significant differences in scores between the treatment groups ( Table 3 Table 3 Scores for the Sickness Impact Profile for 493 Patients Evaluated 12 Months after Injury and 460 Patients Evaluated 24 Months after Injury. ). Scores for the work subscale were particularly high. At 24 months, 53.0 percent of the writer software, patients who underwent amputation and 49.4 percent of ielts those who underwent reconstruction had returned to work (P=0.48). Table 4 Table 4 Association between Clinical and writer Demographic Characteristics and Scores for the Sickness Impact Profile. presents estimates of the magnitude of change in scores associated with several covariates, including amputations of various types (as compared with reconstruction). The regression analysis confirms the absence of an business synthesist overall difference in outcomes between groups after adjustment for potential confounders.
Although patients who underwent amputation through the knee had worse scores than patients who underwent other types of writer procedures, these differences were not statistically significant. To underscore the similarity in scores after amputation or reconstruction, mean adjusted scores (derived from the final regression model) are presented according to ielts, the type of treatment in Table 5 Table 5 Mean Scores for the Sickness Impact Profile for the 460 Patients Who Were Evaluated 24 Months after Injury. . In multivariate analyses, factors that were significant predictors of a poor outcome (as indicated by software a high Sickness Impact Profile score) included being rehospitalized for a major complication, having less than a high-school education, having a household income below the federal poverty level, being nonwhite, having no insurance or having Medicaid, having a poor social-support network, having a low level of self-efficacy (confidence in one's ability to resume one's chief life activities), smoking, and involving the legal system for injury compensation. Predictors of a poor outcome were the same in both groups. The association between having private insurance and a disability, however, changed over time; private insurance was associated with the of critical thinking in your chosen profession, greatest improvement in book writer scores at 6 to prepared, 12 months. Book Writer Software? The characteristics of the injury (according to the summary score) were not significantly correlated with the outcomes measured by the Sickness Impact Profile, nor was the presence or severity of other injuries to ipsilateral and contralateral limbs. After adjustment for the severity of the injury and various other characteristics, patients who underwent amputation had functional outcomes that were similar to those of patients who underwent reconstruction. However, the levels of disability at two years were high in essay on cultism in nigeria both groups: more than 40 percent had a score greater than 10 on the Sickness Impact Profile, reflecting severe disability. Except for the scores for the eating and communication subscales, at 24 months scores for writer all subscales of the Sickness Impact Profile were substantially higher than published norms for the general population. Business Synthesist? 17 Only about half of all patients had returned to book software, work by 24 months. Except for value thinking chosen profession the score for book writer the psychosocial-functioning subscale, there were significant improvements in the scores over time in both treatment groups. Poor psychosocial outcomes after serious injuries have been reported by other investigators 36,37 and may be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.
38,39. Neither the severity of fracture and soft-tissue injury nor the presence of associated injuries of the ipsilateral and contralateral leg significantly affected functional outcome. This lack of for school association may be a reflection of the inclusion criteria, in that only patients with the most severe limb injuries were included. These injuries affected the patient's ability to walk and most likely masked the effect on functional outcome of other injuries to the leg and software foot. Factors that were not related to the injury that were associated with a poorer outcome, regardless of the type of injury or treatment, included a low level of education, nonwhite race, poverty, lack of business synthesist private health insurance, smoking, and involvement with disability-compensation litigation. Book? These results suggest that major improvements in outcome might require greater emphasis on nonclinical interventions, such as early evaluation by psychosocial and vocational rehabilitation specialists. Our findings confirm previous research that identified both social support and self-efficacy as important determinants of outcome. 40,41 Interventions aimed at improving patients' perceptions of self-efficacy, in particular, may benefit those who are facing a challenging recovery. On Being For School? The limitations of our study must be acknowledged.
Patients were not randomly assigned to undergo amputation or reconstruction. Patients who underwent amputation were, on average, more severely injured than those who underwent reconstruction. Although an adjustment was made for these differences in the multivariate analysis, the possibility of residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Although the overall rates of book writer follow-up exceeded 80 percent at essay on being prepared 2 years, the patients who were lost to follow-up (including 24 patients for whom no follow-up data were available and 85 who were followed for less than 24 months) were of lower socioeconomic status than those with complete follow-up. The results may therefore underestimate the overall extent of disability. However, the rate of loss to follow-up was similar in the two groups, and all available data on the 545 patients who underwent at least one follow-up evaluation were used in the analysis. Also, the extent of healing of fractures and soft-tissue wounds at writer 12 months was similar among those with and those without subsequent follow-up data at 24 months. The generalizability of our results beyond level I trauma centers is uncertain. The outcomes may have been influenced by the expertise of of critical thinking chosen physicians and other caregivers.
Finally, the results are based on outcomes during the first two years after injury, a period in which many patients have not yet completely recovered. Eventual amputation of dysfunctional or chronically painful limbs and the resolution of fractures may ultimately improve function among patients who undergo reconstruction. Continued modification of the book, fit of the prosthesis and increasing experience with the device could improve function among patients who undergo amputation. 42 Although not considered in this study, the essay, costs of treatment and rehabilitation (including lifetime costs of book software prostheses) will also be important in guiding treatment decisions. Contrary to our hypothesis, at phd research two years, the book writer software, outcomes among patients who underwent reconstruction were not significantly different from those among patients who underwent amputation. Thus, patients with limb injuries that put them at high risk for proposal international amputation can be advised that reconstruction typically results in two-year outcomes equivalent to those of amputation. However, reconstruction is associated with a higher risk of software complications, additional surgeries, and rehospitalization.
Funded by a grant (R01-AR42659) from the essay, National Institutes of Health. Dr. Burgess reports having consulted for Howmedica; Dr. Webb reports having consulted for Zimmer, Orthofix, and AO Foundation; and Dr. Jones reports having consulted for Stryker and for Smith, Nephew and Richards. We are indebted to the coprincipal investigators, study coordinators, and physical therapists at each of the eight study sites, including Julie Agel, A.T.C., Jennifer Avery, P.T., Denise Bailey, P.T., Wendall Bryan, Debbie Bullard, Carla Carpenter, P.T., Elizabeth Chaparro, R.N., Kate Corbin, M.D., Denise Darnell, R.N., B.S.N., Stephanie Dickason, P.T., Thomas DiPasquale, D.O., Betty Harkin, P.T., Michael Harrington, P.T., Dolfi Herscovici, D.O., Amy Holdren, R.N.C., A.N.P., M.S.N., Linda Howard, P.T., Sarah Hutchings, B.S., Marie Johnson, L.P.N., Melissa Jurewicz, P.T., Donna Lampke, P.T., Karen Lee, R.N., Marianne Mars, P.T., Maxine Mendoza-Welch, P.A., J. Wayne Meredith, M.D., Nan Morris, P.T., Karen Murdock, P.T., Andrew Pollak, M.D., Pat Radey, R.N., Sandy Shelton, P.T., Sherry Simpson, P.T., Steven Sims, M.D., Douglas Smith, M.D., Adam Starr, M.D., Celia Wiegman, R.N., John Wilber, M.D., Stephanie Williams, P.A., Philip Wolinsky, M.D., Mary Woodman, B.A., and book writer Michele Zimmerman, R.N. From the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, N.C. On Cultism? (M.J.B., J.F.K.); the Center for writer Injury Research and Policy, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore (E.J.M., T.G.T., R.C.C.); the synthesist, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore (A.R.B.); the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, N.C. (L.X.W.); the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle (M.F.S.); the book, Orthopedic Trauma Service, Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, Fla. (R.W.S.); the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (A.L.J.); the Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville (M.P.M.); the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland (B.M.P.); and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.L.M.). Address reprint requests to Dr.
Bosse at the Department of on being prepared for school Orthopedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1000 Blythe Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28203, or at software firstname.lastname@example.org. Caudle RJ , Stern PJ . Severe open fractures of the tibia. Essay On Being For School? J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987;69:801-807. Francel TJ , Vander Kolk CA , Hoopes JE , Manson PN , Yaremchuk MJ . Microvascular soft-tissue transplantation for reconstruction of acute open tibial fractures: timing of writer coverage and essay on being prepared long-term functional results. Plast Reconstr Surg 1992;89:478-487. Godina M . Book Software? Early microsurgical reconstruction of complex trauma of the extremities. Plast Reconstr Surg 1986;78:285-292.
Hansen ST Jr . International? The type-IIIC tibial fracture: salvage or amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987;69:799-800. Lange RH . Limb reconstruction versus amputation decision making in massive lower extremity trauma. Clin Orthop 1989;243:92-99. Book Writer? Francel TJ . Improving reemployment rates after limb salvage of acute severe tibial fractures by microvascular soft-tissue reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 1994;93:1028-1034. Business? Georgiadis GM , Behrens FF , Joyce MJ , Earle AS , Simmons AL . Open tibial fractures with severe soft-tissue loss: limb salvage compared with below-the-knee amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993;75:1431-1441. Dagum AB , Best AK , Schemitsch EH , Mahoney JL , Mahomed MN , Blight KR . Book Software? Salvage after severe lower-extremity trauma: are the outcomes worth the means?
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Return to work following injury: the essay on cultism, role of writer software economic, social, and job-related factors. Am J Public Health 1998;88:1630-1637. Matsen SL , Malchow D , Matsen FA III . Correlations with patients' perspectives of the result of lower-extremity amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000;82:1089-1095. Joseph Burris. . 2018.
Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Restoration in Upper Limb Amputation. Braddom's Rehabilitation Care: A Clinical Handbook, 51-56.e4. G. Mattiassich, F. Rittenschober, L. Business? Dorninger, J. Rois, R. Mittermayr, R. Ortmaier, M. Ponschab, K. Katzensteiner, L. Larcher. . (2017) Long-term outcome following upper extremity replantation after major traumatic amputation. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 18 :1. Darnel Murgatroyd, Ian A. Writer Software? Harris, Jian Sheng Chen, Sam Adie, Rajat Mittal, Ian D. Cameron. . Us Army Customs? (2017) Predictors of seeking financial compensation following motor vehicle trauma: inception cohort with moderate to severe musculoskeletal injuries. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 18 :1. Book Software? M. Barla, B. Gavanier, M. Mangin, J. Thinking In Your Profession? Parot, C. Bauer, D. Mainard. . (2017) L’amputation peut-elle etre un choix therapeutique dans les traumatismes menacant les membres inferieurs ?. Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique 103 :6, 677-681. Daniel J. Stinner, Dafydd Edwards. . Book? (2017) Surgical Management of Musculoskeletal Trauma. Surgical Clinics of North America 97 :5, 1119-1131.
Philip K. McClure, Hamza M. Alrabai, Janet D. Conway. . (2017) Preoperative Evaluation and Optimization for Reconstruction of Segmental Bone Defects of the Tibia. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S16-S19. Sarah N. Pierrie, Joseph R. Hsu. . (2017) Shortening and on being prepared for school Angulation Strategies to Address Composite Bone and Soft Tissue Defects. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 31 , S32-S35. Andrea J Ikeda, John R Fergason, Jason M Wilken. . (2017) Effects of book writer software altering heel wedge properties on gait with the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis. Prosthetics and Orthotics International 20 , 030936461772811. Jessica Wise, Alicia White, Daniel J. Stinner, John R. Business Synthesist? Fergason. . (2017) A Unique Application of book writer Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Used to Facilitate Patient Engagement in the Amputation Recovery Process. Advances in Wound Care 6 :8, 253-260. Lindsay Sposato, Kathleen Yancosek, Josh Lospinoso, Jill Cancio. . Ielts Essay? (2017) Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study. Journal of book software Hand Therapy . Pieter-Jan Stiers, Nick van Gastel, Karen Moermans, Ingrid Stockmans, Geert Carmeliet. Essay Prepared? . Book Writer? (2017) Regulatory elements driving the expression of skeletal lineage reporters differ during bone development and adulthood.
Bone . Essay Prepared For School? Kevin Tetsworth, Dror Paley, Cengiz Sen, Matthew Jaffe, Dean C. Maar, Vaida Glatt, Erik Hohmann, John E. Herzenberg. . (2017) Bone transport versus acute shortening for book the management of infected tibial non-unions with bone defects. Prepared? Injury . M. Barla, B. Gavanier, M. Mangin, J. Parot, C. Bauer, D. Mainard. Software? . (2017) Is amputation a viable treatment option in lower extremity trauma?. Prepared For School? Orthopaedics Traumatology: Surgery Research . Joseph Borrelli. . Book? (2017) Invited Commentary. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma , 1. Peter Patka. . (2017) Damage control and intramedullary nailing for long bone fractures in polytrauma patients. Injury 48 , S7-S9. A. Hamish Simpson, Jerry S.T Tsang. . (2017) Current treatment of infected non-union after intramedullary nailing. Injury 48 , S82-S90.
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Y. Kenan Coban, Ali Gurlek. . Value In Your? (2004) Postburn Subtalar Dislocation in a Major Foot Contracture. Book? Journal of Burn Care Rehabilitation 25 , 319-323. MELISSA L. MCCARTHY, ELLEN J. MACKENZIE, DAVID EDWIN, MICHAEL J. BOSSE, RENAN C. CASTILLO, ADAM STARR. . (2003) PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERE LOWER-LIMB INJURY. The Journal of value chosen Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume 85 :9, 1689-1697. Sherman , Randolph , . . (2002) To Reconstruct or Not to Reconstruct?.
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esssay topics You’ve spent quite a bit of time in writer software, your English classes writing argumentative essays, and essay on being prepared for school, you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to software do is relax and find a topic you’re passionate about and, of course, one that is essay on being debatable.
Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Book Writer Software. Ford Library. The name of the customs and courtesies essay, essay says it all– argumentative . Book Software. It would be a lot easier to write an thinking profession essay on book writer software something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an essay argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. I’ve separated the topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to software use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice.
These types of synthesist, topics can include laws that you would want to book create, change or completely abolish. Ielts Essay. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on software what the business synthesist, current laws about your chosen topic actually say. Software. After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed?
Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the essay help, consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to book writer software an abortion?
10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to essay in nigeria get carried away with. They can cover a variety of book writer software, moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and value thinking in your chosen, it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over. While it’s good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an writer software outline so you don’t stray off topic.
Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned?
Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and essay in nigeria, businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of speech give people the book writer, right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on on being prepared personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to book software overlap with legal and essay, moral topics, but deal more about writer how individuals act within society and essay on cultism, what kinds of pressures society puts on software individuals or groups of essay on being, people.
This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to book choose from and ielts, even more that you could create on your own. If you get stuck on which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on book software teenagers to prepared go to writer college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in ielts essay help, the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of writer, anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to synthesist not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language?
Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to software vote? Should there be a legal curfew for value in your, minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and writer, Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and and courtesies essay, the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole.
Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Book. Just turn on a television and business, don’t change the channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to writer software find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on essay prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for writer software, companies to phd research proposal international relations advertise in writer software, schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed?
Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is essay different. Book Software. Rules in families vary on synthesist a case-by-case basis, contrary to writer software laws that govern a state or nation.
Because each family is ielts different, it’s hard to book writer software generalize in on cultism, these types of essays. However, if you look into book, research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and business synthesist, their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own). Photo by book writer software, Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on value of critical thinking profession this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to book software Help You Get Started. Once you’re ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples.
When you are picking your topic, keep in synthesist, mind that it’s much easier to write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about it. Researching the book, topic will allow you to essay learn more about what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to book software the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.
About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants.
I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from proposal relations immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of book software, immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for essay help, the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the hook on book writer the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an prepared arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to book be school appropriate.?
Hiya– so I think the important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the on cultism, effects of book software, video games on young people. Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the proposal international, ideas but I’m still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is book software morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on this and of critical in your chosen, it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is book writer pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for on cultism, example).
I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the book, topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here’s a good post on making an synthesist essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I’m sorry to hear that.
Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to book writer software do that. I need to write 3 essays and phd research, I 5 days to do it need HELP and I’m 15. Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of essays in a short amount of book writer, time. Us Army And Courtesies. You’re going to want to stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for book writer, that it really helps me. You’re welcome. Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to proposal relations get some advice on an argumentative essay.
My argument is broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to writer write a 6 page essay. Business Synthesist. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don’t have any idea can you help me what is writer software it good to proposal relations write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa.
Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for book software, help and of critical in your chosen profession, I will be glad to help. Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in book writer, advance. I have to us army customs essay right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to book be arguable…. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of phd research proposal international relations, researching and writing.
Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing i’m going thru for english 202. It has to writer software end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough.
Don’t despair. You can do it. Us Army And Courtesies Essay. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following ” Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on book writer bilingualism and multilingualism” . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. Of Critical In Your Chosen Profession. It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to book writer software take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here.
Once you have the points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is us army and courtesies has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. I have started writing the paper.
However, I am having difficulties with the organization of writer software, my paper. Essay On Cultism In Nigeria. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the value of book, having someone proofread your essay. While I can’t do this for you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to phd research international relations the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and software, I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and change the font size from 12 to 14.
I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an business 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If you’re armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to execute an argumentative essay:
1) pick your topic–this post is a good place to book writer software start. 2) do your research–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statement–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outline–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paper–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper –https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right.
Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on proposal international the specific requirements and length of book writer software, your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by relations, tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and so far I’ve written only 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and software, it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived. I hope that you were able to come up with some good points.
This makes me think of Walt Disney and us army essay, how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on book writer software (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. Essay On Cultism. I’m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and software, yet we cannot come up with an idea on what will be our topic. On Being Prepared. please help us for we are desperate. Book Writer. we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit. I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the value chosen, question I’m attempting to book software answer here. What you choose will largely depend on phd research international where your interests are.
You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and book, then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for proposal, running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes).
I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of software, topics. You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is on cultism in nigeria great and also helped me a lot for my project….but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for it…..would you be able to help. The novel is a fan-fic on book writer the original series Percy Jackson… Congrats on phd research starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for book writer, writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. On Cultism. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out as you want it to, but if you’re serious about this, you’ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect.
In fact it won’t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to writer software be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It’s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it… again and again until it’s right.
were recquired to do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for essay for school, this, it gave me an idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the book writer, disadvantages of essay on cultism in nigeria, shopping at a physical store or of book writer software, owning one? I assume you mean shopping at on cultism, one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and tear on your car). – There is a higher risk that the store will be out book writer software of the and courtesies, item you need (or won’t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to book writer limited inventory. – Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help.
Happy to help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on in nigeria how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. I’d definitely break it down into book writer, lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I’d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers.
You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and english is relations not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I’m need to write a thesis for my uni’s project this year. But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not?
I’m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, “Students’ perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.” *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to book writer the students, in the way of in your profession, education. I think you’re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Software. Here is an ielts help example of what I mean: “Students’ perception of integrity, which is one of NDUM’s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.” In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to book software focus only on positive impacts, might be: “Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of business synthesist, NDUM’s core characteristics, tend to book writer software be more successful in their educational endeavors.” I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an synthesist online tutor.
I do a wider array of book software, assignments from essay on being prepared for school essays, projects and book writer software, research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours. Be free to inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to proposal international relations write about because the topic itself is writer software so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this?
I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. Ielts. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this? You’re right that “mental health” is a really broad topic. If you’re writing an argumentative essay, you need to writer come up with an customs and courtesies essay approach/stance that’s a) debatable and book writer, b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: – Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to on cultism in nigeria increase funding for mental health initiatives. – Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against. – Does the mental health of book, parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific.
Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Phd Research Relations. Now I’m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. Writer Software. #128577; That’s a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. You might want to check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for customs essay, a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you’re making and how much evidence you use to back them up.
Much respect for your decision to book writer go back to us army customs and courtesies essay school! What an awesome example you’re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. I’m obviously biased, but they’re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the software, subject of autism. Off the top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. Phd Research Proposal International. For instance, some suggest that it’s simply a type of book writer, neurodiversity and on cultism, should not be treated as something “wrong,” just different.
2. Book Writer. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Asperger’s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.