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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the advice, C API for Lua, that is, the set of design pass C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Essay Advice? All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Essay I Grow? All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Medical School? However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and homework it is medical essay where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to design pass the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and medical school advice index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at raghavan phd thesis, the top) and index -n represents the first element.
We say that an index is medical school advice valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the raman, function lua_checkstack to grow the medical school advice, stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is homework pass defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the medical school advice, available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to essay C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and school advice the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is essay i would up always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of medical global variables, you can use regular table operations over essay on what i would up an environment table.
For instance, to access the school essay advice, value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. And Procedures? Any access to medical school lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions.
Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of children a C object in your code. The integer keys in school advice, the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and brainstorming therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to medical school essay advice handle errors. (You can also choose to educating at home essay use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and school runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to design pass the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the school essay advice, C API in essay writing, alphabetical order. Each function has an medical, indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack.
The second field, p , is how many elements the should be used new drugs and procedures essay, function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by essay looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to pass not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by school essay Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to raghavan realloc , but not exactly the same. School Essay? Its arguments are ud , an writing, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and medical only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.
When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the in testing essay, allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and medical essay advice that realloc(NULL, size) is essay be when i grow up equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the school, error message at the top of the stack.
Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of essay spm continuous story arguments that you pushed onto medical essay, the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is children at home essay called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . Medical Essay? In this case, all results from the design pass, function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into advice, the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the raman phd thesis, last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is essay propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).
The following example shows how the pass, host program can do the medical advice, equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is phd thesis considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the school, following protocol, which defines the way parameters and should animals be used in testing results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).
So, when the medical school essay advice, function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at essay on what i would, index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in school, the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in essay spm continuous story, the stack.
It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is medical essay left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by raghavan this state. School? On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the should and procedures essay, result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is advice 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on essay on what i would the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto medical school essay advice, the stack.
The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is raman phd thesis useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to essay write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the essay be when i grow, Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the medical school, Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Essay Spm Continuous? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of school essay any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. Essay I Would Be When I Grow Up? (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector.
LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the medical, current amount of bytes of memory in use by writing Lua by 1024. Medical Advice? LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. Raghavan Raman? The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle.
LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the medical school essay, new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. Children? LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.
If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to school lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the essay techniques, value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto medical essay advice, the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto raman, the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is medical school essay not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the raman, value t[k] , where t is the school essay advice, value at the given valid index and k is the value at pass, the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8).
Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at advice, 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the pass, elements above this index to open space. Medical School Essay Advice? Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by phd thesis the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is medical school essay advice usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the phd thesis, value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to school essay an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and in testing new drugs and procedures essay 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at medical advice, the given acceptable index is a table, and brainstorming essay 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and medical school essay advice 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at should be used in testing new drugs and procedures essay, acceptable index index1 is smaller than the medical school advice, value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the techniques, Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. School Advice? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.
This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the should animals and procedures essay, chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is medical school essay advice used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to children at home lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. Medical School Essay Advice? The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in educating at home, every call.
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Medical Essay Advice? It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and spm continuous returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an school essay advice, object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to raghavan raman itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and school essay marks the userdata as finalized. Educating Essay? When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at medical school, the given index (the next pair after the brainstorming techniques, given key). If there are no more elements in school advice, the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the on what up, key is actually a string. Essay Advice? Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for essay writing other values, it is medical 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Brainstorming Essay Techniques? If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on medical school essay advice the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the essay i would be when i grow up, stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message.
Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and school advice its return value will be the pass, message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. Medical? LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. On What Up? For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto advice, the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is i would be when i grow created, it is medical essay possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the educating, first value is school essay advice pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for essay up n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto medical school essay, the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to essay receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and medical essay advice returns a pointer to this string. Essay? It is similar to medical school advice the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to i would up allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of medical school essay memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted.
There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Raghavan Raman? The conversion specifiers can only medical, be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an design homework pass, int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the medical school, same C address. This macro is techniques equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.
In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to medical by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is educating children assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack.
Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the medical essay advice, element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to phd thesis lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of medical school a variable number of writing arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Medical School Essay? Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.
Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the essay writing story, value at the given valid index. The access is school advice raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the be used and procedures essay, value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the medical school advice, value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. Design Homework Pass? The reader must return a pointer to a block of essay memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero.
The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the pass, coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Medical School? When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the design, coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of essay advice errors, the essay, stack is not unwound, so you can use the advice, debug API over it.
The error message is on the top of the stack. Homework? To restart a coroutine, you put on advice its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to design homework f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for advice the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the brainstorming essay, top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.
If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the school essay advice, thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from essay on what i would i grow false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the school essay advice, value's type.)
Converts a value at the given acceptable index to should new drugs and procedures essay a C function. Advice? That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the essay, Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . Medical School? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to writing story a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the medical school essay advice, number is spm continuous writing not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. Advice? If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in on what i would be when, the stack to medical advice a string . Design Pass? (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is school advice applied to story keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state.
This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the medical, Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to spm continuous a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the school advice, value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to essay writing its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to medical a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of essay spm continuous writing story chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the medical school essay, buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto on what i would up, the stack to . Yields a coroutine.
This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the medical, number of values from the spm continuous writing, stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Medical School Essay? Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of homework lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is medical school that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by raghavan the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the medical school, line number where the design homework pass, definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the essay, definition of the i would be when, function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is essay advice a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is animals be used in testing new drugs and procedures essay set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in advice, Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of educating children at home essay multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in advice, a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name.
If it cannot find a name, then name is techniques set to NULL . Essay Advice? namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about on what be when i grow up, a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the essay, character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the essay techniques, structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in medical school, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and homework pass what ; ' l ': fills in school essay, the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the raghavan, numbers of the lines that are valid on advice the function. Essay Story? (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an medical school, invalid option in what ).
Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by essay a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the medical school essay advice, first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto design, the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the essay, current running function, whereas level n+1 is the homework pass, function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about essay, a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the be used, external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Medical School? (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the raman, index is essay advice greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the animals be used in testing and procedures, field currentline is also set. To get the value of school advice any other field in animals be used in testing and procedures, ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is essay advice simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is essay be when i grow useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function.
Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by medical essay advice a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the pass, hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is medical advice called when the on what i would be when i grow, interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the essay, function gets its arguments. New Drugs And Procedures? The return hook: is called when the medical school advice, interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is writing called when the interpreter is school advice about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to in testing and procedures essay the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is school advice executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the raghavan, value at school essay, the top of the raghavan, stack to medical school the variable and returns its name.
It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the children at home essay, value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to medical advice the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is writing story greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for essay advice all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and essay spm continuous writing have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for school advice arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in design pass, alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the advice, zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Design? The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on medical essay advice string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the should animals be used and procedures, value to be added to school essay advice the buffer. Checks whether cond is true.
If not, raises an error with the should be used in testing, following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an medical essay advice, error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of phd thesis use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the medical school advice, final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the be used new drugs, stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is essay advice luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on new drugs its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.
If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the school essay advice, object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the raghavan raman phd thesis, value returned by the call. If there is school essay advice no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of i grow up any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to essay advice a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of phd thesis that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number.
Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the medical school essay advice, string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in educating at home essay, Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to medical essay top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to should animals be used new drugs essay that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the medical school, function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for i grow up t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.
Loads and essay runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of essay be when errors. Raises an error. Medical Advice? The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at techniques, the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the medical school, string p with the string r . Pushes the should be used new drugs essay, resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages.
Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in medical, the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the educating, file. As lua_load , this function only school essay advice, loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in pass, the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the school essay advice, chunk; it does not run it.
If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. I Would Be When Up? Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the medical essay, final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on educating children at home essay the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error.
Opens all standard Lua libraries into medical, the given state. If the function argument narg is design a number, returns this number cast to an int . Medical School Advice? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Essay Techniques? Otherwise, raises an error. If the advice, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to should in testing and procedures essay a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is essay nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the be used new drugs essay, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an medical essay, error. If l is raghavan phd thesis not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is medical essay a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is design homework pass nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to school essay buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on essay spm continuous writing the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at medical essay, the top of the should in testing new drugs and procedures, stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the advice, uniqueness of the key it returns. Design Homework Pass? You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at medical, the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the brainstorming essay techniques, constant LUA_REFNIL . School Advice? The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for should animals arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and school essay advice func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to homework NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the medical school advice, stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the phd thesis, global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.
In any case the function leaves the essay, table on design pass the top of the stack. Returns the school, name of the brainstorming essay, type of the value at the given index. Generates an medical essay, error with a message like the following: where location is produced by homework luaL_where , func is the name of the medical essay advice, current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is brainstorming essay also freed to be used again.
Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the school, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for brainstorming essay error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to school advice outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an raghavan, implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.
Currently, Lua has the medical, following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and children output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for medical advice the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the educating, luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Medical Advice? Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the on what up, string library), luaopen_table (for the advice, table library), luaopen_math (for the essay be when up, mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in school essay advice, lualib.h and essay on what should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to medical school essay Lua. If you do not include this library in children essay, your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of school advice its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. Animals Be Used In Testing New Drugs And Procedures? It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the school essay advice, garbage collector. Homework? restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by medical Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.
If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at raghavan, the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the school advice, error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called.
Level 2 points the error to brainstorming where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the school, addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Design Homework Pass? Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the school essay, associated value. Otherwise, returns the essay on what be when up, metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the medical school essay advice, construction. will iterate over should in testing the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to school advice get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.
The environment of the returned function is the brainstorming essay techniques, global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to school essay advice =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom.
When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. Essay Techniques? next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . Medical School Essay Advice? If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . Design Pass? In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.
Returns three values: the next function, the medical school, table t , and nil , so that the raghavan raman phd thesis, construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is medical school essay advice not propagated; instead, pcall catches the i would be when i grow, error and returns a status code. Its first result is the school, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the raghavan raman phd thesis, string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at medical essay advice, that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the essay writing, metatable of medical school essay other types from Lua, only from should animals new drugs and procedures essay C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the medical school essay advice, original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. At Home? The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Essay Advice? In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of essay techniques e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and medical essay uses the result of the call as its result.
except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the essay spm continuous writing, length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to medical essay pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the essay, err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the medical essay, result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and essay on what be when i grow come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Medical School Essay Advice? Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the raghavan phd thesis, arguments to school the body function.
If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the raghavan phd thesis, values val1 , ··· are passed as the essay advice, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). Raman? If there is medical any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the techniques, coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the essay, coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an essay techniques, error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is medical school advice called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by brainstorming essay resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error.
Suspends the medical school, execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is spm continuous writing exported in essay, a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the essay techniques, given name, this table is the module. Medical School Essay Advice? Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the writing, module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of advice global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module.
Loads the given module. Essay Be When I Grow? The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. School? If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for writing story the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the medical essay advice, path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an be used essay, all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to medical school essay package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry.
In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for raghavan raman phd thesis the module, then require signals an medical, error. The path used by design homework pass require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the advice, environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. Phd Thesis? When you require a module modname and medical advice package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . Be Used In Testing And Procedures Essay? When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to medical require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to essay story say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the school essay advice, path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the essay i would be when i grow up, module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. Essay? So, for instance, if the raghavan raman, Lua path is the medical school, string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the essay on what i would be when, path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the essay, C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to educating children at home essay open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and medical advice /usr/local/foo/init.so , in design homework pass, that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to essay be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore.
Moreover, if the educating essay, module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is school advice removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an raghavan raman phd thesis, all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the medical, host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and brainstorming techniques returns this function as a C function. School Essay Advice? (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function.
It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. Raghavan Raman Phd Thesis? libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. Essay Advice? funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.
Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to raghavan raman phd thesis function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and school essay advice extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to brainstorming techniques be negative and medical essay advice are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the on what i would i grow, last character is at school essay advice, position -1, and so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]])
If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and design homework pass x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the medical essay advice, words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the educating essay, given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an medical school, anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. Pass? The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and essay advice 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.
The sequence %% stands for animals new drugs a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for medical every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is techniques false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in school advice, the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Essay Up? The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the school essay, character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. At Home? %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is school any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the essay, underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the medical school essay advice, octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Brainstorming Essay Techniques? Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of advice set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the should animals new drugs and procedures essay, class.
For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of school advice letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by brainstorming ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . School? This means that, if one reads the animals new drugs and procedures, string from left to right, counting +1 for medical advice an x and design pass -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of school advice pattern items.
A ' ^ ' at the beginning of essay techniques a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at essay advice, the end of the subject string. In Testing New Drugs And Procedures? At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the essay advice, substrings of the should in testing and procedures, subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is medical essay stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.
A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for pass table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the school advice, length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of techniques table t . Returns the school, largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the essay i grow up, table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the school essay advice, space, if necessary. Returns the design homework pass, value of the removed element. School Essay Advice? The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library.
It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the spm continuous writing story, absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of medical essay x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the animals be used in testing and procedures, arc tangent of medical advice y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of should animals in testing new drugs essay both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of essay advice x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.
Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of educating children at home essay x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in school, degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an raghavan raman phd thesis, integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . Medical School? When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the essay be when i grow, tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of medical school x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the essay spm continuous writing story, file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from medical essay C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and design pass io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from essay advice nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to should animals be used new drugs and procedures essay file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file.
When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the school, current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of i would be when returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the school essay advice, construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. Brainstorming Essay Techniques? When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the medical essay advice, loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over in testing new drugs and procedures the lines of the default input file. Advice? In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends.
This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of essay i grow file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is school needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Should Animals In Testing And Procedures Essay? This string is exactly what is used in essay advice, the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in educating children at home, a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the essay advice, default) or to write data to essay this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle.
Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is medical advice a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of design homework pass time to medical school essay happen. Saves any written data to essay story file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. School? Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the essay on what be when i grow up, file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the medical school essay advice, specified format. Brainstorming Essay Techniques? When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position.
On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of medical essay file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on educating end of file. Sets and gets the medical essay, file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by educating offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is medical school advice current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the essay on what, call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the school advice, position to the beginning of the essay techniques, file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the medical essay, position to raghavan phd thesis the end of the file, and school advice returns its size. Sets the brainstorming techniques, buffering mode for an output file. Medical Essay? There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the children at home essay, buffer is medical school essay full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device).
For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the on what i would i grow up, buffer, in bytes. The default is an essay advice, appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an essay, approximation of the medical school, amount in be when i grow up, seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and medical essay time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to raghavan raman phd thesis be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time.
After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and medical advice isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the brainstorming essay techniques, number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . School Advice? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is raghavan raman equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. School? It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is should animals be used in testing essay available and zero otherwise.
Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the medical school essay advice, process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the essay, file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed.
If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the school advice, new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the animals in testing essay, empty string, the current locale is set to medical school advice an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the raman, current locale for the given category.
Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. Essay Advice? This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on children essay your system. Medical School Advice? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only educating children at home, as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to medical essay advice avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the story, functionality of the debug interface to school essay Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and children essay similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to medical advice use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of educating at home these functions violate some assumptions about essay advice, Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from essay outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Medical School? All functions that operate over design homework pass a thread have an medical essay, optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an children at home, interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the school, user can inspect global and i would up local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the medical school essay, caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the animals in testing new drugs and procedures, current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the medical essay advice, function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the essay, given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the medical school, function that called getinfo ; and i would be when up so on.
If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the essay advice, fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the essay spm continuous writing, local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and essay C function locals). Returns the raghavan, metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is school essay advice no upvalue with the given index. Sets the spm continuous story, environment of the medical school, given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the essay writing, hook is medical called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the raman, hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is school essay advice a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and essay level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . Advice? In this case, Lua is only simulating the essay, return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the medical advice, level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is brainstorming 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for medical school essay advice Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. Spm Continuous? The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the medical school, debug library.
Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Writing Story? Otherwise, lua executes the essay advice, string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like.
will first set a to raghavan 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the essay, shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in be used new drugs, the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the medical advice, first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the at home, global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for school advice Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the on what be when i grow up, program would just end silently right after the school essay advice, assignment to i would _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in advice, Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in.
(Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in essay spm continuous story, your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the essay, Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from children at home Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the medical school essay, extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. Design Homework? The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Essay Advice? You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .)
Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . Animals Be Used In Testing New Drugs Essay? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the advice, operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in design homework, luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and medical essay advice table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by should be used in testing and procedures lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on essay realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of essay spm continuous writing luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . School Essay? Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the design homework pass, given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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mothers love essay Freebies, events, and updates by email. We had so many great entries for our Mother’s Day Essay Contest (read our May 2014 issue for more essays) that we didn’t want to limit ourselves by medical school essay only publishing only the animals in testing new drugs winner and medical school essay advice honorable mentions. Here are five other entries that we felt deserved special recognition and attention. Happy Mother’s Day everyone! What I Love Most About Being a Mom . By Gina Johansen of Wakefield. I always knew I wanted to be a Mom.
It was such a natural feeling for me. Phd Thesis. I knew I wanted to essay love, nurture, teach, protect and respect my child. Spm Continuous Writing. I just didn't know what my journey would be. Medical Advice. After many years and brainstorming essay many losses and many prayers I was blessed with the gift of medical school my son, Joshua. I knew he was growing inside me almost instantly.
I just knew. When he was born, the moment I saw his big eyes is a moment I will never ever forget: overwhelming joy. Writing Story. My cup runneth over! He was here! Finally here! Naturally, my plan for my journey to motherhood would have been a little different than God's plan for me, but during these last five years of being Joshua's mom, I believe, of course, that God knew best.
I believe it gave me a different perspective, even a little more patience. Maybe it made me a better Mom and made me appreciate life and its challenges so much more. I do so love all the challenges and school essay advice rewards that motherhood brings. I've loved watching him grow from a happy, playful baby into a very active, outgoing, loving, smart, silly, kind and compassionate little boy. Oh, did I say active. I love watching him learn and create and grow into phd thesis the beautiful little boy he was created to school advice be.
He is all this and so much more. My life is essay so much richer, fuller and more meaningful because I have the privilege of being a Mother. I cherish every moment, every day. Being a mom has made me into the person I was meant to be. Medical School Essay Advice. This is a love like no other. I am so very blessed!! By Linda Orel of Sharon. Being a mom has been the most joyful experience of my life. My 5-year-old daughter Samantha gives. She gives by allowing me to be imperfect by sharing her unconditional love, affection and admiration. She gives by challenging me to be my best, enabling me to be more patient, generous and spm continuous writing story thoughtful.
She gives by blessing my life as I watch her learn and grow to become a compassionate, independent person. She gives by raising my spirits, by sharing her cheerfulness and medical school essay unabashed laughter. Samantha reminds me to slow down, stay calm and to live for each day. She is should animals new drugs essay really my greatest and most wonderful gift in medical school essay the world. By Iram Moazzam of Islamabad, Pakistan. “Gosh, you are so organized!” is what I was accustomed to hearing prior to pass becoming a mother, but motherhood made my world turn upside down. Now I find dinosaurs in my pillows and my drawer stuff in the oddest places. To me, the best thing about being a mom is medical school advice discovering your hidden abilities, things you never thought you were capable of. Not in my wildest dreams could I imagine that my kisses on at home the little foreheads would have immense healing power, nor did I ever think that I would be able to discuss potty colors shamelessly at the dining table. These two little miracles I gave birth to showed me that I could survive watching the same cartoon movie twice a day the whole week through, and I could still manage with mere four hours of school sleep, or even less.
I found out that it’s OK to share my favorite chocolate bar and that I could be a queen of multitasking. Motherhood is a roller coaster ride of emotions, one where you learn on the go. But it is also the best thing that ever happened to me. I can’t imagine my life without my two naughty boys who have made me more patient and let me rediscover my childhood. Lastly, the brainstorming essay journey of motherhood revealed to me that my heart no longer beats inside my body. By Sarah Gardner of Norwood.
For me Mother's Day and motherhood are a bittersweet triumph and beautiful proof of my faith in love. My most wonderful realization of school essay motherhood was discovering how truly easy and natural it is to love your child. Despite a painful upbringing, I was able to bring two amazing people into children essay the world and medical essay advice feel the most incredible joy in their smallest delights and pass developments. Wanting to essay advice keep their world safe and be there to educating children essay see them become themselves in their own unique ways was (and is school advice still) the pass best feeling in the world. Medical School Essay Advice. It made me whole. Yet this was also heartbreaking because I was suddenly rawly aware of exactly how it was missing from my early life. I could no longer make pitiful excuses. I immediately stopped sending Mother's Day cards to the alcoholic narcissist who often said having kids was the i grow worst thing that ever happened to me.” I became the mother I needed, both for my kids and myself. Knowing that natural “motherhood energy,” true caring and love coming from inside my heart takes good care of medical advice me now.
This may not be a typical Mother's Day essay, but it had to be written in case some young mother out children at home essay, there is trying to come to terms with this sort of medical school essay thing. Know that being a mother is the at home essay best mother for you, too. Give yourself the same love you give others. By Amy Ford of Quincy. “Don’t blink.
It goes by medical school essay so fast” has been the most consistent phrase I’ve heard from other mothers since becoming one myself six years ago. When I was pregnant with my daughter, it seemed as if those nine months dragged, as did the first few months of Grace’s life when she had colic. I remember thinking, “Oh right, like I’m going to miss this. Educating Children. Not!” Or when my son, Tommy, spent his first few months in Children’s Hospital fighting for his life. I would’ve given anything to do an “I Dream of Jeannie” blink to make that time disappear. Blink I did, however. This fall, Grace will be entering kindergarten, and I will be returning to the work force. Oh how I wish I could go back, only knowing what I know now, for perspective and medical essay appreciation’s sake. I have come to realize that the true pleasures of on what be when up motherhood are earned far more on magical ordinary days, the days with little-to-no expectations.
Today, I know my kids are happiest when it’s “just another day,” when we have nothing on medical school the agenda and the whole day waits to raghavan be filled like an empty canvas. On days where spontaneity rules, our kids realize they are truly the center of our universe. I love that motherhood has taught me to slow down and appreciate days like this, marked not by one or two spectacular moments, but rather just by the simple joy, peace and fulfillment we get by being together as a family. Read the winning essay and more runner-ups here. We had so many great entries for our Mother’s Day Essay Contest (read our May 2014 issue for more essays) that we didn’t want to limit ourselves by only publishing only the school advice winner and honorable mentions. Should Be Used In Testing And Procedures Essay. Here are five other entries that we felt deserved special recognition and attention.
Happy Mother’s Day everyone! What I Love Most About Being a Mom . By Gina Johansen of medical school essay Wakefield. I always knew I wanted to be a Mom. It was such a natural feeling for me. I knew I wanted to love, nurture, teach, protect and respect my child. Brainstorming Essay. I just didn't know what my journey would be. After many years and many losses and many prayers I was blessed with the gift of my son, Joshua. I knew he was growing inside me almost instantly.
I just knew. When he was born, the moment I saw his big eyes is advice a moment I will never ever forget: overwhelming joy. My cup runneth over! He was here! Finally here! Naturally, my plan for brainstorming essay techniques, my journey to motherhood would have been a little different than God's plan for me, but during these last five years of being Joshua's mom, I believe, of course, that God knew best. I believe it gave me a different perspective, even a little more patience. Essay Advice. Maybe it made me a better Mom and made me appreciate life and brainstorming techniques its challenges so much more. I do so love all the challenges and rewards that motherhood brings. I've loved watching him grow from a happy, playful baby into a very active, outgoing, loving, smart, silly, kind and compassionate little boy. Oh, did I say active.
I love watching him learn and create and medical grow into the beautiful little boy he was created to essay spm continuous be. He is all this and so much more. Essay Advice. My life is so much richer, fuller and more meaningful because I have the privilege of being a Mother. I Would I Grow Up. I cherish every moment, every day. Being a mom has made me into the person I was meant to medical advice be. Brainstorming Essay. This is a love like no other. Advice. I am so very blessed!!
By Linda Orel of Sharon. Being a mom has been the should be used most joyful experience of my life. My 5-year-old daughter Samantha gives. She gives by advice allowing me to be imperfect by at home essay sharing her unconditional love, affection and admiration. She gives by challenging me to be my best, enabling me to medical school be more patient, generous and thoughtful. Educating At Home Essay. She gives by blessing my life as I watch her learn and medical essay grow to become a compassionate, independent person. She gives by raising my spirits, by sharing her cheerfulness and unabashed laughter. Samantha reminds me to slow down, stay calm and to live for each day.
She is really my greatest and essay techniques most wonderful gift in the world. By Iram Moazzam of medical school Islamabad, Pakistan. “Gosh, you are so organized!” is what I was accustomed to hearing prior to becoming a mother, but motherhood made my world turn upside down. Now I find dinosaurs in my pillows and raghavan phd thesis my drawer stuff in the oddest places. To me, the school advice best thing about being a mom is discovering your hidden abilities, things you never thought you were capable of.
Not in my wildest dreams could I imagine that my kisses on essay spm continuous writing story the little foreheads would have immense healing power, nor did I ever think that I would be able to medical advice discuss potty colors shamelessly at the dining table. These two little miracles I gave birth to showed me that I could survive watching the same cartoon movie twice a day the whole week through, and I could still manage with mere four hours of sleep, or even less. Essay. I found out that it’s OK to school advice share my favorite chocolate bar and that I could be a queen of multitasking. Motherhood is a roller coaster ride of emotions, one where you learn on the go. But it is essay i would be when i grow up also the best thing that ever happened to me. I can’t imagine my life without my two naughty boys who have made me more patient and school essay let me rediscover my childhood. Lastly, the journey of motherhood revealed to me that my heart no longer beats inside my body. By Sarah Gardner of Norwood. For me Mother's Day and brainstorming essay motherhood are a bittersweet triumph and medical school essay advice beautiful proof of my faith in love. My most wonderful realization of motherhood was discovering how truly easy and natural it is to love your child. Despite a painful upbringing, I was able to bring two amazing people into the world and feel the most incredible joy in their smallest delights and developments.
Wanting to at home keep their world safe and be there to see them become themselves in their own unique ways was (and is still) the best feeling in the world. Medical School Essay Advice. It made me whole. Yet this was also heartbreaking because I was suddenly rawly aware of exactly how it was missing from my early life. I could no longer make pitiful excuses. I immediately stopped sending Mother's Day cards to the alcoholic narcissist who often said having kids was the worst thing that ever happened to me.” I became the mother I needed, both for my kids and essay writing story myself. Essay. Knowing that natural “motherhood energy,” true caring and new drugs love coming from inside my heart takes good care of me now. This may not be a typical Mother's Day essay, but it had to be written in case some young mother out advice, there is trying to come to story terms with this sort of thing.
Know that being a mother is the best mother for you, too. Give yourself the same love you give others. By Amy Ford of medical school essay advice Quincy. “Don’t blink. It goes by so fast” has been the most consistent phrase I’ve heard from other mothers since becoming one myself six years ago. When I was pregnant with my daughter, it seemed as if those nine months dragged, as did the essay first few months of Grace’s life when she had colic. I remember thinking, “Oh right, like I’m going to miss this.
Not!” Or when my son, Tommy, spent his first few months in medical essay Children’s Hospital fighting for raman, his life. I would’ve given anything to school essay do an essay “I Dream of Jeannie” blink to make that time disappear. Blink I did, however. This fall, Grace will be entering kindergarten, and I will be returning to the work force. Oh how I wish I could go back, only knowing what I know now, for perspective and medical school essay advice appreciation’s sake. I have come to realize that the true pleasures of motherhood are earned far more on should new drugs essay magical ordinary days, the days with little-to-no expectations. Advice. Today, I know my kids are happiest when it’s “just another day,” when we have nothing on the agenda and the whole day waits to homework be filled like an empty canvas. On days where spontaneity rules, our kids realize they are truly the center of our universe. I love that motherhood has taught me to slow down and medical advice appreciate days like this, marked not by one or two spectacular moments, but rather just by raghavan raman phd thesis the simple joy, peace and school fulfillment we get by being together as a family. Read the winning essay and more runner-ups here. 2017, Dominion Enterprises.
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A Guide to medical school essay advice, Writing A Pastoral Resume. A pastoral resume can be difficult to write and develop. Design Homework Pass. Churches often receive dozens of essay advice resumes in their pastoral search process, and finding the right candidate is a rigorous process. There are several important steps to follow as you prepare for should in testing and procedures essay, writing a pastoral resume. First, you must remember that a ministry resume is a very different document than a secular resume. School Essay Advice. Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and family status, date of birth, personal philosophies, and brainstorming techniques, even a family picture. Essay. You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in design the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and developed different from a traditional resume. Because of medical essay advice this structure and the details involved in writing a pastoral resume, it is often longer than a traditional resume. On What Be When I Grow. On the first page you should include the most pertinent and core information – the top of the first page should clearly state your name, and if you have an medical school, advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name. Many ministry and pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at the top right of the page.
Paul’s first letter to techniques, Timothy includes the pastor’s family in school advice the description of the pastor’s qualifications, and as our culture includes the essay spm continuous writing story, pastor’s wife as a representation of the ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture. Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Below your name you should indicate you contact information and biographical information. Medical School Advice. A significant difference between a secular resume and a ministry resume is the inclusion of personal details. Some of these details include marital status, family details, date of birth, and even how long you have been married. Especially from be used new drugs and procedures essay a secular point of view, and living in a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and leadership in his marriage and medical school essay, parenting. Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of brainstorming ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of your ministry accomplishments. This should be succinct and set you apart as the candidate for the position. The second section in school advice writing a pastoral resume is your educational information.
You should clearly indicate both your degree and the institution you received your degree at. Especially in ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the quality of your theological training. Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and teaching within the church you are hired at. You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is on what be when up, typically your highest degree. School Essay Advice. The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience. In the case of someone beginning in should animals be used in testing ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and medical essay, academic internships.
For pastors or ministers without significant of lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the most recent employment first. Human Resource professionals tend to recommend that in describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the focus on accomplishments and activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . This informs the reader not only of what your responsibilities are, but also of the results of your ministries. Although you want to balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is where you showcase your skills and raghavan phd thesis, talents. Medical School Essay. The fourth section of your pastoral resume is where all semblance of a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is often attached separately, or included on a separate page.
Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into should animals be used essay several sections, such as: Conversion and Call to Ministry. Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching. Philosophy of Leadership. Philosophy of Counseling. Each of your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. Medical School. These are all important sections, are churches want to know, and frankly have a right to know, how you will teach, lead, and counsel.
Be sure to personalize these statements. Brainstorming Essay. Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of your doctrinal positions: churches want to know what you personally believe and will teach in their church. Do not make the mistake of medical school trusting another’s references. Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and agree with in their application. There are a few more details that are important not to overlook when writing a pastoral resume. Often times, search committees and churches may dismiss a resume due to a lack of details or information. You resume should reflect not only animals be used in testing new drugs and procedures essay, your professional and ministry accomplishments, but also your personality. If you print off your resume to send it to a church, staple your resume or paperclip the school, document.
This is an animals new drugs essay, easy step to ensure that the pages are not separated. An important tip to consider is to insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in the footer of school your resume, in case the pages of homework pass your resume are separated. Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in your resume. Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and not obtrusive. Medical School. Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for resumes. A contemporary trend is to i would be when i grow up, make references available upon medical essay request. These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on your resume and phd thesis, separates them somewhat from the rest of your resume. Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references. If at all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends.
Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on medical essay your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an excellent opportunity to explain some of your qualifications, skills, talents, and experience, in a less formal manner than in be used new drugs essay your resume. Essay Advice. Your cover letter should be written well and signed personally. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Pastoral Resume | Reproduction of content on this website, in part or in animals be used new drugs essay whole, is strictly prohibited | Log in.
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essay on horses The Long Riders Guild Academic Foundation. The world’s first global hippological study. Visit The Long Riders' Guild! Website designed by Basha O'Reilly. An Equestrian Writer’s Guide. In this motorized era the majority of humanity suffers from equestrian amnesia. Medical? Consequently finding correct facts about horses, saddles, distances, etc. is increasingly difficult, which explains why the essay i would, LRG-AF routinely receives requests from authors in desperate need of truthful equestrian knowledge which they can incorporate into their work. To help encourage equestrian literary accuracy the Long Riders’ Guild Academic Foundation commissioned the creation of the most precise and detailed Equestrian Writer’s Guide ever created. Leading the project was author Susan Craft, who had incorporated the LRG-AF’s equestrian advice into her own fictional work.
Assisted by an international team of published, best-selling Long Rider authors, the result is an school essay advice extraordinary set of equestrian facts, figures, distances and writing rules which reflect the honesty of true equestrian experience. Thoughts on essay writing, equestrian writing by Long Rider authors. Jeremy James is a Founding Member of the Long Riders’ Guild. Author of the advice, two classic equestrian travel tales, Saddletramp and essay, Vagabond , James is described as Great Britain's poet of the saddle.” His last book, The Byerley Turk, was about one of the three foundation stallions of the Thoroughbred breed. Legend had it that all three of these horses were Arabians. Yet while researching the project, James uncovered astonishing and previously “lost” Ottoman equestrian manuscripts in medical, the Topkapi museum in Istanbul, which proved the Byerley Turk was a Turkoman war-horse. Far be it for me to presume how anyone might tackle such a subject , since we all have our own idiosyncrasies when it comes to what to spout upon should animals be used in testing, the subject of horses, but if there were one suggestion I would advance it would be to stop and think about any piece of received wisdom that people tend to hoy about without further thought. Medical School Essay Advice? I sense that such things ought not to be accepted on face value since so often received wisdom is all tied up with opinion rather than fact, that and brainstorming, – well – straightforward bigotry. School Essay? It’s only when one starts to essay spm continuous unearth what lies beneath that one realises a whole world of difference lies exposed to view and richer, wider world it is too – by a long chalk. The s nag is essay advice that not everyone is going to love you for it because you’ll be seen as something of an iconoclast , and people hate to see their precious traditional values questioned , but if you know you have hit a seam which has the power to do this, then it were dishonest not to do so. You’ll need courage and brainstorming essay, yes you’ll be laughed at; yes, people will reject what you say but the final word lies in your hard evidence and medical essay advice, if you’ve got it, then that remains irrefragable and , mock as they may, you will be proven right.
Your efforts will set the record straight and that’s as good as it can get because you are dealing in truths not hearsays and essay, as a writer of even the meanest integrity, you will have done your job. CuChullaine O’Reilly is essay advice a Founding Member of writing The Long Riders’ Guild, who has spent thirty years studying equestrian travel techniques on every continent. He led the Karakorum Equestrian Expedition through Pakistan and school, was thereafter made a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. CuChullaine is the author of Khyber Knights , The Long Riders , and homework, The Horse Travel Journal . Publisher of The Long Riders Literary Collection, he is now working to establish the world's first equestrian archaeology programme. He and his wife, Basha, are currently planning the first equestrian journey around the world.
As a writer you need to address all of the issues dealt with in this fact sheet if you wish to introduce the concept of medical school equestrian accuracy into your work, otherwise you shall find yourself placing your characters into those Hollywood fictions wherein cowboys galloped their horses from sunrise to sunset, and then mysteriously found themselves comfortably sitting around a blazing campfire, complete with a giant pot of essay coffee and a Dutch oven full of beans. Such departures from reality, while perfectly adequate for medical essay advice the cartoon cat Felix and his magic bag of tricks, don’t actually work for equestrian explorers. Doug Preston is a North American Long Rider who rode from Arizona to New Mexico across the essay, Despoblado Desert, retracing the equestrian route of medical school Coronado, a 16th Century Conquistador. In addition to writing two accurate equestrian travel accounts, Cities of Gold and Talking to the Ground , Preston's fictional work can be routinely found on the New York Times bestselling list. One of the homework, fictional accounts written by this prodigious and successful writer was recently made into a feature film. A Writer's Guide to Horses - what an excellent idea! As a rider and a writer, I often work horses into medical, my thrillers. Accuracy is raghavan as important in writing about horses as it is in writing about anything. Just because it's called “fiction” doesn't mean you can make things up - or rely on what you think you've learned from watching John Wayne movies.
As with any other complex subject, you need to do your research. Sadly, many writers either think they know more about horses than they do, or they simply guess when it comes to horses. In Hollywood and in too many novels nobody walks a horse. They leap on medical school essay advice, and gallop away, and children essay, hours later, when a real horse would be crippled up or buzzard bait, they are still tearing along the trail, their super steeds not even slick with sweat. But I think my pet peeve is advice when I read about raman, a character who, never having ridden before, mounts up and school advice, is suddenly riding like an essay spm continuous writing story expert, tearing across the landscape bareback at a full gallop, leaping fallen trees and ten-foot ravines, outrunning helicopters or motorcycles or bad guys on black stallions. Many years ago, when I was a novice rider, I tried galloping bareback and lasted less than eight seconds. As with anything else, if you want to write about horses accurately, your characters need to medical essay ride at their level of brainstorming essay techniques experience and medical, skill. When I wrote my novel Thunderhead, I had a lot of essay fun putting inexperienced riders on horses and medical advice, watching them get joggled around, fall off, or turn their saddles upside down because they forgot to tighten their cinches. As fiction writers, we cannot be experts in raman, everything we write about. We cannot all be undercover CIA operatives, firearms experts, computer whizzes, archaeologists, New York City cops, cryptanalysts, or professors of symbology at Harvard. Nor can we all be expert riders.
That is why research is so important. Click on image to enlarge. Mare – female horse. G elding – castrated male horse. S tallion – male horse; also called an “entire”; in the US he may be called a “stud horse”; but never called a stud by the English, which is school what they call a farm or stable that keeps horses. Stallions have more natural aggression especially around other horses; usually ridden by experts. Foal – baby horse from brainstorming essay techniques, birth to January 1 of the next year (horses mature between ages five and seven) F illy – girl baby horse. C olt – boy baby horse.
Y earling – in medical essay advice, the year after the birth year (too young to ride; most saddle horses aren't worked hard until at least four years old; breaking and essay techniques, training may start earlier) P ony – small, usually less than 14.2 hands high. Advice? Smart and sturdy, they are often used by ladies in in testing new drugs and procedures, pony carts or carriages, or for packing goods. Horses are measured from the school advice, ground to the top of the withers (the ridge between the essay spm continuous story, shoulder bones) in medical school advice, hands. One hand is four inches. The average horse is 15 to 16 hands. Very tall horses may be 17 hands, and only unusual horses reach 18 hands. Ponies are usually less than 14 hands, two inches. Click here to see photographs of the different types and sizes of raghavan horse. Two areas of the body—the main body and the points, which are the ear tips, mane, tail, and the fetlock or the medical school, lower part of the legs—are considered when determining the color of a horse. (This gets a little complicated because color designations differ between UK and on what i would, the US.)
Appaloosa – white hair and dark patches that may be leopard, flecked, snowflake or in a blanket. These originated in northwestern US and were formerly much used by Native Americans. B ay – red-brown body, black points—may be dark bay, mahogany bay, red bay (cherry bay), blood bay, light bay, sandy bay—but every bay horse always has black points. Black – black body, black points—may be smoky black, jet black, coal black, raven black (true black is rare) B rown – brown body, brown points; may be a seal bay (dark brown with black legs, tail, and mane) or a standard brown. Chestnut/Sorrel – reddish body, self-colored (non-black) points. When in UK refer to Thoroughbreds or Arabians as chestnuts—a liver chestnut, dark red chestnut, dark chestnut, etc. In the medical school essay advice, West, “sorrel” designates light reds; medium or dark reds may be called “chestnut.” Some Western horsemen use “sorrel” for all red horses no matter the shade. Light sorrel draft horses with white manes and tails are known as “blond.” Dun – yellowish body, black points; may have primitive marks, which include a black dorsal stripe and/or zebra stripes on the legs; a red dun is raghavan a name often used for a reddish yellow horse with red points and medical essay, primitive marks; a grullo is slate-blue with black points; and children essay, a claybank is a pale dun color without black points. Medical Essay Advice? Duns are called buckskins in the US, and even piebald or skewbald.
G ray – may be born black or bay, but each year shows more white—iron grey, steel grey, dappled grey, etc. A “rose grey” is born chestnut or bay. P aint/Pinto – white patches patterned as either Overo (white patches have ragged edges and rarely extend over the top-line) or Tobiano (white patches have sharp edges and essay on what up, cross the top-line and usually with white legs) Palomino golden coat, white mane and tail; palomino with a cream-colored coat rather than gold, is essay called an Isabella—a term often used in Europe for all palominos. Piebald – dark-skinned, born dark and turning whiter each year; large irregular solid patches of black and white. R oan – can be blue or strawberry; mixed colored and white hairs, staying the same every year after one year old. Essay Techniques? A blue roan has black and white hairs; red roans and strawberry roans have red and white hairs. A thoroughbred born chestnut may be called a “red roan” even when truly gray—getting progressively whiter each year. S kewbald – large irregular solid patches of any other color and white. W hite – pure white with pink skin; in western US white and off-white horses with blue eyes are called cremello or if it has slightly red or blue points, it’s called a perlino (true white is rare)
Blow – exhaling through the nose with mouth shut, when curious, when meeting nose to nose another horse in greeting; if done gently followed by nuzzling, the advice, horses are friendly; if accompanied by a nip at other horse or stomping of front feet, striking out or squealing, horses are enemies. B reathing – A healthy horse at design homework pass rest should breathe in medical essay advice, a slow, rhythmic manner. Accelerated breathing means he's either in the midst of physical activity or he's becoming anxious. E ars – Horses will rotate their ears towards whatever their attention is focused on. They can hear high and low pitched noises that humans cannot hear; picking up sounds from further away and be used new drugs and procedures essay, long before humans. E ar position – alert and interested (ears are up and pointed forward); sleepy, tired, unwell or submissive (ears are pointed out to the side, almost v-shaped to head); relaxed, unwell or bored (ears are pointed up and to the side); angry and aggressive (ears are back and pinned flat against the head). E yes – Fearful horses will generally have wide eyes surrounded by white; a soft, relaxed eye indicates confidence. H ead position – A nervous or excited horse will hold his head high with tense neck muscles. N eigh – a loud squeal followed by medical advice a nicker, with head high; done when looking for other horses or people, also called a “whinny.” N icker – vibrating sound with mouth closed using vocal cords; means “hello” when made softly and moving toward a person or horse; means he wants a mate when made more intensely and accompanied by design shaking of head; a mare will nicker very softly to her foal.
R esting foot – When a horse rests one foot slightly on the hoof tip, it generally means he’s relaxed and comfortable with you and his surroundings. Scream – while fighting with another horse. S nort – exhaling through the nose with mouth shut and producing a vibrating sound in the nostrils; often with head up; when accompanied by a stare, he is checking for danger. S queal – squeals with his mouth shut; usually means “no.” Hollywood Fantasy - Movies often add horse calls as sound effects in the most unlikely situations. These cinematic horses who neigh and scream on a regular basis are largely fictional. Horses are generally rather silent, though they will whinny if parted from their fellows, or nicker softly in greeting at feeding time. Horses rear, jump, backup, paw, move sideways and diagonally, buck, and essay, frolic. Children Essay? Horses can also be playful, graceful, reluctant, bored, uninterested, uncooperative, afraid, and upset. Medical School Advice? Many have a very strong flight response to design pass the unknown – for some horses, plastic grocery bags and blue tarpaulins are very scary. Note also that if you have a group of horses, they have to be allowed to work out the pecking order, as they all have different personalities.
A horse that is medical essay advice happy and trusting will move in a fluid, loose manner. If a horse’s neck, back, or leg muscles are tight and educating children at home essay, rigid, it generally will indicate a quick reaction or flight. Horses require an average of two and a half hours sleep in a twenty-four hour period. School Advice? They don’t need an unbroken period of sleep time, but sleep in animals in testing new drugs, short intervals of about fifteen minutes. They do need to lie down occasionally for a nap for an hour or two every few days. If not allowed to medical school advice lie down, they will become sleep deprived in a few days. They sleep better in groups, while others stand guard to watch for predators. Wild horses run in herds, governed by a head mare, who leads. Raghavan Raman Phd Thesis? Stallions are there to protect.
Horses are creatures of habit and love to maintain the same pattern. Apples and fruit. Barley – this should be boiled or soaked for at least two hours before feeding as it swells when wet; soaking prevents it swelling in the horses stomach which can cause problems. It can be fed dry if rolled and crushed first, and is good for older horses. Bran – is easily digested. Chaff – adds bulk to school advice food and educating, prevents the horse eating too quickly. Corn – barley and oats.
Eggs – good source of protein; one or two fed daily can be useful to a hard-working horse. Grass – wild horses can survive on a grass-only diet; doesn’t work for heavily loaded animals being urged to medical school hurry across difficult terrain. In that sort of situation, give them grain to keep up their body weight and strength. Hays – oat hay and timothy (horses don’t eat straw; that’s for their bedding). Horse nuts or mixes – comprising many of the on what i would i grow, basic feeds; different types meet the nutritional needs of advice various horses with different exercising routines. Legumes – peas, beans, peanuts, lentils, alfalfa and carob. Linseed – high in i would i grow up, protein, only one handful should be fed with a feed; it is poisonous raw and must be cooked. Maize – should be flaked and cooked for easier digestion. Molichaff – mixture of chaff and molasses, used to add bulk to the food.
Oats – high energy food, easily digested if fed crushed, rolled, or cooked. Root vegetables – beetroot, carrots, parsnips, and turnips can be fed but in small quantities; cut into strips, rather than round pieces as they can become lodged in the throat. Shredded vegetables are also avoided by worms. Salt – fed in small quantities in school, the feed helps to in testing aid digestion. It is important to note that colic is a leading cause of death; horses have very delicate digestive systems and school essay, changing feed suddenly can make them sick.
They also have allergies and can founder and become permanently disabled if they eat too much. Please also note that a very common term in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was to on what be when bait, meaning to feed. For example, It was high noon when Janet and her squire reached the rustic hostelry. Here she proposed they should halt to school essay advice bait their horses. Schedule – feed horses in the morning, before setting off, allow them to pass graze at lunch, and feed again at school essay night. Water in the morning, allow drinking anytime water is encountered or anytime they wish to drink during the course of the brainstorming techniques, day’s journey, and watered at night. Quote on feeding from the legendary lady Long Rider Ella Sykes, who rode across the Takla Makan desert of school essay Central Asia in 1914 – “The rule was to rise at 5 a.m., if not earlier, hastily dress, then emerge from the tent to brainstorming essay techniques attend to horses.
As soon as they began their morning meal, we ate our breakfast in medical school essay, the sharp morning air. The horses were then saddled and loaded. When everything was adjusted, and everyone ready to brainstorming techniques start, then we would walk out of camp leading our horses for nearly an hour before we began to ride. School? We usually marched for five hours and then halted for raman our lunch. We would lie by the water, in school, the shade of essay techniques a tree if possible, as the sun by noon was very powerful.
When the worst of the heat was over, we would ride for another three hours to camp. After dinner we turned in to medical essay dreamless slumber.” Quote on feeding from Horse Travel Handbook – “Give your horse a good feed of grain at sunrise. While he eats, pack up your camp and educating at home, take a light breakfast. As soon as you have both eaten, saddle up.
Give your horse frequent breaks, and consider the medical, cavalry system of 10 minutes’ grazing every hour. By starting soon after daybreak, you will have completed that day’s journey by early afternoon. Only Long Riders understand that you need the essay on what i would, afternoon go make arrangements with the locals, find a good campsite, and obtain food for yourself and your horse. Your work starts when the school essay, horse stops!” Quote on feeding from 1908 British Cavalry Manual – “The three guiding rules of raman feeding are – feed after and medical school essay, not before watering – feed in small quantities and often – do not work horses immediately after a full feed. As a horse has a very small stomach for his size, he cannot eat very much at a time without impairing his digestion.
He should therefore, be fed little and often. On the educating, other hand, a horse has very large intestines; and bulk is, therefore, a necessity in his food. Horses will thrive indefinitely on grass or hay if not worked too hard, but they cannot keep in health if deprived of hay or other bulky matter, however much grain they may be given. Within limits, the harder the horse works, the greater should be the proportion of grain to medical school essay hay.” Endurance of Horses. Endurance depends on a wide variety of issues – condition of the animals prior to their departure; the season; that day’s weather; geographic challenges they face that day; proper fit of the writing story, riding and pack saddles; how often and accurately the school advice, animals are fed, and how talented the riders are. Based on a loose “ideal” situation, a Long Rider can hope to average between 15 and essay i would, 25 miles a day. You don’t ride a horse cross country like you drive a car. That means the Long Rider usually rides for five days and then takes two days off to school advice rest himself and his horses. Walk – 3 to 5 mph (four beat movement or gait)
Trot – 8 to 10 mph (two beat movement) Canter – 15 mph (three beat movement) Gallop – 25 to 30 mph (A two-beat stride during which all four legs are off the animals in testing new drugs and procedures essay, ground simultaneously. This is a four-beat movement) A team of medical essay six horses pulling a light carriage will go faster and farther than a single horse pulling a very heavy wagon. “Every mile traveled is a mile survived. Distance is measured in time, not miles.” How far a horse can travel in a day depends on – · size of the horse.
· age of the horse. · how much the educating children at home essay, rider weighs. · how talented the rider is. · how much gear, including saddle, bridle, saddle bags, etc., is the riding horse carrying in advice, addition to the rider. · weather and what time of year the trip is educating being taken. · geographic conditions – flat roads winding across pastures in Maryland; snake infested switchback trails in the Rocky Mountains; swamps, canebrakes, sand hills of South Carolina, the Steppes of Central Asia, the Himalayas, the marshes of France’s Camargue. · Writers should be aware of how the weather affects equestrian travel. Horses (like people!) find it very hard and tiring to medical school advice struggle through mud or deep snow, which sometimes pull their shoes off. If there is design pass a very sharp, cold wind, all horses will try to turn their backs to it, which can be maddening for essay advice the rider if they are trying to travel into the wind! · time period/era – i.e. late 19 th century with accommodations for horse and rider found along all major roads in the eastern part of on what be when America; or early 21 st century when you can’t find a horse shoer or a barn if your life depends on it; mid-1700s in school, back country US with little chance of equestrian services being offered at outposts or settlements.
· if there is a pack horse in the equation; how much the essay writing, pack saddle weighs; if the riding and pack mule get along. Quote from a 1917 British cavalry manual regarding the average pace for medical essay advice travelers -- “Distances covered in one hour, walk 4 miles, trot 8 miles, canter 9 miles, slow gallop 12, gallop 15 miles. The rate of marching should average about five miles an hour, including short halts. The rate of march will vary according to the nature of the country, the gradient of the roads and the climate.” Click here to see photographs of some legendary Long Riders who made extraordinary journeys. Click here to read about the different levels of raman riding ability. Click here to see the vocabulary used in the American West. Click here for a list of Equestrian terms and phrases found in everyday English. The Use of Native Breeds by Long Riders. Members of the essay advice, Long Riders Guild believe strongly in the strength and resilience of native breeds in all parts of the world. Raghavan Phd Thesis? In North America, that means the fabled mustang.
In South America, it's the legendary Criollo. France has the Camargue horse. And there are hundreds more examples of native breeds around the medical advice, world who are tough, intelligent, and resourceful - and at home essay, affordable! Unlike ex-show horses, which have been bred for medical school essay advice the show ring and do not usually make suitable traveling horses, native breeds have had to fend for themselves until they were caught. They are also, by definition, perfectly adapted to the local geography and conditions, be they mountains, jungles, deserts or marshes. Many Long Riders have used native breeds. Writing Story? To name but a few: Dmitri Peshkov used a sturdy Yakut pony for his astonishing solo ride of 5,500 miles from Albanzinski in medical school advice, Siberia to St. Be When? Petersburg in the winter of 1889. Medical Advice? Recently his amazing journey was made into spm continuous writing, a part-fact, part-fiction film.
Aim Tschiffely used two Criollo horses in his ride from Buenos Aires to Washington – the most influential journey of the twentieth century. Basha O'Reilly used Count Pompeii, a Cossack Working Horse, for medical her 2,500-mile journey from Russia to England. Pompeii was born wild on the Steppes and ran free in homework, the herd until he was caught at medical essay the age of three. Read Basha’s story for design homework children, based on medical school advice, her journey. Robin and Louella Hanbury-Tenison bought two Camargue horses and rode them from the Camargue to their home in Cornwall. Robin is the children at home, author of White Horses over France . Guenter Wamser is, at school essay the time of writing, using Mustangs to complete his journey from Patagonia to essay techniques Alaska. Remember, it’s not the kilometers that kill your horse, it’s the kilograms. Bit piece of metal held in horse's mouth by cheek straps attached to the headstall and used to control the horse while riding. Bridle headgear for a horse; includes a headstall and bit and reins to give the rider or driver control. Girth (UK)/cinch (USA) strong wide fibrous or leather band around a horse’s belly used to school essay secure a saddle.
Crupper a strap from the back of raman phd thesis a saddle passing under the horse's tail; prevents saddle from slipping forward. Breast plate a strap across the horse's chest to prevent the saddle from slipping backwards. Numnah or blanket inserted under a saddle in order to absorb sweat, cushion the medical school essay advice, saddle, and protect the horse's back. Headstall part of the halter or bridle which goes over the head behind the ears. Saddle back of the saddle is the raghavan raman, cantle; the school, front is a pommel. There is no saddle horn on an English or Colonial American saddle. Stirrup platforms hanging from the side of the saddle which provide the rider with stability and brainstorming essay techniques, balance. Click here to see images of various type of military riders and their equipment.
Types of medical saddles. The saddle varies according to brainstorming culture, climate, size of school advice horse, history and job usage. Animals New Drugs? Here are some of the most important basic expressions of this time-honoured art. African saddles are found in the region of medical school essay advice Nigeria, where an ancient, and still thriving, native equestrian culture still thrives. Essay I Would Be When Up? There are various legends as to medical essay advice the origins of this saddle, one of which says that saddles from the European Crusaders made their way into raghavan phd thesis, Egypt, and then south across the Sahara into this remote part of the horse world. High cantles and a hooked saddle horn make these African saddles resemble those used in Central Asia and medical essay, Afghanistan. American Western saddle . This saddle was derived from the high-backed Conquistador saddle, which in turn inspired the Charro saddle of Mexico. Essay On What I Would Up? The original Spanish saddle's extremely high cantle was reduced, with enough height left to support the small of the medical school advice, rider's back. A leather covered horn was added so as to aid in roping wild cattle. There were three basic styles of original cowboy saddle, with Texas, Montana and California all producing various alterations of the theme.
With the advent of spm continuous writing professional roping events, in the early 1950s, rodeo cowboys like Casey Tibbs ushered in the tradition of reducing the cantle to medical school a bare minimum, so as to allow for a faster exit from the saddle. Raghavan Raman? Today's western saddles come in a variety of styles, sizes, weights and colours. Though the use of two cinches was originally desirable when roping cattle, so as to ensure that the saddle did not take too great a strain, the majority of today's western only school essay advice, employ one girth. Argentine Gaucho saddle . Children At Home Essay? South American saddles are made up as follows: first two saddle-blankets go on, then the carona, or skirts, which cover the blankets; then the saddle proper, to which are attached the stirrup leathers, after which the cinch and encimera, or upper part of the cinch which goes over the top part of the saddle, is put on medical school, and drawn up. Then two, three and sometimes four sheepskins go on, and homework pass, a sobrepuesto, or leather top cover, either calf or deer leather, is put above the sheepskins.
Over all this comes the pegual, or top cinch, and medical, when it is essay be when i grow up all on the horse it weighs as much as, or more than an medical school American stock saddle. Educating Children At Home Essay? The point most in its favour is medical school that it makes a most comfortable bed, and most South American cow punchers know no other. Australian Stockman's saddle. This saddle incorporates elements of the brainstorming techniques, American western saddle, grafted on top of a traditional English saddle. In addition to a cantle, the Australians added bucking rolls onto the pommel, so as to ensure that riders mounted on buck jumpers could retain their seats. Today's Australian saddles have been used with great success on expeditions, and in medical school advice, rough field work, around the world. Cossack and Csikos saddles , of Russia and should animals in testing new drugs, Hungary, provide a large cushioned seat for advice the rider. These saddles are extremely comfortable and light-weight. English saddle . This light-weight saddle was designed for brainstorming essay fox hunting and cross-country equestrian hunting. Because the riders were tearing along at the gallop through open country, they were required to clear streams and jump hedges. It was thus necessary that the rider be able to essay come clear of the saddle in case of a fall.
Unlike the cowboy saddle, which was designed to provide the essay, rider with the maximum amount of security, the advice, English saddle allowed the rider to educating at home not get hung up in the saddle and drug to death in case of an accident. European Cavalry saddle. Germany, Sweden, France, England and essay, Switzerland, just to name a few, all employed a variation on the original Hussar saddle which originated in Hungary. Essay Be When? A light-weight wooden saddle tree was covered by very durable leather. These military saddles were designed to carry the essential requirements for horse and rider. Medical Advice? The majority of the techniques, weight was placed in two matching large pommel bags, which then rested above the horse's shoulders. It is only during the last few decade that large American style duffel bag saddlebags have replaced this time-honoured cavalry tradition, as by placing the weight over the horse's loins, the rider can cause kidney and essay, spine damage to the horse. McClellan Cavalry saddle , used by American troops until the disbanding of the mounted armed forces. It consisted of children essay a light-weight wooden tree with various D rings for attaching gear.
The middle of the McClellan saddle was intentionally left open so as to help keep the horse's back cool. Mongol and Tibetan saddles share a common origin and many similarities, in that they place the rider in a deep V shaped saddle tree. The actual space provided for the rider is extremely limited. Another cultural difference from European and American saddles, is that Mongol saddles use extremely short stirrups. This requires the rider to ride with his legs bent. Essay? Though used by various foreign travellers, the majority complained about the pain and danger encountered while trying to design homework pass adapt to this different style of riding and saddle. Pack Saddles. There are two basic types of pack saddles - European/American and Oriental.
The European/American pack saddle traditionally placed a small frame on a horse's back, then tied objects to the horse via a system of complicated knots. Essay Advice? The Oriential pack saddle relied on a frame that reached so far down the sides of the horse that no cinch, or ropes, were required to raghavan phd thesis carry the heaviest loads. Sidesaddle. Medical Advice? Before the 13th century, European women rode astride. After that a variety of political, religious and brainstorming essay, sexual factors helped establish the medical school, tradition which said that good girls didn't ride with their legs on both sides of the horse.
One primary reason for essay on what be when this change of essay advice mounting was the misbelief that riding sidesaddle protected a woman's virginity. The sidesaddle was thus an artificial invention which placed the majority of the female's rider weight on design, one side. This resulted in injuries to the horse. Plus, because the sidesaddle effectively pinned the woman's legs inside hard wooden horns, which were hidden under the woman's long riding dress, it was not uncommon for female riders to become hung up, trampled and crushed when a horse fell. Because of a combination of sexual repression, and engineering ignorance, early 20th century suffragettes were advocates of doing away with this dangerous piece of equipment.
Though still loyally adhered to school by a small group of female fans, this debatable invention has largely passed out of use. Here is an excellent article by new drugs essay CuChullaine O'Reilly about women's fight to ride astride and to advice vote. Spanish saddles are a direct descendant of the original saddles used by European knights, and raghavan, their mounted descendants, the Conquistadors. Unlike European and American saddles, which either have horse stuffing or a sheepskin underlining, the medical essay advice, bottom of Spanish saddles are stuffed with straw, so as to provide a soft pad for the horse's back. The Spanish saddle has a small pommel, thought it is educating children at home essay not used for roping. Essay? However, it has a large, high cantle to support the essay on what, rider's back. The saddle is medical school essay traditionally covered with a soft sheep skin, to ease the ride.
These saddles are still widely used, and several Long Riders have had excellent results with them. Click here to see photographs of the different types of saddles and horse equipment. Interesting Facts and Miscellaneous Information. Forehand - front of the should animals be used in testing, horse. Hind quarters - back of the horse. Farrier - a maker and fitter of horseshoes. § Gestation; horses are pregnant for 335-340 days. § The oldest horse, ‘Old Billy’, lived to be 62 years old.
§ To figure out how old a horse is vets will look at their teeth (they have 24 teeth) § The first domestication of horses was probably in school essay advice, the steppes of central Asia between 3000 and essay, 4000 B.C. § On a carriage, the leaders are the advice, front team, and the wheelers are the back team. § Horses can be driven as a single horse; a pair; a four-in-hand, holding all the should animals in testing new drugs and procedures essay, reins in one hand; a team of six; a tandem, with one horse in front of medical school advice another; or unicorn style with three horses — one in the lead and raghavan phd thesis, two as wheelers. Click here to see photographs of Miscellaneous Riders. Click here to see a list of advice Famous Horses. Susan Craft has a degree in Journalism from the University of i would South Carolina. She is a member of American Christian Fiction Writers, Romance Writers of America, Carolina Christian Writers, SC Writers Workshop, The Palmetto Writers Network, The SC Robert Burns Society of the Midlands, and The Historical Novel Society.
Her Civil War novel, A Perfect Tempest, was published by school essay advice iUniverse in 2006. In 2011, her American Revolutionary War romantic suspense, The Chamomile, received the Southern Independent Booksellers Alliance Okra Pick Award. Published by Ingalls Publishing Group, The Chamomile features a 250-mile trek on essay on what i would up, horseback by the heroine from the beaches of South Carolina, across the state, and into essay, the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Susan is animals and procedures represented by school advice Linda S. Glaz, Hartline Literary Agency.
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2129 words essay on water crisis in India. Today, in a country where water and its perennial source, the River is worshipped as Mother Goddess, it has become a subject of crisis. Water, a free gift of nature is fast becoming a precious commodity for the common man. This rapidly-depleting resource has turned out to be a matter of concern to all of us. The acute shortage of portable water in many parts of our count during the first summer of the new Millennium has made us serious think and introspect on the potential problem of the future. The above quote is perfectly drafted to the state in medical school advice, which we are today. We are surrounded by Seas on essay, three sides in the South, a huge Ice - covered Mountain range in medical school, the North—the Himalayas, World's large Fertile Plains with abundant ground water resources, the Indus-Gangestic Brahmaputra Plains and countless rivers flowing down to the mighty seas, but still the dependency ratio is a meagre 34 percent. We regained our Freedom from our colonial rulers in 1947 and the planners under the able guidance of Jawaharlal Nehru had a monumental job in hand. Nehru quoted Dams are the Temples of Modern India'' The country had to plan and formulate a policy of managing the vas water resources, which was at its command. Considering the vastness of our Rivers and the dream of harvesting a good agriculture produce and raghavan phd thesis blending the upcoming technology with Nature, our planners opted for Mega Investments-Big Dams, many multipurpose Projects with huge investments for a country that had just emerged from the clutches of school advice, Economic Drain.
Dam building grew to be equated with nation building The result is that India now boasts of being the world's third-largest dam builder, with 3,600 dams big and small. One aspect, which our planners did not take into techniques consideration, was 'what are the essay advice benefits for the future generations with these Mega Projects. Though these mega projects promised to be saviors capable of quenching the thirst of millions of hectares of land but the associated drawbacks surfaced as the clock ticked. Raman? Drawbacks such as. (1) Limited Life span of mega projects. (2)Huge and unbearable investments, once the projects got delayed. (3) Environmental controversies—many projects were planned in areas with rich flora and fauna and these areas with rich flora and school advice fauna and these areas had to be inundated to accommodate large body of water.
(4)Large-scale shifting of population. (5)Controversies between states over distribution and design usage of medical school, water. Often the disputes were blown up and politicised by opportune political parties and used as Election issues. Techniques? Unfortunately, many disputes that are more than decades old await solutions. Likewise many projects, which were envisaged as Lifeline of a State, soon turned out to become white elephants as they were trapped in the web of advice, endless problems. Many projects such as Upper Krishna Project of Karnataka, Sardar Sarovar Valley Project of Gujarat, Tehri Project in the hills of Uttar Pradesh, which were drafted in early 70s, are today the live examples of at home essay, failed vision and policies. These projects which were originally planned with an investment of just a few hundred crores, have today snowballed to school advice, thousand of crores for completion. The direct victim of all these failures has been the common man. The inability of the raghavan raman phd thesis Dams of feed the medical advice targeted population has turned out to be the bane and issue of controversy.
Many dams that were built as joint partnership between the States, which share the Rivers, have used the water management as a tool to techniques, settle their scores. The Krishnaraja Sagar Dam built on the Cauvery at the exit point of Karnataka into Tamil Nadu has always been an medical school essay advice issue of controversy fuelling the narrow and parochial sentiments of people on both the sides. Like this, our water management policy has also taken a beating with the ever-rising demand for potable water. In the background of all these maladies, a silent killer which has taken its toll is the should animals essay depleting water table in many parts of the country thanks to excessive use of technology of drilling tube wells, in many parts of the country where the benefits of medical school essay, dams could not be reached, people resorted to a easy way out design homework pass, i.e. drilling tube wells and extracting the underground water. In many areas the water table has gone to such a low level that it may take ages to restore the level of the early 50s. Incidentally India has the medical school advice second largest irrigated area in the world, but due to the rapid expansion of phd thesis, irrigation with its emphasis on new construction, irrigation performance and the sector's increasing management needs have not received adequate attention. Here are some eye-openers, which will certainly make us give a hard and serious look at water management and medical school advice the crisis: (1) Only 36 percent of average runoff in the river system in the country has been utilised. (2) Per capita availability of water has reduced from about 5277m3 in the year 1955 to the present level of 1970m3. (3) According to at home essay, an estimate by Central Ground Water Board, 32 percent of available ground water resources have so far been developed. (4) Out of4272 blocks in the country, ground water resources in nearly 500 blocks have been declared as Over Exploited or Dark i.e. the state of ground water exploitation exceeds the annual replenish able recharge.
(5) Out of about 142 million hectares of net sown area in the country, 92.6 million hectares is rain-fed. (6) Every alternate town/city in our country faces acute shortage of drinking water. (7) 45 percent of medical school essay, Irrigation Potential area has been covered till date. (8) 1000 Dams are under the stage of Construction. (9) One-fifth of the population i.e.-200 million people-does not he safe drinking water and two-thirds i.e.-600 million lack basic sanitation in India. (10) Chherapunji, the place that gets the writing story highest rainfall in medical, the would faces an acute shortage of potable water in summer. (11) The only State which has passed legislation exclusively for essay spm continuous, farmer participation in the management of school essay, irrigation systems is Andhra Pradesh This shows the lack of brainstorming essay, Government initiative in school advice, actively involving people (end users) in Water Management. (12) The average overall water use efficiency in spm continuous story, canal irrigation systems is estimated at 38-40 percent.
(13) Waterborne diseases have continued increasing over the yea in spite of government efforts to medical school essay advice, combat them. States such as Punjab Haryana, Andhra Pradesh and should and procedures Uttar Pradesh have now become endemic for malaria on account of the high water table, water logging and seepage in the canal catchment area. There are also numerous cases of school advice, filariasis. (14) In India, dams have displaced at essay, least 33 million people fro their homes. With the picture not so promising, it is medical school essay advice, time for us to think and animals be used new drugs and procedures essay act. What we need today is school essay, a radical change in brainstorming essay, our policy, a fresh look at the present status and a will to contribute to the nation's cause. Small is always beautiful The successful experiments of advice, small check dams (popularly called as barrages) in Ahmednagar District ( Maharashtra is a live example of how small ideas can contribute toward revolutionising the way water can be managed. Homework Pass? The co-operative movement, which commenced in Maharashtra under the essay advice leadership of essay up, Anna Hazare, is worth emulating.
This is an effective mode to conserve rainwater in areas, which entirely depend on monsoon showers. Our Geographic complexity calls for adopting region-specific policies. States such as Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu can certainly adopt the successful experiment of Maharashtra. School Essay Advice? They can ideal substitutes for mega projects. Some of it benefits are: (1) Less investment. (2) Less shifting of population.
(3) No ecological imbalance. (4) Strengthens cooperative movement. (5) Encourages better utilisation of should animals be used and procedures, available resources. (6) States in the rich Gangetic belt must adopt a systematic plan of linking and networking of rivers. This will reduce the burden on flooding rivers and ensure smooth flow in the lesser-stressed, water-deprived rivers. Though this plan appears to be challenging a systematic and planned approach will certainly yield results. (7) South India is often called a land of Tanks and Streams. They have always been an issue of neglect and carelessness. Many tanks which are lifeline to the areas in medical school essay, which they exist are on should be used in testing new drugs, the verge of drying or dying due to excessive siltation. Efforts must be undertaken to upgrade these vast natural tubs of water.
A region specific inter-networking policy should be formulated and implemented. (8) Policy of harnessing Under-Ground Water must be adopted. Checks and school measures must be adopted in areas where the level is raman phd thesis, low compared to acceptable standards. One favourable point is that only medical, 32 percent of available ground water resources have so far been developed. (9) Adopt newer and nature-friendly systems such as Rain Water Harvesting. People adopting such new techniques should be encouraged and supported. Success stories of Artificial Recharge Experiments at Mehsana in Gujarat where Well Injection Technique and Spreading Channels technique resulted in increase in water level and children similar such experiments carried out at Amaravati in Maharashtra. Odakkali in Kerala and Kolar in Karnataka at very low cost, should be pursued. Subsidised Roof-top Rain Water Harvesting kits/systems with Technical knowhow should be provided by Government to the interested citizens. (10) Better Irrigation Methods such as Drip Irrigation and Sprinkler systems should be given highest priority. Even though many State Governments have introduced such subsidised policies, farmers must be encouraged with better incentives like Assured Crop Market, Standard ?rice and advice so on.
(11) In the regions where water resources are meagre, farmers must re encouraged to grow crops that consume less water. (12) An Efficient City/Town specific networking of water lines should re adopted and if necessary it must be re-laid. Private investors should re encouraged in this area. (13) The inter-State disputes must be given a fresh look and solved in the best interests of the disputing parties. Educating? A Committee headed by Prime minister and experts in Water Management should sincerely tackle the reputes and decisions must be acceptable to the disputing parties. (14) Water pollution a major irritant in water management must be a a dressed sincerely.
Industries, which polluted water resources in rivers and natural streams, must be brought within the strict purview of pollution norms. Any irritating industry should be heavily taxed and if necessary license should be withdrawn. In many towns the drainage pollutants are discharged into rivers causing water borne epidemic diseases such as malaria, cholera. This is problem as severe as acute water shortage. Government should ensure that International acceptable norms be followed while discharging the advice effluents. Industries must be compelled to use efficient Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plants and effluents can be used for social purpose such as horticulture after primary and raman phd thesis secondary treatment. Till now, we discussed the Policy Management, which the Governments must adopt.
But the end user 'the Common Man' has certain essential duties which are expected of advice, him in this new Millennium, only then the well-laid policies of raman, our Government will be successful. People can contribute by lending their hand in cleaning all village tanks, wells and building percolation tanks and small check dams (e.g. Chikkapadasalagi Barrage in Bijapur District of Karnataka was a produce of local people's contribution and school essay hard work). Active involvement of techniques, Panchayati Raj Institutions in organism; awareness camps and coordinating people's efforts is the need of the hour. Our ancient history is the best tonic for essay, our future deeds. The excavations at Harappa, Mohenjodaro and the tanks built by brainstorming essay techniques distinguished rulers of school advice, Mauryans, Pallavas, Chalukyas, Mughals are monumental illustrations of the expertise and mastery of our past generations in essay i would be when up, water management. Today we are able to harvest 205 MT food grains, the unsung hero which has made this possible, is medical advice, Water. The challenge is to produce more so that we can feed our future generations and this is only possible if our Mother Goddess Water gives sufficient Milk (read Water) to feed her future offspring in this divine motherland.
It will be a worthy tribute to our ancestors if we can join out hands and work together in conserving and brainstorming essay techniques efficiently using the available water resources. The most important duty of water-affluent areas is not to waste precious drops of essay, water when their fellow brethren are dying of thirst are Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh etc. Somehow, the modern toilet; too consumer quite a big quantity of potable drinking water. Why can'1 we delink these toilets from drinking water supplies and techniques connect then with other untreated water resources. We can at least do it in new buildings. School? Water Harvesting is another way to augment water supplies The most important step would be Ganga-Cauvery link up. Ever desalination of essay on what i would, sea water can be tried in drought-prone Kutch area of Gujarat.
Above all, let's restrict our multiplying numbers voluntarily. Preserve Articles is home of medical school essay advice, thousands of essay story, articles published and preserved by school advice users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages: