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Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) Additional insights into nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. Nongovernmental organizations, or NGOs, are generally accepted to be organizations which have not been established by governments or agreements among governments. According to the dissertation uk, Harold Jacobson, author of one of the established texts in international organization, NGOs, like intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), have regularly scheduled meetings of their members' representatives, specified decision-making procedures, and a permanent staff.[1] Their members are usually individuals and private associations, rather than states, and they may be formally established networks of other organizations. A wide variety of NGOs function in essay, intractable conflicts. These include conflict resolution NGOs, as well as those in humanitarian assistance, development, human rights, peacebuilding, and other areas. While the term NGOs is sometimes used interchangeably with grassroots organizations, social movements, major groups, and civil society, NGOs are not the same as any of uk, these. Shug And Celie? Grassroots organizations are generally locally organized groups of individuals which have spring up to empower their members and take action on particular issues of concern to them.

Some NGOs are grassroots organizations. But many are not. Social movements are broader and more diffuse than organizations; a social movement encompasses a broad segment of the dissertation, society which is interested in fomenting or resisting social change in some particular issue--area, such as disarmament, environmental, civil rights, or women's movements.[2] A social movement may include NGOs and grassroots organizations. Major groups is a term coined at the time of the United Nations 1992 Rio Earth Summit as a part of Agenda 21 to encompass the societal sectors which were expected to play roles, in addition to nation-states and intergovernmental organizations, in environment and development. NGOs are identified as one of to my parents, these sectors, but NGOs overlap with many of the other sectors; there are women's NGOs, farmers' NGOs, labor NGOs, and business NGOs, among others.[3] Finally civil society is a term that became popularized at the end of the Cold War to describe what appeared to have been missing in state-dominated societies, broad societal participation in and concern for governance, but not necessarily government. Civil society is thought to be the necessary ingredient for democratic governance to arise. NGOs are one part of civil society.

While it is often argued that NGOs are the voice of the people, representing grassroots democracy, a counter argument is made that NGOs have tended to reinforce, rather than counter, existing power structures, having members and headquarters that are primarily in the rich northern countries.[4] Some also believe that NGO decision-making does not provide for responsible, democratic representation or accountability. NGOs themselves can be local, national, or international. Sometimes international NGOs are referred to as INGOs. The Dissertation? Historically, most NGOs accredited to the UN Economic and Social Council have been international, but contrary to the popular wisdom, even the first group of NGOs accredited to ECOSOC in the 1940s included some national NGOs. Nongovernmental organizations are not a homogenous group.

The long list of gcse, acronyms that has accumulated around NGOs can be used to illustrate this. People speak of uk, NGOs, INGOs (international NGOs), BINGOs (business international NGOs), RINGOs (religious international NGOs), ENGOs (environmental NGOs), GONGOs (government-operated NGOs -- which may have been set up by governments to look like NGOs in order to tribute to my parents, qualify for outside aid), QUANGOs (quasi-nongovernmental organizations -- i.e. those that are at least partially created or supported by states), and many others. While some other groups are nongovernmental, they are not usually included under the term NGO. The term usually explicitly excludes for-profit corporations, and the dissertation uk private contractors, and multinational corporations (MNCs), although associations formed by MNCs, such as the ati critical thinking assessment, International Chamber of Commerce, are considered NGOs. Similarly, political parties, liberation movements, and terrorist organizations are not usually considered NGOs. Uk? Recently, however, some from outside the field of international organization, especially military writers, have begun to refer to protein essay, terrorist movements as NGOs, some would say in order to discredit NGOs. The Dissertation Uk? Peter Willetts, an authority on NGOs, argues in defining NGOs that a commitment to non-violence is the of war contest, best respected of the principles defining an the dissertation uk NGO.[5] Why do Non-Governmental Organizations Matter? In the early 1990s there began to be a recognition of the importance of NGOs. NGOs were found to have closer ties to on-the-ground realities in developing countries and, perhaps more important, to be able to essays on working children, deliver development aid considerably more cheaply than states or intergovernmental organizations.

As the UN Secretary-General's 1998 report stated, In terms of net transfers, non-governmental organizations collectively constitute the second largest source of development assistance.[6] An article in the New York Times just before the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 cited development successes by NGOs such as the Trickle-Up Program, and stressed their low costs and high impact.[7] NGOs also began to play a role in humanitarian assistance in the dissertation, conjunction with peacekeeping missions. They began to be referred to on working with, increasingly in UN resolutions, and some even began to meet informally with members of the UN Security Council to coordinate actions in emergency situations. Both the number of nongovernmental organizations and their involvement in national and uk international policy-making have increased tremendously over the last half century and especially the last several decades. At the time of the foundation of the United Nations in 1945 there were 2865 international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); by 1990 that number had increased to 13,591.[8] This compared to 3443 international intergovernmental organizations and roughly 200 nation-states. But, more important, in the 1990s there began to be a recognition of the import of the NGO role. To My Essay? In human rights, development, environment, and the dissertation even disarmament, NGOs had begun to be recognized for their role in influencing public policy at shug essay, the UN and the dissertation uk on-the-ground in nation-states.[9] NGOs also matter in intractable conflicts. NGOs play a variety of assessment, both positive and negative roles, from conflict resolvers doing Track II diplomacy, to development aid and humanitarian assistance, which can exacerbate or reduce conflict, to human rights advocacy, to election monitoring, to the dissertation, disarmament and environment work. Mary Anderson has stressed the importance of both development aid and conflict resolution organizations being sure, first of all, to do no harm.[10] NGOs have come to have an important role in the United Nations system.

Neither the original July 18, 1944 US Tentative Proposals for a General International Organization, nor the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals put forth by the four major powers (the US, UK, Soviet Union, and China) October 7, 1944, contained any reference to the role of non-governmental organizations, but only to ati critical thinking assessment, what would become the specialized agencies of the uk, UN system.[11] However, the US Delegation to french school, the San Francisco Conference included representatives of uk, 42 national organizations as Consultants. These included organizations in the fields of labor, law, agriculture, business, and education, plus women's, church, veterans', and ati critical civic organizations. The Dissertation Uk? A recommendation by these consultants for essays with children a paragraph providing for consultation between NGOs and ECOSOC played into the international dynamics over the representation of international labor unions, and led to the inclusion of Article 71 of the Charter, which allowed for NGOs which said:[12] The Economic and uk Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations which are concerned with matters within its competence. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations and, where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the ati critical thinking assessment, Member of the United Nations concerned. By the time of the the dissertation, UN Conference on Environment and Development, the Earth Summit in 1992, some 1420 NGOs were accredited to attend the Rio conference itself, while perhaps 25,000 NGO participants from 9,000 NGOs attended the parallel NGO Global Forum (set up for those NGOs that were interested in, but not accredited to attend the UN Summit itself). Number of non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the UN Economic and Social Council.

With this increase in interest in consultative status, in 1993 ECOSOC requested a general review of NGO consultative arrangements in order to gcse, improve the coherency of the dissertation, rules for NGO participation in UN conferences, as well as the practical arrangements of both the to my parents, Committee on NGOs and the NGO Section of the the dissertation, Secretariat.[13] On July 25, 1996 the principals of war essay contest, 49th plenary meeting of ECOSOC approved a Resolution 1996/31, updating the arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations. Similar to the two previous resolutions, it provided for general consultative status (organizations concerned with most of the activities of the Council and broadly representative of populations in a large number of countries), special consultative status (internationally known organizations with special competence in a few of the fields of activity of the Council), and roster status (other useful organizations), and allocated different rights to them in attending meetings, speaking, and receiving documents, among others.[14] ECOSOC, along with the General Assembly and the Secretary-General wrestled with the the dissertation, question of essays on working with, NGO involvement in the UN system throughout the 90s and early 2000s. Finally, in June 2004, the Secretary-General's Panel of Eminent Persons on Civil Society and UN Relationships issued its report, arguing that the UN should. invest more in partnerships, focus on the country level, deepen the NGO-Security Council dialogue, and engage more with elected representatives. It also suggested a single accreditation process under the the dissertation, General Assembly and a new Under-Secretary-General in charge of ati critical thinking, a new Office of Constituency Engagement and Partnerships. The Dissertation? This office would include not only NGOs and civil society, but elected representatives, business, and the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.[15] NGO reactions to these proposals varied greatly, from ati critical thinking assessment, interest in the possibility of more General Assembly access, to fear that this was simply a move to increase the role of business in the UN system.

NGO Action, in the dissertation uk, and Around the of war essay contest, UN, and in the Field. Nongovernmental organizations have used their consultative status at the UN to affect intractable conflict in many ways. They have organized to get the General Assembly and other UN organs to pass resolutions on disarmament, on development, on human rights, and on other subjects related to uk, the underlying sources of conflicts. They have helped to develop new UN institutions and essays on working children treaties. They have been the instigators of putting new issues on the UN agenda, issues like environment, women's rights, and uk child soldiers. They have gotten UN bodies to put questions of armament and disarmament before the World Court, and have been important in of war essay, the development of the International Criminal Court. They have delivered humanitarian assistance and the dissertation aided refugees, and have worked on development in societies that have recently experienced violent conflict. For example, The World Court Project, begun in New Zealand in 1986, was largely responsible for getting the World Health Organization and the General Assembly to ask the advisory opinion of the World Court on the legality of nuclear weapons. The International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), which had received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1985 for its work on nuclear weapons, sponsored a resolution at its World Congress in 1988.

The project spread to the World Congress of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA), and to other states, with the aid of essays on working with, newsletter coverage by the Parliamentarians for the dissertation uk Global Action. Using Article 66 of the Charter, which allows other organs, in essay gcse, addition to the UN General Assembly, to uk, request World Court advisory opinions, the IPPNW convinced the to my essay, World Health Organization to adopt a resolution on the subject on May 14, 1993.[16] After the case went to the Court in September 1993, IALANA and IPPNW drafted model submissions, which were used by some states. The World Court Registrar received citizen delegations with documents and petitions in 1994 and 1995. Nuclear weapons states and others argued that, not WHO, but the UN General Assembly, was the correct venue for the dissertation such a question. The Lawyers' Committee on Nuclear Policy, the US affiliate of ati critical, IALANA, pushed for the adoption of a resolution by the UN General Assembly First Committee. Having achieved the support of the Non-Aligned Movement, the resolution was adopted 18 November 1994. In December 1994 the uk, resolution was adopted by the General Assembly.

Within days the case arrived at the World Court, who decided to to my, consider the WHO and General Assembly questions separately but simultaneously. The World Court delivered its decision on July 8, 1996, finding threat or use of nuclear weapons contrary to the law of uk, armed conflict, and in particular international humanitarian law, but not concluding in the case of self-defense. In this case NGOs used access through states and through consultative status with ECOSOC, coupled with legal expertise and social movement organizing, to obtain a result from the International Court of Justice that powerful nuclear states had opposed. This pattern was echoed in several other cases outside the realm of economic and social issues. Secretary-General Kofi Annan has repeatedly indicated how important the role of NGOs has been with respect to the development of the International Criminal Court and the 1997 land mines treaty. The International Campaign to Ban Landmines so successfully mobilized both states and other NGOs in its network that the Ottawa Convention was signed in December 1997 by a total of 122 governments. In September 1998, Burkina Faso became the 40th country to ratify the Mine Ban Treaty, triggering its entry into force in March 1999, record time for an international treaty.

The Ottawa Process launched in October 1996 and concluding with the Convention's opening for signature, won Jody Williams and the ICBL the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997. It was a unique cooperation between a core group of likeminded governments and the ICBL NGOs, developed in a series of meetings in Vienna, Bonn, Brussels and essay Oslo over the course of 1997, outside the UN system, and relying on voting, rather than consensus. The ICBL participated in discussions and negotiations inside, while outside it worked with the media, and raised public awareness, and networked with other NGOs to lobby governments. The treaty now has 143 states parties to the treaty, 9 additional signatories, and 42 non-state parties, as of September 2004. NGOs continue to the dissertation, encourage signature and ratification of the treaty and monitor compliance.

Informal dialogues have also become an important mechanism linking NGOs with the UN. Beginning early in 1995 Jim Paul of the protein essay, Global Policy Forum and uk others began to organize the NGO Working Group on the Security Council. This intensified as coordination of humanitarian aid and security questions in complex emergencies led to essays on working, discussion between Security Council members and certain humanitarian organizations, especially focusing on Africa in 1997. The roughly 30 NGOs representatives form a closed group including six religious NGOs, six human rights NGOs, and a number of humanitarian assistance and development NGOs, as well as two women's groups and others such as a representative of the International Peace Academy, Lawyer's Committee for Nuclear Policy, the Coalition for the International Criminal Court, the UN Foundation, World Federalist Movement, and the Hague Appeal for Peace. They have met increasingly, privately and off-the-record, with members of the Security Council, providing field information to members of the Council from crisis areas, as well as providing a link to the public.[17] Until recently, the elected head of the group was the uk, representative of the Quaker United Nations Office, a very small but effective NGO which facilitates delegates' work at thinking assessment, the UN and often holds off-the-record dialogues of uk, its own on protein essay topics ranging from the dissertation, environmental negotiations to conflicts between divided states. Of War Contest? Quakers and Mennonites, both members of the NGO working group, have also done mediation work for a very long time in the dissertation, intractable conflict areas around the world. Shug? Many other NGOs have also worked directly in conflict resolution efforts in the field. The Pugwash and Dartmouth Conferences have been active over many decades, especially on arms control issues and across Cold War boundaries. The Community of Sant'Egidio was important in the dissertation, working in complementary fashion with governments negotiating peace in Mozambique.

The International Crisis Group has monitored for signs of genocide, among its other activities. Search for Common Ground has run dialogues, supported women's peace groups in Burundi, funded radio stations to provide a peace voice.[18] International Alert and the Forum on Early Warning and Early Response (FEWER) and many other NGOs worked to develop early warning of conflicts turning violent. Women's groups have also been significant, with the tribute to my essay, Women's International League for Peace and the dissertation Freedom working on disarmament issues at the UN in french school gcse, Geneva for decades, and in uk, New York being one of the primary groups to work with the Security Council on the development of Resolution 1325 in 2000, on the involvement of women in principals of war, armed conflict and in peace negotiations. The roles of NGOs in intractable conflict are multiple, from direct conflict resolution, Track Two diplomacy, and the dissertation uk mediation in crisis and long-term conflict areas, to assistance in monitoring elections, to delivery of humanitarian assistance and thinking development aid, to advocacy of human rights and justice, to lobbying governments to develop the long-term conditions which promote international peace and security. Their roles are often, but not always, positive, but they are not usually the primary players in any of these arenas. But without these NGOs, many of the accomplishments of states and international organizations would not have been possible. [1]Harold K. Uk? Jacobson. 1984. Networks of Interdependence: International Organizations and the Global Political System.

Second edition. Protein Essay? (New York: Alfred A. The Dissertation? Knopf, 1984), 4-10. [2] For definition and discussion of these and other social movements see Roger S. Powers and William B. With Children? Vogele (eds.), 1997, Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from ACT-UP to Women's Suffrage. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. [3] Section 3, Chapters 23-32, Strengthening the uk, Role of Major Groups, includes women, children and youth, indigenous people, NGOs, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific and protein essay technological community, and the dissertation farmers. See United Nations Department of Public Information, Earth Summit Agenda 21: the United Nations Programme of Action from Rio . New York: UN DPI/1344, April 1993, pp. 219-245. [4] See for parents example Elise Boulding, 1977, Women in the Twentieth Century World . The Dissertation Uk? New York: John Wiley, pp. Thinking Assessment? 165-218, for uk the argument that NGOs represent the voice of the people in a landscape of ati critical thinking, money and power. The Dissertation? [5] Peter Willetts. Non-Governmental Organizations, Article in UNESCO Encyclopedia of essays on working, Life Sciences. [6] Report of the Secretary-General: Arrangements and practices for the interaction of non-governmental organizations in all activities of the United Nations system. A/53/170 (10 July 1998) [7] Paul Lewis, Fixing World Crises Isn't Just a Job for Diplomats, New York Times , April 5, 1992, section 4, p 4. [8] Compiled by author from Yearbook of International Organizations, 1990-91 . Table 4, pp.

1665-68. The Dissertation? [9] One of the first major news articles on NGOs at the UN was Paul Lewis, Fixing World Crises Isn't Just a Job for Diplomats, New York Times , April 5, 1992, section 4, p. 4, which looked at NGOs in to my essay, the context of the the dissertation, UNCED PrepCom. [10] Mary Anderson. Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace - or War. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999. Ati Critical? [11] See first text in the dissertation uk, U.S. Department of State, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945, Publication 3580 (February 1950) Appendix 38, pp. 595-606.

See second text in Dumbarton Oaks Proposals for the Establishment of a General International Organization, in U.S. Department of State, Dumbarton Oaks Documents on International Organization, Publication 2257 (1945), pp 5-16. [12]For more detailed discussion of the early stages of NGO consultative status in the UN, see Carolyn M. Stephenson, NGOs and parents essay the Principal Organs of the the dissertation, United Nations, in Paul Taylor and on working with children A.J.R. Uk? Groom (eds.), The United Nations at the Millennium: The Principal Organs. (London: Continuum, 2000), 273-276. [13] ECOSOC Resolution 1993/80, 30 July 1993. [14] For more detail on tribute to my parents the further development of uk, UN-NGO relations, see Stephenson, 276-294. [15] Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Eminent Persons on tribute Civil Society and UN Relationships, June 21, 2004. [17] Global Policy Forum, NGO Working Group on the Security Council Information Statement July 2003. [18] Herding Cats. Use the following to cite this article: Stephenson, Carolyn . Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs). Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: January 2005 Please contact us if you encounter problems using the the dissertation, new site.

You can also still use the protein essay, old homepage.if you prefer. The Dissertation? The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to principals of war essay contest, examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and the dissertation uk intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and principals of war peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and the dissertation intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on children news, opinion pieces, and the dissertation uk reports that illustrate the challenges and protein essay successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts.

Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. The Dissertation Uk? Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources. The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project.

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macaulay essay bacon - Being a close inquiry into the circumstances surrounding his Fall as Lord Chancellor. The evidence now adduced proves conclusively that he was the victim of a plot. A remarkable story is revealed, told with vivid fidelity to the facts of the the dissertation uk times, how an innocent man, The Greatest Genius in History, was forced to Desert his Defence under duress, and to enter a plea of Guilty to charges of Corruption and Bribery at the express command of King James. The Secret Shakespeare The Immortal Master, The Marriage of Elizabeth Tudor Shakespeare: Creator of Freemasonry Shake-speares Sonnet-Diary, etc.

LONDON :: NEW YORK :: MELBOURNE :: SYDNEY. 68 Fleet Street, London, E.C.4. Table of Contents. Francis Bacon's Birthday Banquet in 1621. His Birth, Life and Labours, 1561-1621. Francis Bacon's Marriage.

The Age of Francis Bacon. King James and his Favourite. The New Parliament of 1621. The Confession of Guilt. The Aftermath, 1621-1626. Notes of Importance. Important Dates Relating to Francis Bacon's Secret and of war, Public Life, and a Detailed Chronology of the Events Surrounding His Impeachment. Appendix I: The Illustrations. Appendix II: James Spedding's Life of Francis Bacon.

Appendix III: The Complete List of the Charges Made Against Francis Bacon and the dissertation, Francis Bacon's Notes on Each Charge. THE VINDICATION OF. For my NAME and Memory, I leave it to Men's Charitable Speeches, and to Foreign Nations, AND THE NEXT AGES; And to assessment mine own Countrymen after sometime be past. Francis Bacon's Draft Will. I am the Coward Conquest of a Wretch's Knife Too base to be remembered. He who robs me of uk, my GOOD NAME makes me poor indeed. I am ready to make an OBLATION of myself to the King, in whose hands I am as Clay, to be made into protein essay a vessel of Honour or Dishonour. . . . Yet with respect to this Charge of Bribery I AM INNOCENT. I never had Bribe Or Reward. And take thou my OBLATION, Poor but FREE Only ME for THEE. (To King James): I can set down a STORY Of Faults concealed whereof I AM ATTAINTED.

Hence, Thou Suborned Informer! A True Soul When most IMPEACHED stands least in thy control. I have clean hands and uk, A CLEAN HEART. Whether I live or die, I would be glad to ati critical assessment preserve MY HONOUR. BEN JONSON'S TESTIMONY. I Loved the Man and do Honour his Memory (on this side Idolatry) as much as any. In his adversity I ever prayed that God would give him strength for greatness he could not want. Neither could I condole in WORD OR SYLLABLE for him, as knowing no Accident could do Harm to VIRTUE but rather help to make it manifest.

Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to WEIGH and the dissertation uk, CONSIDER. This book is written solely for one reason--to provide the reader with evidence which shall prove incontestably the innocence of Francis Bacon of the crime of Bribery and Corruption, charges to which he pleaded guilty, suffering the penalties of Impeachment by sentence of the House of Lords in the year 1621. It is written in the hope that the facts herein disclosed--some of protein essay, them for the first time, especially Francis Bacon's personal emotions from the dissertation, his recently discovered poetic-Diary ( Shake-speares Sonnet Diary ), or the Personal Poems of Francis Bacon , Ninth edition)will make a universal appeal to all the English speaking peoples the tribute world over; and will ultimately cause a reversal of the opinions regarding his character-opinions largely due to the dissemination of wrong ideas concerning him by unripe, prejudiced scholars. Nor am I without hope that in this generation, or a subsequent one, some scholar of repute will arise who will not only see the truth herein enunciated-the lines of approach-but who will lend the weight of his name, his genius, his influence to vindicate for the dissertation uk ever the ati critical assessment innocence of the wisest man in the dissertation Christendom; the purity of the mind through which coursed the noblest thoughts ever conceived by the human soul. Such a task may well employ a scholar's noblest powers. It would be the greatest thing he had ever done.

It is french gcse, not the elucidation of a literary problem, or the the dissertation interpretation of his philosophy that matters. It is something far more important. It is a moral issue . . . a grievous wrong to be righted. The shoulders of our most wonderful genius, who did so much for England and shug, the world, have been loaded with calurnny and shame, largely as a result of misunderstanding through the misreading of historical facts. We have hid, as it were, our faces from the dissertation, him. It took a Carlyle to show that the french essay school gcse vulgar opinions held in his day of Oliver Cromwell-through the writings of the dissertation, biassed historian were viciously untrue; a Zola to french essay school prove that Dreyfus was the hapless victim of a foul plot; and it may well be that a second Hepworth Dixon will have to be born-if he has not been already to the dissertation uk write with thoughts that flame and words that burn with the same passionate sincerity as his forebear, which will eternally dissipate the preposterous fictions of the schoolmen regarding Francis Bacon's Life, Character, and Works. My claim is a modest one. French Gcse? I am no more than a simple finger-post pointing the way to the uplands where Truth- of that Holy Grail of precious Vintage may be found. This book, then, is not written to prove the greatness of uk, our greatest English man the man whom Hallam declared was the greatest, wisest of mankhind ; of whom Pope wrote, Lord Bacon was the and celie greatest genius that England, or perhaps any country ever produced, it is the dissertation uk, not written to prove that he was the Creator and Founder of the secret Elizabethan Fraternities, notably, the on working with Rosicrosse Literary, Society, the Rosicrucian College, and Modern Freemasonry; neither do I write to prove that Francis Bacon was the the dissertation creator of the character named William Shake speare. The former can be left to the Quatuor Coronati and the various Masonic Research Associations, which often, unfortunately, cannot see the wood for trees when they search for the Genesis of their Order.

The latter can be left to professed Baconians like Dr. W. S. Essays On Working With? Melsome, Howard Bridgewater, R. L. Eagle, and to iconoclasts like the late Sir Geo. Greenwood. These aspects of the Elizabethan Era are purely subsidiary to what I consider is the main issue regarding Francis Bacon. His Royal Birth, his Rosicrucian and Masonic connections, his concealed literary activities, though important, are as nothing compared with his rehabilitation as A MAN OF HONOUR AND INTEGRITY in the dissertation uk the eyes of his countrymen. Everything I have written about Francis Bacon, or shall write, is simply a means to an end; the main task being the shug gathering together of facts (hitherto ignored, misinterpreted or suppressed), indicating clearly the source of knowledge, that will prove his moral honesty, his uprightness, his purity of thought and action.

The Lie regarding Francis Bacon has sunk deep into the souls of men. We were taught it as children at the day school; we heard it later in life in uk the pulpit and lecture hall; we see it repeated today in popular' press articles by tribute parents, poets like John Drinkwater and popular novelists like Sir Max Pemberton. The Lie began with Lord Macaulay's infamous rhetorical Essay in the dissertation I837, which twisted the facts of the times, distorted the truth, and suppressed vital evidence in order to blacken Francis Bacon's character. The Essay was based on Pope's lines to which he attributed a meaning never intended by Pope: Think how Bacon shined! The Wisest, Brightest, Meanest of Mankind! Interpreting Meanest as ignoble in mind, character, or spirit! (when every literary student knows that Pope used the word with the meaning attached to it in that age, and tribute to my parents essay, as he had done elsewhere consistently, to denote that Francis Bacon was the HUMBLEST of mankind) Macaulay ravages his character with savage ferocity. He is the dissertation, great intellectually and mean in soul; a supreme genius and a monstrous criminal; a mixture of Machiavelli, St. Francis of Assisi and Judas Iscariot, a super-historic Jekyll-Hyde. Ati Critical Thinking? The brilliance with which Macaulay manipulated the evidence to support his conclusions made it one of his most popular Reviews. The Dissertation Uk? It has been reprinted over and over again.

It is this point of view that has stained the very tissues of Englishmen's minds today. The first thought that strikes the average man when Francis Bacon's name is mentioned is the fiction that he sold justice wholesale, netted a hundred thousand pounds by slimy swindling, and shug, shamelessly confessed his wickedness by pleading guilty to bribery and the dissertation, corruption after whining to the Ring to save him. Yet this attitude is a mistaken one and utterly wrong. For this perversion of the mass-mind Macaulay is ati critical thinking, directly and indirectly responsible. He has poisoned and the dissertation, corrupted our intellectual and spiritual culture for over a hundred years. Essay? How long will it be before the Lie is overtaken, I wonder! Few readers will have noted the the dissertation uk judgment of J. Cotter Morison, one of protein essay, Macaulay's finest biographers, in the English Men of uk, Letters series.

He writes: We now come, not without reluctance, to look at the deplorable article on ati critical thinking assessment Bacon. 'The historical portion has only just received such an exposure at the hands of the late Mr. Spedding, that to the dissertation dwell upon it here is principals of war essay contest, as unnecessary as it would be impertinent. Two Octavo volumes were not found more than sufficient to set forth the full proofs of uk, Macaulay's quite astounding inaccuracies, misrepresentations, and even falsifications of the truth. . What could have been Macaulay's motive for writing with such passion and want of good faith? Nothing that Macaulay has written has been more injurious to thinking assessment his fame as a serious thinker. . . . He deviated into fiction in his libel on Bacon. (Pp.100 105, 159.) Why did he do it? asks Cotter Morison.

Macaulay was a historian who reviewed events and characters through Whig Spectacles. He loathed the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings and that the uk Crown could do no wrong. He wrote down Francis Bacon primarily because Francis Bacon believed that these Political principles were the with children best for the dissertation his particular day and generation--i.e., a benevolent Monarchy and Parliament. That is the reason why Macaulay libeled dead greatness. He visited his political hate on the character of a man who has done more good to and celie essay the world in one single department of human thought than Macaulay ever did as a writer, a politician, an Indian administrator. He threw vitriol with horrifying effect in the face of one of the uk most lovable of thinking, men, one who wrote in a noble prayer: Thou knows that in a despised Weed, I have sought the the dissertation Good of ALL MEN. The Sage of Chelsea said that Rhadamanthus would certainly give Macaulay dozen lashes when he went to ati critical thinking assessment the Shades for his treatment of Marlborough. How many does he deserve for the dissertation uk the disfigurement of Francis Bacon? Nor is it generally known that Macaulay knew he had done Francis Bacon the gravest injury with his poisonous rhetoric; yet he was not honest nor manly enough to french school admit publicly that he had twisted the facts. But, admission or not, every historian knows that Macaulay always manipulated his facts to prove his case against men long dead who could not reply. The Dissertation? What is this but Corruption of the worst type?

Late in life Macaulay himself told friends of mine that he regretted only assessment, one piece he had written---the Essay on Bacon . The Dissertation Uk? (H. Crouch Bachelor, Francis Bacon, p.8.) No slander is more audacious than that falsehood to which Macaulay has put the essays with seal of the dissertation uk, history. (Sir William Hunter, The Thackerays in India, referring to Macaulay's Essay on Warren Hastings. ) The University of Oxford advised all Macaulay's works to be placed in a special category as not trustworthy for History . From the on working with children date of the the dissertation uk Essay on Lord Bacon , Macaulay has been followed by principals, a long line of writers who, saturated with his picturesque brilliance and guided by the dissertation, malevolent assertions, have written-from various motives---biographies and sketches, popular and otherwise, of the great criminal judge: severe clerics, with their theologically warped minds, like the essay school gcse Rev. Joseph Sortain, Trinity, College Dublin, Dr. Abbott, Dean Church, who have held him up as a fearful example of genius allied to diabolical wickedness; and the dissertation uk, literary critics such as Sir Sidney Lee, who, with other stalwarts of the Shakespeare Trust, have attacked Francis Bacon's moral character to prejudice a purely literary issue . . . fearful lest the Immortal William should be discovered to be an academic fraud. The popular opinion that Francis Bacon was simply little more than a prosy philosopher and a corrupt judge, is essays on working with children, deep and widespread. The average lover of literature has little time for him.

He is the dissertation, repelled by what he has read about his unlovely character. Nor can this be wondered at essays, when editors of popular literary encyclopedias commence their critiques of his works with such damning phrases as This aggressive intellectual reformer, the great English writer, the the dissertation uk servile statesman, the corrupt Chancellor , etc. What student or reader can love a writer is french essay school, said to the dissertation uk be servile . . . corrupt? The virtue has gone out of him at a touch. Our interest is poisoned ere we read a line. The light in his literary labours fades.

Genius is worthier when it but serves as a cloak for immorality. The real truth concerning Francis Bacon's character has never been told since Hepworth Dixon and James Spedding wrote their biographies sixty to eighty years ago. French Essay School Gcse? Indeed, I do not remember ever reading a single article in the popular press, literary magazines, monthlies or quarterlies in which the writer whole heartedly asserted that Viscount St. The Dissertation? Alban was a great and good man. But I have seen numerous articles, where the pen has been dipped into the gall of french essay school, ignorance, which have disparaged him; articles by men whose business it was to know better.

A work, then, of this kind is long overdue. It will put the English-speaking people on the dissertation the right lines respecting our Supreme Genius. It is by no means exhaustive, for it is written by a busy man for busy men. Yet it contains sufficient information to point the reader to richer mines of knowledge. Primarily, this book contains detailed evidence which proves that Francis Bacon never committed the crimes for which he was impeached . Essays? . . the crime of uk, accepting monies from suitors in his Court to pervert the course of justice, by principals of war contest, passing judgment in their favour. He was the victim of a plot . It is true he pleaded guilty; but did he do so of his own volition? After making every preparation, he suddenly deserted his defence, threw up the sponge, and refused to face the trial of Impeachment. Why did he do so? We now know the facts. The Dissertation Uk? We know them even better than Spedding or Dixon; for we have today his personal diary, which they did not possess, by which we can check the truth. We know what was not known at to my parents essay, the time to the general public, nor for many years later: That King James in the dissertation uk his Office as King commanded him to assessment break off his defence and to plead guilty.

As the King's Servant, sworn to do his bidding, as a believer in the Divine Right of the Kingly Office, and that the King can do no wrong, he had no choice but to the dissertation uk obey. He yielded to the Will of the King and was undone. Two remarkable pieces of evidence have recently come to light confirming the truth that Francis Bacon pleaded guilty against his will and that he sacrificed himself: (1) A series of Cantos in essay school Skakespeare's Sonnets ; (2) The elucidation of a personal poem printed with the Sonnets entitled A Lover's Complaint (still in uk manuscript). They show the emotions of the chief actor in the tragedy-Francis Bacon; how he became the conquest of a Coward's Knife, wielded by gcse, Sir Edward Coke, his lifelong enemy, and how the coup de grace was given by a pusillanimous King who interposed his Chancellor to the dissertation save himself and his favourite the Duke of Buckingham. Hitherto, Francis Bacon's guilt has been taken for granted. Biographers have assumed that his own confession of guilt was sufficient to warrant with assurance his condemnation legally and morally. It is interesting to see how these various writers follow similar lines of thought . . . using almost identical phraseology. They have all the same point of view. Their variations of light and shade vary little more than the track of the boy who trod in the footsteps of school gcse, good King Wenceslas. One can see that their whole viewpoint is influenced and coloured by uk, the fact that he deserted his defence, and afterwards pleaded guilty to a series of crimes.

This indicated, of course, if not Total Depravity at least more than a double dose of ati critical thinking assessment, Original Sin. Having begun with this cardinal factor, they seek for the dissertation uk criminal tendencies in his earlier years. They find Francis Bacon was obsequious to the Queen, always in financial difficulties (which must have had their roots in some evil cause), ungrateful to his friend Essex, responsible for the torturing of Peacham, and shug and celie essay, so on. To sustain these fictions (all of which can be shown to be preposterously false),. Uk? all sorts of venal motives are imputed to him and french gcse, gravely censured. If we wish, however, to obtain a just estimate of Francis Bacon's character, we must not begin our investigation in an atmosphere of prejudice produced by his plea of guilt. It is not unknown for a man to uk be guilty in law and not guilty in fact. Let us begin at the beginning. Had he any vicious characteristics as a growing boy? None!

As a youth? No! He left England at protein essay, the age when a young man's fancy lightly turns to the dissertation thoughts of essay school, love, to go to the dissertation uk the French Court of brilliant rakes and shug essay, superb demi mondaines. He lived there ( at Queen Elizabeth's expense ) in the train of the English Ambassador, for three years, one of the handsomest youths of the the dissertation day, judging by his portrait, painted, presumably, by shug and celie, command of the the dissertation uk Queen . . . by artist Hilyard. Shug Essay? What can be said against his character in this three years --impressionable years---of Court Life, beauteous Ladies and Lovely 'Knights? Nothing! He neither wined it nor womened it. He kept himself pure, having been reared in the Puritan home of his foster-mother Lady Anne Bacon. What can be said against him when living as a law student after his return from uk, France?

What amours did he indulge in principals essay like Oxford and Southampton? What Maid of the dissertation, Honor did he get into trouble (he had access to the Queen's Court) like Pembroke? What gambling debts did he run up like Fulke Greville? NONE! What of of war, his early years at the dissertation, the House of Commons when he was in french essay school gcse the public eye?

Was he regarded as a sycophant? No! Was he known as a man who could bought? No! As a time-server? No! As one who crook the pregnant hinges of the the knee to Authority? No! As a worshipper of Mammon who took back handers? No! His public record shows that he was regarded as one of the most upright of uk, not only by the House of Commons but in gcse the country.

Where can you find his contemporaries a Member of Parliament who was elected by double and treble returns , Middlesex no less than Cambridge vying with each other for uk the honour of his representation. Ati Critical Thinking Assessment? Is it not strange that in all those years of strife one should have suspected that his soul was shrunken with the uk fires of avarice? He was thirty years in the Commons. What charges were made against him during that time? None! What reflections on his honour or honesty?

Not one! There was never a whisper to essays this effect. Such a thought never entered the head of any of the dissertation uk, his contemporaries. The sordid Cecil might think him politically unsound, too advanced a social reformer, but he never thought that Francis was a rogue, whose primary object was to feather his own nest. The venomous Coke might think him the Queen's bastard, a fool, and discount his jaw, but he never once suggested he was a rascal. It was left for essays on working with children a later date, toward's the end of life, for Coke to invent that monstrous slander. Up to the 1621 Parliament, when Francis Bacon was sixty years of age, never a word had been breathed by anyone, anywhere, at any time, against the moral integrity of Francis Bacon . . . no one had ever suggested that he had: accepted bribes, that he had perverted justice. When the storm broke in the Commons it 'Was against the Monopoly-Patents imposed by the King and his Favourite Buckingham.

Francis Bacon was outside the Tempest until it was diverted by Sir Edward Coke from James and Buckingham to the Chancellor. Then for the first time do we hear of the accusation of bribery leveled at the dissertation, the Chancellor. Is there not something strange at the suddenness of the charge? Something suspicious in its swift climax? Are we to assume that a man of known honour and virtue sullied his soul by tribute, dishonesty even though it was his own hand and deed that wrote the word Guilty to the charges ? Average common sense, with a modicum of the detective instinct, suggests there is much more behind the debacle than meets the eye.

The broad facts of his life give the lie to the dissertation the idea that he committed criminal acts the moment he took his seat in the Chancery Court, like a common swindler. As a man of the world I refuse to judge the whole of the Play by one act. The fact is that certain critical types are constitutionally incapable of seeing anything which does not lie on the surface . . . Essay Contest? even then their field of vision is not sufficiently large enough to take in everything; and if the Truth is hidden beneath the the dissertation uk surface, they either assume that there is no Higher Truth than what they know, or that it cannot be found ! The moil and toil of such a search! Is it worth the trouble? What does it matter? Better sing Francis Bacon's Psalm Translations with Mary Stuart, his latest biographer, and chant with her what a poor tool he was in English Prosody; Sneer with her at tribute to my, Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry; and giggle at uk, the thought that Ciphers can enshrine profound truths, and are as useful in business as in war . . than search laboriously to discover what he meant by The Great Instauration, or how he completed his Six Parts in a way utterly inconceivable to Mary Stuart, judging by her hackneyed treatment of the parents essay great Master. The possibility has never occurred to the pedant type of mind that Francis Bacon may not have been guilty after all: that he may not have fallen because of uk, his vices in a world of good men but because of his virtues in an era of shug and celie, wicked men: that he actually sealed his virtues by sacrifice to uk a patriotic and political ideal, just as other great souls have sealed their testimony to the truth, as they saw it, with their blood . . . like Sir Thomas More. Instead of looking at Francis Bacon from the worst point of view suppose we study him from the Opposite angle. Even a prisoner is assumed to be innocent until proved guilty; and Francis Bacon has never once been Proved unequivocally guilty in any one of his acts . even 'by the malignant Dr.

Abbott, of whom Prof. Nichol was obliged to and celie say: Macaulay, Abbott and Dean Church . . are unjust. The broad facts of his life, his public career, his private pursuits, give the uk lie to the suggestion that he could stoop to willful dishonesty. He was too great a gentleman by protein essay, breed and education to think of such Vulgar, get-rich-quick methods. At the the dissertation uk height of the political Tempest, he could say with fine scorn, My mind has ever turned on essay other wheels than those of profit. . . . My mind is in a calm; for my fortune is the dissertation, not my felicity. I know I have clean hands and and celie essay, a clean heart.

I praise God for it, I never took penny for uk any benefice or ecclesiastical living; I never took penny for shug essay releasing anything; I stopped at the Seal; I never took penny for uk any commission, or things of of war, that nature; I never shared with any servant for any second or inferior profit. Alone among all the great lawyers of the uk time, he died poor. Hatton, Egerton, Montague, Coke, Popham, Bennet, Hobart, Fleming . . . all left great estates. They were among the richest men in England. Yet they made their money exclusively out of ati critical, law. . . out of the sweets of office, the gifts, fees and Presents of suitors. How comes it that Francis Bacon's Corruption kept him poor while Egerton's and Popham's corruption made them rich? Is it not possible that it was his virtues and the dissertation uk, not his vices that kept him poor?

His honesty, tolerance, magnanimity and not his heartlessness, his servility and his corruption that caused his 'Fall?' Honest Ben Jonson loved and french essay school, honoured him and thought him the living embodiment of Virtue; so did Selden, and Rawley, and Tobie Matthew, and Meautys, and all his personal friends; indeed a contemporary wrote: ALL WHO WERE GREAT AND GOOD LOVED HIM. And this is borne out by the dissertation, the thirty-- two writers in of war essay contest the Manes Verulamiani who testified to uk his virtue, after his passing, even more than to his greatness. Essays On Working Children? Who more likely to know the real truth than these intellectuals of known probity? Would these men have been likely to have loved and honoured a rascal, who, for upwards of five years, had systematically filched monies from suitors?

Are we to overthrow their united testimony for the sour, mean life of a Dean Church? The following pages lay before the reader the truth of the matter. Francis Bacon will be seen in a new light . The Dissertation? . . Tribute Parents Essay? as one of the Great Souls of the Ages, a Servant sent by the Most High to uplift Humanity as surely as Jesus or Socrates. It is not too much to say that there has been painted, and foisted upon the public, a series of false pictures by grossly prejudiced researchers who know nothing o f Francis Bacon's secret life , nor the the dissertation real aim of his Philosophy, nothing of his true personality. If once the reader can detach his mind from the paltry biographies of a Skemp or a Levine and approach this work de novo with an open mind--I am certain he will soon rejoice in the sure knowledge that our greatest genius was also the on working most virtuous of men.

The time has arrived when this great Englishman should be cleansed for the dissertation uk ever the foul stains with which his reputation was besmirched by a Macaulay and Campbell. We have inherited his thoughts and school, emotions in uk a thousand different ways. He is part of us in spite of Lilliputian critics who would make him a moral outcast. The Ethics he conceived in allegory and protein essay, symbol are taught the world over when the sun is at its meridian, a Province that knows no bounds. His phraseology and the philosophy of his poetry will be universally current until the great Globe itself shall dissolve and leave not a rack behind. The Dissertation Uk? Not only does he touch us as the Supreme Ethical Teacher, the Prince of principals contest, Poets, the most Illustrious of uk, Philosophers,but he also sits in the Chair of Apollo as the Father of protein essay, Modern Science, for the dissertation he was the man who acted as bell-ringer, and protein essay, called the Sciences together to labour for the good of humanity. The watchwords blazoned on his banner were Light; Education and Reform; Utility and Progress. Whether we like it or not this Immortal Genius is our earthly English god.

His influence touches us in our daily lives everywhere in interpenetrating worlds of the dissertation, thought. If he were a rogue and a cheat, then it is also most true that we have taken a rogue and a cheat to be our god. Ati Critical Assessment? His statue alone stood before those ancient Inns of Court . . . Grays Inn. His portrait alone adorns the the dissertation uk Cabinet room in Downing Street. In a different guise Francis Bacon's head smiles at the Dull and Speechless Tribes who visit the Shake-speare Monument in the Valhalla of the British Empire. Thus is he honoured in secret by the few. We cannot hide his light, We cannot cast him out. For good, if it be good; for evil If it must be evil, his brain has passed into our brain, his soul into of war contest our souls. We are part of him; he is part of us; inseparable as the salt and the sea. The life he lived has become our law. This book will open a new door into literature and life.

It will provide you with sufficient evidence to show that the Father of English Prose, no less than the Father of Science, was an altruist of the first water; one of the kindest and most virtuous of men. It tears away the false mask he has worn so long. The Dissertation Uk? You will gradually get to know him as he really is: to know that the Wisest, Brightest, Humblest of Mankind was also one of the most Christlike. Every true Britisher will rejoice that at last this important Truth can be proved. Principals Of War Essay? With Ben Jonson I can say: 'Tis a brave cause of Joy, let it be known, For 'twere a narrow gladness kept my own. Give me a deep crown'd bowl, that I may sing, In Raising him, the Wisdom of MY KING. I am greatly indebted to the dissertation uk the Works of Hepworth Dixon, Barrister-at-Law, for his researches into the details of the shug essay charges brought against Francis Bacon.

Re pointed the the dissertation way I should go; and essays with, all Lovers of Truth, of Francis Bacon, and of honest Literature (unstained by opinionative asides Pontifically expressed as facts) owe Hepworth Dixon a real debt of gratitude. Had it not been for the dissertation uk his careful sifting of the protein essay evidence respecting the the dissertation Fall, I could never have spoken so Positively of Francis Bacon's exemplary character, his mental powers and essays on working, of the manner in which he was framed. My thanks are particularly due to my good friend Edward D. Johnson, Esq., Birmingham, for his careful reading of the manuscript, and for his many suggestions and helpful advice.

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1. Tribute To My. Your LinkedIn Summary needs work. 2. The Dissertation. These 3 have cracked it. 3. Dive in! via @linkedinsights1. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. RT@tweetinsweeting: 1. Your LinkedIn Summary needs work. 2. These 3 have cracked it. 3. Dive in! via @linkedinsights1. Very nice! RT @agentsofgood: 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights cc @UinvitedU. awesome post!! 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. Super, LI profile summary, no?

What @tweetinsweeting did on advice from of war, @linkedinsights1. The Dissertation Uk. Wow. See what @TweetinSweeting did with his profile summary. Love how he worked in his accomplishments in light fashion, conveying what he can give you. Ati Critical Assessment. Thanks for the shout out Andy. I wondered why people were suddenly plagiarizing my profile left and uk right. Flattering, but sheez#8230; Well deserved Mark. Protein Essay. You nailed it and I#8217;m not surprised that folks are copying. We know who#8217;s truly original #128578; 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile Summaries Puo esservi utile da mostrare @fparviero @_Anna_Martini_ @PaulContentMan Super, LI profile summary, no? What @svveeting did on advice from -Yep! Really great article, Andy!

It inspired me to tweak my Summary and the dissertation adjust my profile per shug essay, your suggestions as well. Thanks for the great tips! Thanks Andy, priceless advice. Even though I#8217;m a communications specialist when its come to writing about ME I#8217;ve always been a bit awkward and the dissertation embarrassed tending to write with my eyes closed to avoid the protein essay, cringe. In the past what I#8217;ve come up with is a hollow description of the dissertation myself and what I can do, in the banal voice of someone I don#8217;t even know. But now when people read my Summary they are actually hearing me speaking to them. Protein Essay. Many thanks. Thank YOU Christine for uk, taking the time to share. Tribute Parents Essay. I read your Summary nicely done! 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights

3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy. RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy. The Dissertation Uk. RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy. RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy. RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy #istrategy. Excellent: #8220;RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy#8221; RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy.

RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy. On Working Children. RT @NealSchaffer 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy. RT @WeBuildItBig: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy @NealSchaffer. 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy @NealSchaffer #socialmedia. The Dissertation Uk. RT @PatrickHayslett: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy @NealSchaffer #socialmedia. RT @PatrickHayslett: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy @NealSchaffer #socialmedia.

3 stunningly good LinkedIn summaries that inspired me to rewrite my own. Check #8217;em out! Essay School. I#8217;m happy my own profile summary could be instructional! Best wishes. The Dissertation. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES. Happy to have helped!

RT @thethechad: 3 stunningly good LinkedIn summaries that inspired me to rewrite my own. RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy. RT @liftpartners: RT @NealSchaffer: 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @MDCudahy. Protein Essay. I#8217;m just getting started with building my LinkedIn profile in anticipation of the dissertation a career re-launch in January #8217;14. I sincerely appreciate the recommendations you#8217;ve provided, excellent advice! I did note however, that both Kay and Paul have a typographic or grammatical error within their respective summaries. A have signed on principals of war contest, to follow you via Twitter. Right you are, Christine. The Dissertation Uk. Thanks for the eagle eye!

Thanks Christine. This blog post is protein essay entirely focused on the dissertation, the quality and power of the protein essay, Summary message. Obviously the goal for all of uk us is to to my parents have a 100% technically correct Summary (no typos/bad grammar), that#8217;s why the title is Stunningly Good (and not #8220;Great#8221;!). I#8217;d also counsel Paul to upgrade his picture to the dissertation uk large. Absolutely relevant ! like like like. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES #linkedin via @linkedinsights1. Why you should re-examine your Linkedin profile. Parents. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. Hi Andy, this blog is very interesting.

However, I am looking for tips about writing an effective summary when you lack strong work experience. I am a job seeker right now, with limited work experience and I#8217;d like to improve my linkedin profile. The Dissertation Uk. Do you have any suggestion? YES! You should hire me I help professionals to present well on their LinkedIn Profile. Protein Essay. Examples to help you craft a strong summary section on #LinkedIn: Here#8217;s an uk article on writing a strong LinkedIn summary. It can be a powerful tool for job searching or metworking. Is your LinkedIn summary #8220;so 2012#8221;?

Use these tips to update and create a more engaging one! via @linkedinsights1. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. Thinking. This is uk good, very, very good. Thanks. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. Tribute To My Parents. A definite call to action! Never settle when branding YOU. The Dissertation. I#8217;ve got work to do. Shug. RT @ccruzvergara: Is your LinkedIn summary #8220;so 2012#8221;? Use these tips to update and create a more engaging one! via @linkedinsights1.

Great inspiration to improve your LinkedIn profile and maximize your networking capabilities! 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. RT @Vipgaur: 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. The Dissertation Uk. Happy to see these RT @sbathoju: RT @Vipgaur: 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES via @linkedinsights1. I love these. All of these Linkedin profile summaries have very friendly tones.

I feel like they are specifically talking to me#8230; My feeling is LinkedIn profile summaries should contain some personality to differentiate the person. So many summaries read like a dry resume. 3 Stunningly Good #LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights sad there aren#8217;t more like these. 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights via @linkedinsights1. Andy I#8217;ve never felt so inspired to do right by myself as a #8216;brand ambassador#8217; after reading your article. I just left for a weekend camping trip when I stumbled upon your article, and on working with found myself burning Friday night oil taking a shot at my own summary.

Thank you for the dissertation uk, this amazing, succinct, advice. I feel much more confident with the person who is on my profile #128578; Cheers. Very glad to contest hear this Nikki. The Dissertation Uk. It seems this article has inspired many Summary re-writes, which is protein essay great. LinkedIn is making all of us think about our brand and professional identity.

Progress! How to the dissertation uk improve your linkedin profile with a well written summary. I#8217;m still working on essay, mine#8230; Uk. What do you think about french this introductory line, #8220;I have never met a doctor that did not want better patient outcomes!#8221; I bring new medical technology to physicians and patients. The Dissertation. What do you think about putting all the linkedin connect with me at the top of the summary? I did the Greig Wells program.

It could do with some work Stacy! Contact me @ with a link to essays your LinkedIn url and I#8217;ll provide some guidance. Interesting read especially interesting to compare a dozen of different LinkedIn expert blogs and to distill the often contrary messages to something I can utilize for my own profile. I do like Paul#8217;s summary a lot I can definitely learn from that and will try to update my summary. As for Kay#8217;s, I read it twice and I still don#8217;t know what Kay is doing and why I would want to contact her#8230; maybe it#8217;s a language thing, but then again, you can#8217;t expect your audience to be all native English speakers. I have worked in Asia and Europe over the past 15 years and I think some fine tuning of the profile and the dissertation uk summary depending on principals essay contest, the target market#8217;s culture is very important. For example Mark#8217;s profile might be seen ok in NYC, but one needs to recognize that the the dissertation, same wording comes across as arrogant in other regions of the principals of war essay contest, world. Humbleness goes a long way, and that does not mean not to show one#8217;s strengths and accomplishments! The goal is to use Linked In to obtain a career for the dissertation uk, most people.

I liked Paul#8217;s and Mark#8217;s summaries. I really don#8217;t think Kay#8217;s summary is stunning. I can#8217;t tell what she does or has done from reading it. School Gcse. I thought the summary was your 30-second elevator pitch. I should want to the dissertation look at the rest of the person#8217;s profile from thinking, reading that summary. If I am looking for a certain skill set to hire the summary is key for uk, me to continue reading the rest of the profile. Ati Critical Thinking. Actually Elle, LinkedIn is the dissertation uk becoming more important to professionals who simply want to present well and look like they#8217;ve got LinkedIn down. It#8217;s not just for folks in transition. I didn#8217;t say that Kay#8217;s Profile was stunning, I said that Kay#8217;s was #8220;Stunningly Good#8221;.

All 3 Summaries have improvements they could make as I#8217;ve mentioned before in parents, the comments section. These 3 are great examples of the dissertation uk Summaries for the reasons I#8217;ve outlined. And Celie. It#8217;s obvious to me that Kay is in the consumer branding biz. And yes the whole point of a Summary is that it propels you down the rest of the Profile to the dissertation learn more. If it#8217;s boring and fails to engage, people move on rather quickly. Thanks for the article Andy! As a recruiter, I agree that having a good summary really helps out, and I think most of us could work on essay, improving our profile summary. Uk. Thank you for essay gcse, a great article. I must say, you inspired me to re-write my Linkedin summery#8230; what do you think?

Thank you for the dissertation, the article! Just what I was looking for! How important do you think it is to be somewhat funny in your summary? I mean, so many people are boring and matter-of-fact when they explain their positions#8230; Wouldn#8217;t it make more of an impression to be a bit entertaining. The problem with being #8220;somewhat funny#8221; is that a proportion of your audience will not find what you write in your LinkedIn Summary to be funny at principals essay contest, all that#8217;s the uk, nature of comedy, we each have our own definition of funny. Also, LinkedIn is first and principals of war essay contest foremost a professional networking site. Treat it like your first week at a new job, you ought to be focused on putting your best foot forward rather than being the joker.

There are better ways to make an impression that carry fewer risks imo. this thread just keeps popping up and the dissertation uk certainly for good reason. Andy, how about a couple more examples that are different from these? Just to tease us, cajole us and inspire us in case we dont quite identify with these three#8230;.pretty please?? by the way I hope Ms Allison has now long since fixed the grammatical error in line 4. Whats the definition of Stunningly Good? Shouldn#8217;t that appellation be bestowed ONLY on those entries where content AND form are excellent! My college English teacher gave me a B (10 points off) just for protein essay, such error as we see on uk, line 4. And that was before spell check! Thanks for finally writing about essay contest 3 Stunningly Good LinkedIn. Profile SUMMARIES | linkedinsights Liked it! This is absolutely great. The Dissertation. I hope to use some of ati critical thinking assessment this ideas in my linkedIn profile.

Thanks a lot. Uk. What a great article. I#8217;ve been struggling, tweaking and re-tweaking my profile on linked in ati critical assessment, this has given me the inspiration to completely re-think the whole thing and make it more of pleasure than a chore to read! Thanks for posting this article great inspiration to the dissertation uk my new summary #128578; I#8217;ve decided to approach it in a following minimalistic way: Anyway, many thanks for french gcse, the inspiration and all the best in the dissertation, 2014! I came across your post here as it came as a blessing. I was just into the work of rewriting my Profile. Protein Essay. Thank you for this excellent writing.

I now have finished also my Profile Summary and the dissertation would much like your comment on with children, it if you don#8217;t mind. I was doing the the dissertation uk, anonymous blog reading thing until your Linkedin view on my profile reminded me how much I appreciated comments when I blogged. So #8212; thank you! Tremendously useful and I#8217;ve been sprucing up my profile already. Tribute To My. Cream truly does rise to the top#8230; I read your thoughts immediately after my wife told me my summary was not good.(this is mildly stated and not a quote of what she really said) Your link was at the dissertation, the top of the page when I Googled #8220;LinkedIn summary examples#8221;.

Although I am not in a glamorous industry (banking), I felt I needed to be a little creative when entering my summary. If you have time to read my summary it would be an honor to ati critical thinking assessment receive your insight. Thank you again for writing your thoughts and ideas of how to build a strong summary. Uk. I will definitely forward/share you ideas. I think it could be better Frederick! People hire me for 3 reasons: (1) I’m a great writer (2) I understand professional branding on to my essay, LinkedIn and (3) I provide a much-needed objective point of view. This is such a great article and your words are so true. Transitioning from college to uk a career can be a scary, difficult thing to do. French School Gcse. However, it seems as if so many recent students aren#8217;t letting themselves shine. They are all blending together until they are no longer seen. The Dissertation. While I was developing my resume and cover letter to send out in the world, I was advised to not be boring like everyone else.

My professor told me that everyone likes a story, and thinking everyone has a story to uk be heard. That is some of the best advice I have ever received. Excellent post and of war essay such a great article. It prompted me to the dissertation uk rework my LinkedIn summary as a top priority. So thank you for sharing it with us! I came to this article, searching for tips on how to improve my summary, and yes, I was inspired. It#8217;s always nice to see some examples, and the three you selected are different enough to help spark that inspiration and parents come up with an original summary for the dissertation, myself. It took me about ati critical thinking two weeks though, between being inspired, and finalizing a summary that was short enough, and was really ME.

On a side note, I was surprised by the amount of the dissertation blatant plagiarized profiles #8230; especially Mark Lazen#8217;s profile. I personally liked his profile and protein essay used it as inspiration, but if you do a search on LinkedIn for #8220;multi-linguist of technology-driven business#8221; you get 250 profiles copying his exact profile, and only tweaking it. #8220;I#8217;d be ambidextrous#8221; leads to 275 profiles, and the dissertation #8220;I#8217;ve worn many hats in my career#8221; even 900 profiles. Geez people, be inspired, don#8217;t be a copycat. Thanks Andy for tribute to my essay, the article, and thanks Mark, Kay, and Paul for the inspiration. Thanks Lodewijk. Yes, imitation is apparently the sincerest form of flattery and Mark Lazen’s Summary seems to be the most copied. I doubt he feels flattered though. Unfortunately, some people lack inspiration and find it difficult to be original.

Thanks so much for this. I just built my LinkedIn profile the the dissertation uk, other day, and principals essay this is going to the dissertation help a lot #128578; Awesome article Andy loved it!! This article gives highly valuable insights into the high art of tribute to my parents LinkedIn, even as it inadvertently showcases, and therefore embodies, a failure of the low art. All three profiles cited were dynamic, engaging, creative, fun, etc. But the first two had typos.

The second#8217;s damagingly belied #8220;editing#8221; as being among the person#8217;s core strengths. The author should have asked his subjects to fix these #8220;for want of a nail#8221; deal-killing trivialities before posting their screenshots. This is the dissertation still a great article, but this oversight can give all involved a bonus lesson beyond the text. Thanks for commenting Eric. Of course none of the featured Summaries are perfect and all of them can be improved.

This is after all, the nature of the Summary (and the french essay school, LinkedIn Profile): it is a living and breathing document which develops and changes with you. If they were perfect, I would have entitled the post #8220;Stunningly Great#8221; instead of #8220;Stunningly Good#8221; #128521; I thoroughly enjoyed your article and it gave a lot of insight. Uk. Even so, I still struggle with obtaining a Headline and how to word my Summary. I have taught physical education for ati critical thinking, 16 years, then relocated to a new city. I spent this past school year substitute teaching. I have decided that I no longer want to teach, but transition into the corporate world. The Dissertation Uk. Being a teacher has afforded me multiple skills. I really need help putting those skills on paper (proper wording) in my LinkedIn Summary.

Please advise!! Thank you Andy. Hi Andy, Thanks for tribute to my, the great post an essential must-read for the dissertation, people like myself, setting up my LinkedIn account (scary moment! ) You#8217;re welcome Danielle and thanks #128578; Great article and principals essay contest examples. I went looking for the dissertation uk, an article about LinkedIn summaries, because it can make the difference between a blah profile and a profile that helps you get to know the principals, person. They say that a resume is to uk get you the on working with children, interview. I think that LinkedIn now acts as a between stage nowadays. Because when someone gets your resume they can look you up on LinkedIn and start to get to know you better, in a more personal way even before the interview. Awesome. Uk. If only everyone was an English Lit major we#8217;d all shine a little brighter.

LOL. Essay. It can be difficult for uk, technical folks to write prose, marketing materials and/or editorialize their unique characteristics and professional acumen with such poetic grace. Not many are e-zine contributors or book authors, so putting cold hard facts into lively verse can push about 99% of the gcse, population to the limits of the dissertation uk their grammatical skill. Still, it#8217;s easier to replicate a successful pattern than invent one of our own. Protein Essay. So thanks for sharing!

Just loved Kay#8217;s message says it all so simply and in the dissertation uk, a fun down to ati critical earth way. Brilliant and inspiring. Andy great article. The Dissertation. It was very helpful and got the protein essay, result immediately after updating my profile. Andy have you ever had a company ask you to develop some #8220;templates#8221; for use in helping their employees be more excited, less scared, etc. on where to start? Any tips you could offer? No I usually work one on one with clients and uk I offer a customized approach to ati critical thinking leveraging LinkedIn. I don#8217;t think templates would be that useful Lauren, everyone has/needs a slightly different strategy to the dissertation get the most out of the LinkedIn platform. Just changed mine to to my essay #8220;Generating New Business , Boosting Sales and everything in uk, between ( Bridging the gap between solar vendors buyers ) #8220;. I wonder how do you guys find it#8230; Thank you for the great advice! I gave my LinkedIn profile a make-over with a focus on and celie essay, story vs. a resume dump.

I#8217;ll be tracking the views to see if it makes a difference. Thanks so much! Carla. Thank you! I like the way you describe that a summary needs to the dissertation uk be a compelling, likeable story of a person. It#8217;s not, after all, a resume. I think if people follow your advice, they will get more quality leads. Thank you Richard for commenting here and for the quote and protein essay link in your blog.

Much appreciated Sir.

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essays models stress November 2003 Issue. Thinking processes, reverse engineering and external representations in the generation and application of stress models. By Dr. Lorraine Cleeton, St.

Bonaventure University, NY. This article traces the the dissertation uk, progress of students taking a stress management course, in which traditional models of stress were presented and new models developed. The students found that traditional stress models were useful only in specific situations, but not transferable to novel outbreaks of stress. Essays On Working Children. They thought that this was due partly to differences in definitions of stress. Uk. The students found it difficult to devise new stress models. An examination was made of thinking processes which had been used for contest generating successful models, in analogous systems suffering from initial resistance to definition and modeling. Reverse engineering by computer-aided simulation looked to be one promising route towards generating new models of stress. The Dissertation Uk. Another was recent research in external representations used for problem solving. It is hoped that this review will encourage the development of transferable models of protein essay, stress and uk spin off more precise definition of stressors and essay contest strains.

Two major difficulties arose in a course on stress management. Firstly, the students were dichotomized between those who, as ‘clients in uk, stress’, had problems themselves and those who, as ‘counselors’, wanted to help other people. French Essay Gcse. Secondly, the solutions to novel problems presented by the ‘clients’ were not always amenable to the dissertation uk solutions suggested by the ‘counselors’. Essays On Working With Children. To anticipate this polarization of the uk, students the initial aim of the course had been generalized to ‘Eliminating, minimizing and controlling stress in ourselves and in principals of war contest, other people’. Adding to the difficulties, a literature review revealed many researchers maintaining that stress has not been precisely defined (Everly and uk Rosenfeld 1981). For the second run of the course, an additional aim was added – ‘Gaining skills to protein essay transfer to transfer to new and novel outbreaks of stress’. It was hoped that this would facilitate students to counsel people outside those taking the course, but they reported many failures. The aims were screened into a series of objectives against the dissertation, which evaluation was made by tribute parents essay assessed tasks following each two-hour session. Although stress has not been precisely defined, assumptions have been made about the dissertation uk ‘the effects of a feeling of acute or prolonged anxiety’ or ‘lack of resolution of conflict’. Based on such imprecise definitions, which create more constructs than they eliminate, it was not surprising to find widespread disagreement among the students in acceptance of protein essay, such concepts as 'stress-related illness'. Students were able to fit appropriate models to the symptoms, but needed tools to develop new models to understand novel stressors.

Finally, it was hoped to answer the question, ‘Does understanding stress through modeling go a long way towards alleviating it? ‘ Information overload (‘Tap and Jug’) model. Many people have visions of the dissertation, stress and principals of war essay contest visions of what would cure it, for example, 'If I didn't have so much work to do', 'If my students were well behaved' or 'If my boss would leave'. Most of the students brought along with them the naive model of stress caused by information or emotional overload. The Dissertation Uk. This assumes that the organism has just so much to give and to my parents that problems arise when that limit is uk, exceeded. Powell and Enright (1990) called this the 'Tap and Jug' model - Tap and Jug model. The strength of this model lies in simplicity, but its weakness in the variety of capacities of individuals for overload and the variability of their reactions to stimuli (Eysenck 1989). Essay. For example, prisoners able to tolerate confinement and torture may still have a fear of spiders in their cells. In early assignments the students most frequently applied this model as a default, sometimes used legitimately, but more often to fall back on in desperation when other models had failed. Capacity - Demand model. The Tap and Jug model can be made more useful by upgrading it to a Capacity-Demand model, as described by Wycherley (1987).

The aim is not only to increase capacity, but also potential for increased demand, by the dissertation increasing the stamina or robustness of the person. To increase capacity, optimum challenge should be applied, according to the Yerkes-Dodson (1908) Law - This law states that there is a optimum level of challenge - sufficient to stimulate and maintain interest, but not sufficient to cause undue stress. Capacity – Demand model. Many people feel stressed when the size of their workload approaches their perceived capacity for shug work. The Dissertation. Stress increases as more work is added, eventually to exceed the perceived capacity. Ideally one hopes that the workload will decrease, but sometimes as a result of the stress we are scarred and our capacity is reduced.

If you come to terms with it or receive counseling, it is hoped that the workload might once again just fill the capacity. A better solution would be to achieve more stamina so that there is increased capacity, i.e. the protein essay, ability to withstand a greater workload in the future - keeping the load within the boundaries of the increased capacity. In the depths of the dissertation, our own stress we all know colleagues we admired who never seemed ruffled by increased workload, or by thinking assessment sudden life changes, and who seemed to have infinite capacity. Against the background of imprecise definition of stress, the concepts of 'stressors' and 'strains' were discriminated and offered to the students in a cause-effect model. A 'stressor' might be work overload , causing the 'strain' of fatigue. The Dissertation Uk. This is illustrated by the. Weight-on-a-Spring model, the Weight representing the stressor and the extension the strain (Russell 1953).

This model was useful when first presented, but the students soon noticed that a strain could switch to being a stressor, leading to a chaining effect. For example, the shug essay, strain of fatigue could become the stressor causing the the dissertation uk, strain of a weakening family relationship . A stress counselor should enter the to my essay, chain by defining the stressor and strain at point of entry. There is cost to a client, and the dissertation uk difficulties for a counselor, who fails to find the of war, break-point of entry to a closed loop stressor-strain cycle. The students were given local, national and global suicide and mortality figures, with their relationships to variables such as socioeconomic background and uk marital status . This led to listings of stress-related illnesses. The students showed wide variation in their beliefs about discrimination and generalization of this concept, which was not surprising given the background of an imprecise definition of ‘stress’ itself. The students understood and french accepted the the dissertation, Three-Systems Model of gcse, behavioral , emotional and physical interaction as described by Powell and Enright (1990), but they barely mentioned it in discussion, counseling or essays. Perhaps the students felt the model to be too nave, obvious or inappropriate, even in conditions where its originators saw its relevance. Perhaps being a textual model it was easily forgotten. However when students failed to observe behavioral, emotional and physical changes at the dissertation an early stage in shug, a counseling situation, there were cumulative difficulties in uk, reducing client anxiety.

Type A and B Personalities model. The students realized that their problems could not only be blamed on the environment but on their own reactions and interactions with it. The Type A and tribute to my parents B model of behavior traits (Friedman and Rosenan 1959; Glass 1977; Matthews 1982) was introduced. Its categorization was clear, but although the methods for ameliorating excessive bias towards either trait were highly successful with a few students, the model failed with the rest. A new model was proposed for targeting a desirable but hypothetical middle-road Type ‘C’ behavior and the dissertation uk developed by essays on working with role-play to even more satisfying Types D, E, F - - - and subsequent behaviors, where for example reaction to a novel, unexpected event, shock or emergency situation could be controlled to the dissertation uk prevent disablement of thought or action. Assuming attitudes are difficult to french school gcse change quickly by the dissertation conventional methods (except by unfortunate negative shock events), the students found that much practice was needed to reach the ‘higher’ levels of C, D, E - - - behavior, beyond the traditional Types A and B. For example, at tribute first, great control is needed to speak slowly when every set instinct tells you to use quick and aggressive response. Teachers are well trained in this technique when faced with challenging students. Ways of affecting more rapid change would need to the dissertation uk control or cope with instinctive reactions. Students trained in using suggestion in hypnosis achieved the most rapid results in changing destructive attitudes. Life-Change Units (LCU’s) Shock events like bereavement can effect rapid temporary or permanent change.

Illness or accident can trigger a person to initiate a worthy cause to help similar victims. Ati Critical Assessment. The students completed the Holmes and Rahe (1967) Life-Change Inventory, but found that their reactions to a life-change event were dependent on their hardiness, mental stamina and parental or vocational training - This model suggests that life changes or job changes cause the stress. Life changes have been placed in a hierarchy. At the uk, top of the list is 'death of a spouse'. 'Christmas' and 'holidays' appear in and celie essay, the list as causing some people stress, even though they are supposed to provide relaxation. The Dissertation Uk. Each life-change item in the list is allocated a score. Shug And Celie. You add your scores and the total indicates your stress level. Perhaps each profession should develop its own LCU’s. For example, teachers are subject to their own list of the dissertation, internal life changes - sudden changes in collaborative teams, the curriculum or family problems. Compilation of a complete scored list focused on teaching would be a fruitful piece of on working with children, research. Test Your Stress Level - Read through this list of life events and write down the Life Change Units (LCUs) value for each that has occurred in the last 12-18 months.

Total your Life Change Units (LCUs). If your score is 150 LCUs or less, your level of stress based on life changes is low. If your score is 150-300 LCUs, your stress levels are borderline - you should minimize changes in your life if possible at this time. If your score is uk, more than 300 LCUs your stress levels are high. You should minimize other changes in your life if possible and work at instituting some stress intervention techniques. Ranking of principals of war essay contest, Life event. 1. The Dissertation. Death of Spouse. 3. Marital Separation. 5. Death of close family member. 6. Personal injury or illness.

8. Fired from job. 9. Marital reconciliation. 11. Change in school, health of the dissertation uk, family member. 13. Sex Difficulties. 14. Gain of new family member. 15. Business readjustment. 16.

Change in essays on working with children, financial state. 17. Death of close friend. 18. Change to different line of work. 19. Change in number of the dissertation uk, arguments with spouse. 20. Mortgage/loan for major purchases. 21. Foreclosure of mortgage or loan.

22. Change in responsibilities at work. 23. Essay Gcse. Son or daughter leaving home. 24. Trouble with in-laws. 25. Uk. Outstanding personal achievement. 26. Spouse begins or stops work. 27.

Begin or end school. 28. Change in living conditions. 29. Revision of personal habits. 30. Trouble with boss. 31. Change in work hours or conditions. 32. Change in residence. 33. Change in schools. 34. Change in recreation. 35. Change in church activates. 36. Change in social activities. 37. Essays. Mortgage, or loan for lesser purchase (car etc.) 38.

Change in sleeping habits. 39. Change in the dissertation, number of family. 40. Change in eating habits. 43. Minor violation of the law. S tress is the body's non-specific response to any demand placed upon it. It is not caused only by negative or adverse influences. Stress increases the rate of wear and tear the body experiences.

Americans spend over nine billion dollars a year to deal with stress. The ritualistic model is related to essay the load capacity model and to the life change model. It is based on the dissertation a feeling that things are out of control unless rituals are observed. With. Eventually this blocks creativity and innovation. The Dissertation. The rituals are not confined to working hours. They start in the morning before work, where events ‘have’ to take place in a habitual order, or stress is experienced. In the stress management course, students were weaned from rituals by shug and celie setting them a homework assignment to break at first just one ritual. They said it was the most difficult assignment of the uk, course.

Teachers know that a slight change in routine can upset the discipline of essays, a class. It might be a snowfall starting or a bird settling outside the classroom window. Perhaps the the dissertation, education system should devote itself in the affective domain to teaching children to react appropriately to novel situations, essential for encouraging creativity. Moving animal model. A simple ‘moving animal’ model was found to be very effective. Ati Critical Assessment. A tiger was drawn on one overhead projector slide and jungle camouflage on another. The two slides were placed on top of each other on an overhead projector. The animal is only noticed when the overlapping slides are moved relative to each other. The analogy in stress management is that many people are happy to preserve the the dissertation uk, status quo and protein essay only experience stress when changes are made in the dissertation uk, their working life.

This model helped to exercise the ati critical, ‘detector function’ described later in Kuhn’s model (1974). To complement the life change inventory, the the dissertation, effects of cumulative small stressors were examined. Research articles have started to essays on working appear showing for example some evidence of a link between these 'microstressors' and depression ( McLean 1976). The students were encouraged to keep a record of these microstressors and the strains which appeared temporally close to them. Many of the students asked to be taught Assertiveness. In its mid-ground between passivity and aggression, or between reactive and proactive response, Assertiveness asks for students to move between these attitudes. Like switching between Type A and B, it was difficult to the dissertation break lifelong habitual responses to situations. Relaxation techniques were the ameliorating catalyst to change, but some students still found it paradoxical to combine assertiveness with relaxation.

Relaxation was therefore practised both in preparation for being more assertive when rights were infringed and also for defusing the aggression of other people. For most students extensive role-play and feedback from external situations effected the desirable responses. Learning curves model. When students realized that stress management would often involve simultaneous changes to themselves and to their environment a return to the first principles of learning was needed. They had to learn how to learn new responses to stressors. This was difficult because of essays with, their ritualizations. Uk. Cleeton (1991) profiled learning barriers, not only in the cognitive domain, but also in the functional and experiential domains. Functional learning barriers to protein essay stress management may be lack of confidence, lack of assertiveness, family problems or conflict between work and home. Experiential learning barriers may be lack of experience in dealing with problems normally arising at work or home. The students were shown examples of learning curves - Curve showing a linear rate of learning.

Curve showing linear learning, but starting from some previous knowledge. More realistically, the following curve shows how many of us learn. It is called the ‘stepped-change model’. For example, when we learn how to the dissertation play a musical instrument, we achieve an elementary level quite rapidly, and then seem to ‘stick’ at that level and think we will never rise above it. Shug And Celie Essay. After a number of steps, we may reach a ‘plateau’ where we either give up the uk, practice and learning, or realize that we have reached the limit of our persistence or. Curve showing stepped learning. The following curve reproduces an actual performance by protein essay an adult learner. At first the learning was ‘ideal’, accelerating as knowledge accumulated along an exponential curve – a ‘knowledge explosion’.

Then the learner discovered a barrier and fell into a discouraging ‘ditch’ of learning. Recovering, but lacking confidence, the learner could not achieve accelerated learning, but only linear learning. A second fall into a ditch leaves the learner so discouraged that some previous learning could not remembered (a learning ‘block’), but eventually recovery took place to reach a plateau of ability and persistence. Learning Curve showing actual performance of an uk, adult learner. accelerated (‘ideal’) learning. The following curve shows ‘ideal’ learning, usually produced by material which is challenging but not anxiety-producing. It shows ‘accelerated learning’ – an exponential rise in protein essay, achievement with time, knowledge cumulatively capitalizing on previous knowledge, setting off a knowledge explosion.

‘Ideal’ Learning Curve. Relating these curves to stress management, students need to strive for ‘ideal’ exponential learning and avoid ‘ditches’ and ‘plateau’. Stress management involves lifelong learning because novel stressors are always presenting themselves with changes to the individual, the environment and the dissertation uk with local, national and global change. Perception and Reality model. The author (Cleeton G., 1996) developed terminology to describe learning barriers. Have you ever heard adults or children say, ‘I can’t do Math’? They are expressing a perceived learning barrier. In practice the barrier may be real or illusory . Sometimes a child will say they can’t do Math, but be able to manipulate and tell you the statistics of all their team’s baseball games. In that case the barrier must be to some extent illusory . When adults return to the classroom after a gap of many years, they are often scarred with memories of failure in school, sometimes from bad teaching, for on working with example from teaching abstract before concrete operations.

These scars caused ditches in their learning curves. Gentle teaching to remove the scars and getting them to realize that it was not their fault can relegate their perceived barriers into illusory barriers. Sometimes perceived barriers will be expressed in more serious terms or at specific levels. A child might say, ‘I can’t do Math, and what’s more I never will be able to do it’. This suggests that there is uk, a hierarchy of learning barriers. An older learner might say, ‘I can’t do complex numbers, and what’s more I never will be able to’. Before a course starts, a potential student may scan the syllabus and express anticipated learning barriers for the whole or part of it, for example - ‘I anticipate difficulties with genetics’. This can cause a damaging mindset. Piaget and Inhelder (1971) said, ‘That which is principals of war, anticipated is more likely to occur’ - an example of ‘negative’ or pejorative visualisation. In stress management the tutor needs to demonstrate that many anticipated and perceived barriers can be illusory , and also teach how to overcome real barriers.

In preparing lessons we tend to concentrate on motivation to make lessons interesting, but we should also forecast, acknowledge and aim to surmount learning barriers. Learning barriers will be encountered in the Substantive (subject matter) domain, for example caused by faulty sequencing of the material. They can also be in the dissertation uk, the Functional domain, for example caused by disability or family problems. They can be in the Experiential domain, for example caused by on working lack of practical experience in needed skills. There are several models of learning barriers. Early models by the dissertation Lewin (1935) showed barriers as obstructing goals, in an environment which was to essay a greater or less degree permeable. Uk. As teachers our role is to set the goal and essays with children make the teaching environment as permeable and flexible as possible to surmount the learning barriers. An insidious learning barrier is the discovered barrier. This is the dissertation, neither anticipated before the course starts, nor perceived by the student when the course starts, but is unexpectedly discovered by student and teacher as the course proceeds. Not even the best pre-course syllabus can forewarn potential students about discovered barriers.

Such barriers can approach the and celie essay, learner at high or low speeds, can have fast or slow attacks and fast or slow decays. Their profiles will resemble those generated by music synthesizers – Learning barrier with fast attack and uk slow decay. Learning barrier with slow attack and fast decay. Learners are not particularly realistic about their learning potential. The author (Cleeton, G., 1996) found that they were notorious in their discrepancies between perception and protein essay reality. The Dissertation Uk. Mostly they were pessimistic, sometimes optimistic. Skilled teaching can bring them into reality without discouragement. Weaknesses were apparent in students' decision-making skills. They tended to essays act either in a stereotyped way when faced with novel outbreaks of stress, or at the other extreme would vacillate between trial of different solutions. They also experienced dissonance - avoiding alternatives when a decision had been made and the dissertation brooding with regret, so salience of their dissonance was not resolved (Festinger 1993). Models of learning strategies, decision-making and risk-taking were studied in the context of innovation theory.

The Reality-Perception of Reality model became accepted and was used with success in reducing the discrepancy index (Fisher 1986) between perception and reality. Students also noted discrepancy between perception and reality in principals, conflicts between the conscious and subconscious minds. A client might say, consciously and conventionally, ‘I love my sister’, but subconsciously, in regression, say, ‘I hate my sister’. The Dissertation Uk. Instances of emergence of the ‘child within’ were sensitized by regression. Problems were reported of ‘childish adults’ and principals essay indeed ‘adult children’.

Reluctantly some of the dissertation uk, these effects began to ati critical thinking be recognized by the students as lying within themselves and led to their determination to remove the ‘bugs’ from their systems before practising stress management on other people. Time management model. The stressors of learning and uk of meeting targets were approached through time management and just-in-time management, keeping long-term diaries of activities, relaxation and thinking. Reorientation of tribute to my parents essay, waking and the dissertation uk sleeping patterns were accepted by school gcse some students but strongly resisted by others. The possibilities of instant sleeping and waking by suggestion in hypnosis were explored, in conjunction with subliminal learning.

Marionette on Strings model. The human being is a delicate instrument, partly controlled by ‘strings’ to the different people in his/her life. When one of these people pulls a string that attached to the dissertation uk the human being too tightly, the string or the human being can ‘snap’ and be either mentally, physically or both mentally and physically destroyed. Other people pulling the strings might be able to compensate for this loss, but in some cases the person may have to completely break ties with the stressor. For example, if the stressor is an employer, the person might have to resign to save mental and physical health. Shifting the Goal Posts model. The person is told to complete a task. When near completion, the french, controlling person changes the path and targets of the task.

This causes intense stress because everything done up to this point has to be altered to suit the new instructions. Mountain out of a Molehill model. You have to teach simple material that should only the dissertation uk, take a few minutes to explain, but fill one hour in time to do it. This is a stressor for teachers, professors, or anyone lecturing. Sometimes you are given a topic to talk about which in common sense terms can be stated in a few minutes to almost any audience.

You have to stretch this to an hour. You have to french gcse inject stories, personal experiences, etc., but as you listen to the dissertation yourself (if you could) you are restating the original premise over and over until you are completely burnt out. This can make you mentally and physically ill and principals does not serve as a benefit to your audience either. It is making something more important than it is. Contagion of stress model. Most of us have experience of the ‘weak link in the chain’ when working as a team, for the dissertation example the person who holds up the work by not meeting deadlines. When prolonged this behavior can be contagious.

Contagion of stress called for a model based on the two-way spillover of strain between occupation and home (Cooper and Marshall 1976, French and Caplan 1972). This necessitated assembly and modeling of family relationship stressors and occupational stressors, and the interaction between them. Power, Role, Task and Person model. Occupational stress was modeled through analysis of the Power, Role, Task and Person structures of organizations ( Harrison 1972). Their structural strengths and weaknesses were assessed in terms of (i) their stability, (ii) their resistance to change, development or recessional crises and (iii) how individuals of different personality might fare in parents, them, or be matched to the dissertation uk a structure by choice. The following descriptions of the structures are due to Harrison (1972) - The power culture is most often found in small entrepreneurial organizations. Its structure can be pictured as a web. The power culture depends on a central power source with rays of power and influence spreading out from that central figure. The rays may be connected by functional or specialist strings but the power rings are the tribute parents, centers of the dissertation, power and parents essay influences. This organization works on precedent and by uk anticipating the wishes and decisions of the central power sources.

There are few rules and procedures and little bureaucracy. Control is exercised from the center. It is shug essay, a political organization in that decisions are taken largely based on the balance of influence rather than on logical or procedural grounds. A power culture can move very quickly and react rapidly to threats or opportunities. These cultures put a lot of faith in the individual, little in committees. They judge by results and the dissertation uk care very little about the means used to obtain results. Size is a problem for power cultures; when they get large or when they seek to take on with too many activities, they can collapse. The role culture is called a bureaucracy. The structure for a role culture can be pictured as a Greek temple.

The role culture works by uk logic and rationality. Its strength in its its pillars or functional specialties, e.g. the finance department, the shug and celie essay, technical services department, the public services department. Uk. The work of the functional departments is contro lled by: The functional departments are controlled at the top by a small group of contest, senior managers (the pediment of the temple). It is assumed that these folks are the only co-ordinators required if the separate departments do their job as laid down by the rules and procedures and the overall plan. In the role culture, the job description is often more important than the individual who fills it. Individuals are selected for satisfactory performance of a role and the role is usually so described that a range of the dissertation, individuals can fill it.

Performance above and beyond the role prescription is not required and can even be regarded as disruptive. Position power is the major power source; personal power is frowned upon and expert power limited to its proper place. The efficiency of this culture depends o n the rationality of the allocation of essay, work and responsibility rather than on individuals. The role organization will succeed very well in stable environments where little changes from year to year and predictions can be made far in advance. Where the organization can control its environment, where its markets are stable, predictable or controllable, the uk, rules and to my essay procedures and the programmed approach to work will be successful. Role cultures are slow to perceive the need for the dissertation change and slow to change even when the need is seen. On Working. If the market, the product/service needs, or the environment changes, the role culture is likely to continue without change until it collapses or until the top management is uk, replaced.

Role cultures offer security and essay school predictability to the individual -- a steady rate of ascent up the career ladder. They offer the chance to acquire specialist expertise without risk. They tend to reward those wanted to do their job to a standard. A role culture is frustrating for the individual who is power-oriented or who wants control over his/her work. Those who are ambitious or more interested in the dissertation uk, results than method may be discontented, except in top management. The role culture is found where economies of scale are more important than flexibility and where technical expertise and depth of thinking, specialization are more important than product innovation or product cost.

The task culture is the dissertation, job or product oriented or focused on service delivery. Its accompanying structure can be represented as a net. Notice some of the strands of the net are thicker and stronger than the others. The power and influence in a task culture lies at the intersections. A matrix organization is one form of the task culture. The task culture seeks to bring together the appropriate resources, the right people at the right level of the organization, and then to let them get on with it. Influence is based more on expert power than on of war contest position or personal power, although these power sources have an effect. Influence is more widely dispersed than in uk, other cultures and each individual in the culture tends to think he/she has influence.

The task culture is a team culture where the protein essay, outcome, the the dissertation uk, result, the product of the team's work tends to be the common goal overcoming individual objectives and tribute parents most status and style differences. The task culture uses the the dissertation uk, unifying power of the group to improve efficiency and to identify the essay gcse, individual with the objective of the organization. The task culture is highly adaptable. Groups, project teams, or task forces are formed for a specific purpose and the dissertation can be reformed, abandoned or continued. The net organization works quickly since each group ideally contains within it all the french gcse, decision-making powers required. Individuals have a high degree of uk, control over their work in ati critical, this culture.

Judgment is by results. There are generally easy working relationships within the group with mutual respect based upon capacity rather than age or status. The task culture is appropriate where flexibility and sensitivity to the market or environment are important. The task culture fits where the market is competitive, where the product life is short, where speed of reaction is uk, important. The task culture finds it hard to french essay school produce economies of scale or great depth of expertise. The Dissertation. Large scale systems are difficult to organize as flexible groups. The technical expert in a task culture will find him/herself working on various problems and in ati critical assessment, various groups and thus will be less specialized than his/her counterpart working in a role cultures. Control in a task culture is difficult. Control is retained by top management through the allocation of projects, people and resources. But little day-to-day control can be exerted over the methods of working or the uk, procedures without violating the protein essay, norms of the culture. Task cultures flourish when the climate is agreeable, when the product is all-important, when the customer is always right, and the dissertation uk when resources are available for all who can justify using them. ( ‘for example putting a Man on the Moon by 1970’ – Ed.)

When resources of money and people have to be rationed, top management may wish to control methods as well as results. Shug. When this happens, team leaders begin to compete for resources using political influence. Morale will decline and the job becomes less satisfying as individuals begin to reveal their individual objectives. When this happens the task culture tends to change to a role or power culture. The task culture is usually the the dissertation, one preferred as a personal choice to work in by most managers especially those at junior and middle levels. It is the culture which most of the essays with children, behavioral theories of organizations point towards with their emphasis on groups, expert power, rewards for results, merging individual and group objectives. It is the culture most in tune with current ideologies of the dissertation uk, change and adaptation, individual freedom and low status differentials. The person culture is an unusual one and won't be found in many organizations but many individuals cling to some of its values.

In this culture the principals, individual is the central point. If there is a structure or an organization it exists only to serve and assist the individuals within it. If a group of individuals decide that it is in the dissertation, their own interests to essays with band together in order to do their own thing more successfully and that an office, a space, some equipment, some clerical support would help, then the resulting organization will have a person culture. Architectural partnerships, real estate firms, some research organizations, perhaps information brokers often have this person orientation. Its structure is minimal, a cluster or galaxy of individual stars may be the best picture. As most organizations tend to have goals and objectives over and above the set of the dissertation uk, collective objectives of their members, there are few organizations with person cultures. Control mechanisms or even management hierarchies are impossible in their cultures except by mutual consent. The organization is subordinate to the individual and depends on the individual for essays on working its existence. The individual can leave the organization but the organization seldom has the power to uk evict an individual. Influence is shared and the power base is usually expert.

The kibbutz, the commune, the co-operative, are strivers for the personal culture in organizational form. Tribute To My Parents Essay. Rarely does it succeed beyond the uk, original creators. Very quickly the organization achieves its own identify and begins to impose it on its individuals. It becomes a task culture at best, but often a power or role culture. Although there are few organizations with person cultures, many individuals with a personal preference for this type of culture operate in other kinds of organization. Specialists in organization often feel little allegiance to the organization but regard it rather as a place to do their thing with some benefit accruing to their employer. Individuals with this orientation are not easy to manage. As specialists employment elsewhere is often easy to obtain so resource power has less potency.

They rarely acknowledge other people's expert power. Coercive power is not usually available which leaves only personal power and such individuals are not easily impressed by personality. Within an large organization different types of cultures may be found as shown in the diagram below: The second diagram (due to Harrison 1972) below points out some of the organization design policies variables that need to be considered when considering the nature of an organization and its fit with its environment. Detector, Selector, Effector model.

Students had by now realized that that success in stress management would not only essay school gcse, involve changes in the environment but also changes in themselves, with feedback between these two systems. The most sophisticated model introduced to the students was that due to Kuhn (1974). It proposes the organism has Detector, Selector and Defector functions, is set within its environment and has feedback between these three functions through the environment - A closed system is the dissertation, one where interactions occur only among the system components and not with the environment. An open system is one that receives input from the environment and/or releases output to the environment. Shug And Celie Essay. The basic characteristics of an open system is the dynamic interaction of the dissertation uk, its components, while the basis of a cybernetic model is the feedback cycle. Open systems can tend toward higher levels of organization (negative entropy), while closed systems can only maintain or decrease in organization. Kuhn suggested that strain arises from neglect, damage or insensitivity in one or more of the three functions - Detector, Selector and Effector - so the students practised exercises of each function.

Some students preferred textual rather than image presentation of the model. Having applied the Kuhn model, some students were able to inject a fine structure proposed by Kuhn, where each of the protein essay, three functions has its own Detector, Selector and Defector. Although comprehensive, students felt that the model was only a step towards presentation of a simple ‘magic-key’ model, similar to the ‘moving animal’ model, which would be applicable to most situations and uk spin off a universal definition of stress. Overview of the stress models. Inadequate, makes false assumptions. Inadequate, too specific. Weight on a spring. Defines stressors and strains.

Chaining of stressors and strains. Observation of early warning signs. Difficult to remember, too textual for Imagers. Difficult to essay school gcse practise necessary changes. Inconsistent - ignores microstressors. Life change units. Insufficient detail for specific occupations.

Benefits of gaining flexibility. Difficult to break rituals in a short time. Vivid presentation -immediately useful, also later in complex. Useful relationships emerging for depression. Tedious to record Microstressors and their subsequent strains. Confidence-building, overcomes fear of innovation. Student preference to retain destructive status-quo.

Perception and reality. Challenges cherished assumptions. Too textual for Imagers. Recognizes suppressed events. Unpopular for those who must see causal strain-stressor connection. Connects time management with personality.

Needs long-term record-keeping. Marionette on the dissertation uk Strings. Involves personal relationships. Tends to absolve individual from change. Shifting the ati critical assessment, Goal Posts. Useful for meeting deadlines. Mountain out of a Molehill.

Issues warning signs of stress accumulation. Difficult to disentangle connections. Power, Role, Task and Person. Understanding structure in which one works. Ignores personality clashes within structures. Detector, Selector, Effector. Comprehensive, open to uk expansion. Complex, suggesting need for simplification. Many stress management courses have had to follow the french essay, pattern of counseling based upon uk vague definitions of stress, which leads to loss of focus. In this course a list of stressors was assembled and existing stress models progressively presented to fit new situations of strain. Diverse models had to tribute essay be remembered and fitted to diverse problems.

Students leaving the course felt that the necessary transfer to novel outbreaks of the dissertation, stress had not been achieved. Where there was contagion of stress, for example from workplace to home and back to workplace, students often failed to essays with children enter or break the vicious circle. As seen by present students the Perception-Reality and Child-Within models offer greatest promise. They cope with variations in life goals. In amelioration of strains they open a way to philosophical and metaphysical discussion of the dissertation uk, life purpose. They are complementary to regression for examination of shug and celie essay, suppressed childhood experiences. Uk. They bridge traditional and alternative healing. In the fundamental problem of finding the cause rather than treating the problem, frequently the default has to be that of giving coping strategies for the strain when inability or incompetence has failed to reveal the stressor. Many students felt that previous counseling proposed too close a binding between cause and effect, for example – ‘Your fear of water is because you lived near a canal when you were a child’. It may be prudent to consider the possibility that sometimes there may be no such binding - that there is an element of principals, chance whether an unfortunate child event causes adult anxiety, depression or phobia.

If the focal causal event is exposed, for example in uk, hypnotic regression, the strain may be eliminated without there being obvious cause-effect connection. Similarly in the human variation of response to tribute to my parents events, there may be no relationship between the the dissertation uk, severity of a problem and the severity of the cause (and therefore severity or duration of treatment). Proposals for new modeling of stress. In the absence of explicit definition of principals of war, stress, new models will constantly been needed. This situation is paralleled by other systems in their infancy of stubborn resistance to definition. It may be profitable to the dissertation uk step outside the situation to look at a different philosophical or material database. When searching for the text string ‘model plus generation’ in Social Science databases, only a few matches were recorded. In contrast, Pure Science databases yielded numerous responses, revealing familiarity with analogous situations, where complex models could mirror mixtures of thin slices of quantitative data with large slices of qualitative information.

For example, the ‘state space framework’ was used by on working with Patterson (1995) to apply a model integrating data generation process with data measurement. Methodologies of kinetic modeling and mechanistic studies of the dissertation uk, complex catalytic chemical reactions have been analyzed by gcse Gabrielle, Denoroy and Reau (1995). They showed the rationality of a methodology based on advancement and discrimination of hypotheses and gave a review of techniques for hypothesis generation. A combinatorial algorithm and a library of chemical reactions were used. Potthof, Holahan and Joiner (1995) examined a mechanism through which interpersonal vulnerability factors may be linked with depressive symptoms by integrating the stress-generation model with an interpersonal theory of depression. Initial depressive symptoms and initial reassurance-seeking style were positively associated with the occurrence of microstressors.

The results support our students’ perceived usefulness of the model of accumulation of microstressors. Landis (1994) launched a new series of metropolitan simulation models which replicated urban growth patterns and impacts of development policy. The rationality of the model and the way it has been built in terms of its formal structure, its databases and its decision rules is explained. Our students often failed to disentangle the multiplicity of perceived strains which they experienced and some of them could not weight the importance of multiple macro-strains and microstressors leading to their present anxiety states. This indicates the potential for multifactorial modeling, such as used by Rosenheck and Fontana (1994). They used structural equation modeling to explore risk factors for homelessness among war veterans, whose vulnerability was found to the dissertation uk be most likely to to a multiplicity of psychiatric and non-psychiatric factors. This would confirm that alleviation of a broad range of stressors needs a broad range of adjustments. Since the strains defined by student-counselors in their clients may be wrongly attributed to stressors, the top-down approach to modeling may be the way forward. The techniques of reverse engineering might be adopted. Protein Essay. Puntambekar, Jablowlov and Sommer (1994) presented a review of the techniques available for reverse engineering, with particular emphasis on three-dimensional model generation.

It could be a promising way to introduce programming of the computer to strain-stress simulation and modeling. The Dissertation. Reverse engineering is a methodology for constructing computer-aided design models of physical parts, in circumstances where the drawings of principals of war essay contest, those parts are not available by the dissertation uk the normal methods of (i) digitizing an shug and celie essay, existing prototype, (ii) creating a computer model and (iii) using it to manufacture the component. An analogy can be seen with strain-stressor relationships in absence of precise definition of stress. Uk. The criteria for a good model of stress would be simplicity, adequacy to facilitate counseling in known categories and flexibility to cope with new strains. At the base level, models are icons for images to hold a problem in view and remember the connections. Glenberg and Langston (1992) investigated the building of mental models by using pictures in text, suggesting that a picture might provide relatively easy maintenance of some other representational elements corresponding to parts in shug and celie essay, the picture, freeing up capacity for inference generation. Perhaps stress models should perform a similar function as a ‘holding and stacking area’, ready for landing the stress management and coping skills when the problem has been analyzed. The proliferation of models by brainstorming may be the uk, only path to essay a definition of stress. However Kometsky and Markowitz (1978) drew attention to the danger of superficial resemblances when evaluating the problem of goodness of fit of a model. Holyoak and the dissertation uk Thagard (1995) have acknowledged the usefulness of analogy in school, generating creative insights, but drew attention to examples of uk, dangerous errors which can arise.

Mental models have been studied by Rhees (1983), Craik (1973) and Johnson-Laird (1991), who maintained that the mind constructs ‘small-scale models of reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason and to underlie explanation. The models are constructed in working memory (the mind actively interpreting newly presented information and ati critical thinking integrating previously stored information) as a result of perception, the uk, comprehension of discourse or imagination. Their structure represents something about the world and protein essay can best be described in terms of ‘problem solving’. In problem solving the task of constructing a mental model involves making assumptions about the problem and understanding the meaning of terms in uk, the problem in order to and celie essay reach a conclusion (solve the problem). However, an alternative model which is the dissertation, consistent with the statement of the problem might be possible. The Theory of Mental Models (Johnson, Laird and Byrne, 1991) predicts that a problem is more difficult to solve if more than one model has to to my parents be considered. Additional models impose a load on the dissertation limited working memory.

External representations (colloquially the ‘rough work’ we do to make models or solve problems) are in shug essay, the world as physical symbols (e.g. written symbols, beads of abacuses, etc) or as external rules, constraints or relations embedded in the dissertation uk, physical configurations (e.g. spatial relations of principals of war contest, written digits, visual and spatial layouts of diagrams, physical constraints in abacuses, etc.). Internal representations are in the dissertation uk, the mind as propositions, production schemas, mental images and other forms. According to Travers (1993) when one begins a problem-solving task one mentally visualizes and arranges the givens, so all representation commences as internal. Cox and Brna (1995) maintained that concerning the nature of essay school, internal representations, popularly debated within cognitive science, advocates can be found for the position that internal imagery is merely epiphenomenal (concomitant to it). External representations (Ers) are short lived or idiosyncratic. Uk. Studies in tribute to my, literacy show the important functions of Ers. The classical view on writing, originally developed by uk Aristotle and presently restated by Bloomfield (1993) and Sassure (1983) is that writing merely transcribes or re-represents speech from one Er in ati critical thinking assessment, auditory form to another Er in visual form. Pemberton and Sharples (1996) supported the view that Ers are the markings that writers make, singly, or in collaboration, on some external medium such as a computer screen.

They include notes, topic lists, written plans, idea maps, outlines, or tables, concept maps, argument structures and annotations on the draft document in all its stages. An example of an Er is a simple ad-hoc sketch (or even a shape described in the air or via a trace with a finger on a desktop) indicating intentions that are too amorphous to express easily in words. Wood (1992), in his studies of pairs of collaborating authors, pointed the authors to draw a large funnel shape to represent the the dissertation uk, overall structure of the paper, and later both authors cited different places in this shape when talking about the same parts of the paper. Pemberton and Sharples suggested the Ers could in some instances be too ambiguous and could be resolved by writing down a more precise form of words. When a sample of shug essay, people is asked to describe their stress by placing it within a stress model, they give different answers to the dissertation what the stress model meant to them as an individual. Student-tutor experiences with stress modeling suggests the need for re-examination of the thinking processes by which subject-independent models are generated both inside and outside this specific field. Promising directions seem to be those of reverse engineering and computer-simulation of tribute to my essay, strain-stressor relationships, and teaching enhanced skills in external representation. These will be the immediate directions of future research in constructing stress models. Bloomfield L. (1993) Language.

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