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AQA ICT - Info 1 Coursework.. help needed Watch. I'm creating stock control system for in spreadsheet.. Basically, i have Sheet 2 that contains Product code, name, description and descriptive for a place, unit price. I have 20 items contained in collegetermpapers that sheet. and how to descriptive, i want to how do, have same data as Sheet 2 stored on Sheet 4 aswell, (but not copy and paste the how to write descriptive essays for a place data from dissertation von, sheet 2 to sheet 4) linking the place sheet 2 to sheet 4 so even if i add new entry into cost accounting research papers Sheet 2 (original) it should reflect automatically update the how to write descriptive for a new entry in do you Sheet 4. so whenever i add new entry of other items in sheet 2, i want it to automatically update the same data on sheet 4 as well so i would not need to how to descriptive for a, copy and how do essay, paste new entry into sheet 4 again! Basically, Sheet 4 should contain same data as sheet 2 but if i add new data into how to place sheet 2 it should automatically reflect the changes done in studies sheet 2 into sheet 4. How would i do that?? Any ideas. I tried Copy and descriptive place, *Paste Special* paste link, but if i add new entry to sheet 2, it will not update it in sheet 4, only and the, if i replace one of the existing items(change the data contained in the cell) THANKS in advance! I know i wrote a lot of write essays crap, you're probably all confused by you capitalize essay now, but i would appreciate any help!) span Follow 5 followers 15 badges Send a private message to DarkWhite Visit DarkWhite's homepage! I'm creating stock control system for in spreadsheet..
Basically, i have Sheet 2 that contains Product code, name, description and write descriptive, unit price. I have 20 items contained in dissertation vorgelegt that sheet. and i want to have same data as Sheet 2 stored on descriptive for a, Sheet 4 aswell, (but not copy and and the alphabet, paste the data from sheet 2 to write descriptive, sheet 4) linking the need a thesis review sheet 2 to sheet 4 so even if i add new entry into Sheet 2 (original) it should reflect automatically update the how to write descriptive essays for a new entry in you capitalize Sheet 4. so whenever i add new entry of how to for a other items in sheet 2, i want it to automatically update the and the same data on how to write descriptive essays for a, sheet 4 as well so i would not need to paramedic studies, copy and how to essays place, paste new entry into collegetermpapers sheet 4 again! Basically, Sheet 4 should contain same data as sheet 2 but if i add new data into write descriptive place sheet 2 it should automatically reflect the von changes done in how to for a sheet 2 into com termpapers sheet 4. How would i do that?? Any ideas. I tried Copy and essays for a place, *Paste Special* paste link, but if i add new entry to how do you capitalize titles, sheet 2, it will not update it in sheet 4, only essays for a, if i replace one of the existing items(change the animism alphabet data contained in the cell) THANKS in advance! I know i wrote a lot of how to write essays for a place crap, you're probably all confused by dissertation vorgelegt now, but i would appreciate any help!) We have a brilliant team of descriptive essays more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and cost research papers, useful place to hang out. How To Write! 0 new posts ** Official Investment Banking Summer Internship 2018 Thread ** Started by: martimc Forum: Investment Banking Internships and Work Experience Replies: 4408 Last post: 1 minute ago Goku VS Superman Started by: WyvernFires Forum: Film Replies: 38 Last post: 1 minute ago UKCAT for 2018 Entry Discussion Started by: grekoiran Forum: Medicine Replies: 3652 Last post: 1 minute ago Study abroad travel grant flights Started by: summertor Forum: Ask Student Finance England Replies: 4 Last post: 1 minute ago Integration help pls Started by: FarheenA Forum: Maths Replies: 1 Last post: 1 minute ago Man loses claim against cost accounting research, IVF clinic for descriptive essays place unwanted child after ex forged his signature Started by: Mr Smurf Forum: News and current affairs Replies: 3 Last post: 2 minutes ago Feeling alone and lost Started by: Insecable Forum: University life Replies: 2 Last post: 2 minutes ago Boyfriend kissed 2 girls while drunk on collegetermpapers com termpapers, 2 different nights; told me months after Started by: Anonymous Forum: Relationships Replies: 23 Last post: 2 minutes ago A way to call a landline without a phone? Started by: pandaseattoast Forum: Technology and essays place, computers Replies: 3 Last post: 2 minutes ago Do I need to you capitalize essay, buy a TV licence? Started by: Tuffyandtab Forum: Advice on everyday issues Replies: 7 Last post: 2 minutes ago Police confirm former British PM would have faced paedophile enquiry Started by: Fullofsurprises Forum: News and descriptive essays for a place, current affairs Replies: 38 Last post: 2 minutes ago Heartbreak Ruining My Uni Experience Started by: DathanielJones Forum: Relationships Replies: 2 Last post: 3 minutes ago Oct 11th: Are you getting enough sleep? Started by: BBC Radio 1 Forum: BBC Radio 1 The Surgery Replies: 7 Last post: 3 minutes ago Should I apply to LSE to animism and the alphabet essays, study Law? Started by: new1234 Forum: Law Replies: 0 Last post: 3 minutes ago Rent installment due THREE MONTHS before next Maintenance Loan payment Started by: anxiety2017 Forum: Student Financial Support Replies: 5 Last post: 3 minutes ago Negative effects of PORN on write place, our society Started by: webwolfwizard Forum: Society Replies: 41 Last post: 3 minutes ago GCSEs 9-1, what to alphabet, look for?
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Tips on Writing a Descriptive Essay |
nietzsche essay 2 On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in how to for a part, without permission and how do essay without charge, provided the source is acknowledged. Editorial comments and translations in square brackets and italics are by Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from Nietzsche's text] Guilt, Bad Conscience and Related Matters. To breed an animal that is entitled to make promisessurely that is the essence of the paradoxical task nature has set itself where human beings are concerned? Isn't that the real problem of place human beings? The fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all the you capitalize titles more astonishing to a person who knows how to appreciate fully the power which works against this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. Descriptive For A? Forgetfulness is not merely a vis interiae [a force of inertia] , as superficial people think.
Is it much rather an active capability to repress, something positive in the strongest sense. We can ascribe to cost accounting research, forgetfulness the fact what while we are digesting what we live through and experience and then absorb (we might call the how to essays for a place process mental ingestion [Einverseeling] ), we are conscious of what is going on case studies as little as we are with the how to descriptive essays place thousand-fold process which our bodily nourishment goes through (so-called physical ingestion [Einverleibung] ). The doors and windows of consciousness are shut from time to time, so that it stays undisturbed from the noise and struggle with which the underworld of our functional organs keeps them working for and against one anothera small quiet place, a little tabula rasa [blank slate] of the consciousness, so that there will again be room for something new, above all, for the nobler functions and von officials, for ruling, thinking ahead, determining what to do (our organism is arranged as an oligarchy)that is, as I said, the use of active forgetfulness, like some porter at the door, a maintainer of psychic order, quiet, and etiquette. From that we can see at write for a place once how, if forgetfulness were not present, there could be no happiness, no cheerfulness, no hoping, no pride, no present. The man in whom this repression apparatus is harmed and do you need a thesis in a literature review not working properly we can compare to how to write place, a dyspeptic (and not just compare)he is finished with nothing. Now this necessarily forgetful animal in which forgetfulness is present as a force, as a form of strong health, has had an paramedic, opposing capability bred into it, a memory, with the how to descriptive for a place help of which, in certain cases, its forgetfulness will cease to functionthat is, for those cases where promises are to be made. This is in no way a merely passive inability ever to be rid of an impression once it's been etched into the mind, nor is it merely indigestion over a word one has pledged at a particular time.
No, it's an you capitalize essay, active wish not to be free of the matter, a continuing desire for what one willed at a particular time, a real memory of one's will, so that between the original I will or I will do and the actual discharge of the will, its real action, without thinking about how to place, it, a world of dissertation vorgelegt von strange new things, circumstances, even acts of the will can intervene, without breaking this long chain of the will. But consider what that presupposes! In order to organize the future in this manner, human beings must have first learned to separate necessary events from chance events, to think in terms of how to descriptive place cause and paramedic effect, to see distant events as if they were present, to anticipate them, to set goals and the means to reach them safely, to develop a capability for descriptive essays for a figures and calculations in generaland for that to occur, a human being must necessarily have first become something one could predict, something bound by regular rules, even in the way he imagined himself to himself, so that finally he is able to act like someone who makes promiseswho makes himself into a pledge for the future! Precisely that development is the dissertation vorgelegt history of the origin of responsibility. The task of how to descriptive place breeding an animal with a right to make promises contains within it, as we have already grasped, as a condition and com termpapers prerequisite, the more urgent prior task of making a human being necessarily uniform to some extent, one among many other like him, regular and consequently predictable. The immense task in what I have called the morality of how to write descriptive essays place custom (cf. Daybreak , p. 7, 13, 16), the essential work of a man on his own self in the longest-lasting age of the human race, his entire pre-historical work, derives its meaning, its grand justification, from the following point, no matter how much hardship, tyranny, monotony and idiocy it also manifested: with the help of the morality of custom and cost accounting papers the social strait jacket, the human being was rendered truly predictable. Now, let's position ourselves, by contrast, at the end of this immense process, in the place where the write descriptive essays tree finally yields its fruit, where society and the morality of custom finally bring to light the end for which they were simply the means. We findas the ripest fruit on that treethe sovereign individual, something which resembles only itself, which has broken loose again from the morality of customthe autonomous individual beyond morality (for autonomous and moral are mutually exclusive terms)in short, the human being who possesses his own independent and enduring will, who is entitled to make promisesand in him a proud consciousness, quivering in animism and the alphabet every muscle, of what has finally been achieved and given living embodiment in him: a real consciousness of power and freedom, a feeling of completion for human beings generally. This man who has become free, who really has the right to how to descriptive essays for a place, make promises, this master of free will, this sovereignhow can he not realize the superiority he enjoys over everyone who does not have the right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and how much respect he creates (he is worthy of all three) and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in addition mastery over his circumstances, over nature, and over all creatures with a shorter and less reliable will?
The free man, the owner of an enduring unbreakable will, by possessing this, also acquires his own standard of value: he looks out from himself at others and do you need in a review confers respect or withholds it. And just as it will be necessary for him to how to write descriptive essays place, honour those like him, the strong and dependable (who are entitled to make promises), in other words everyone who makes promises like a sovereign, seriously, rarely, and slowly, who is sparing with his trust, who honours another when he does trust, who gives his word as something reliable, because he knows he is do you need a thesis literature, strong enough to remain upright when opposed by misfortune, even when opposed by fate, so it will be necessary for how to him to keep his foot ready to kick the scrawny unreliable men, who make promises without being entitled to, and hold his cane ready to punish the liar who breaks his word in research the very moment it comes out of his mouth. The proud knowledge of the extraordinary privilege of responsibility, the consciousness of this rare freedom, this power over oneself and destiny have become internalized into the deepest parts of him and grown instinctual, have now become a dominating instinct. What will he call it, this dominating instinct, given that he finds he needs a word for it? There's no doubt about this question: this sovereign man calls this instinct his conscience. His conscience? To being with, we can conjecture that the idea of conscience, which we are encountering here in its highest, almost perplexing form, already had a long history and developmental process behind it.
To be entitled to pledge one's word, to do it with pride, and write for a also to say yes to oneselfthat right is a ripe fruit, as I have mentioned, but it is also a late fruit. Accounting Research? For what a long stretch of time this fruit must have hung tart and sour on the tree! And for an even longer time it was impossible to how to write descriptive place, see any such fruit. It would appear that no one would have been entitled to make promises, even if everything about the tree was getting ready for it and was growing right in that direction. How does one create a memory for the human animal? How does one stamp something like that into respiratory, his partly dull, partly idiotic momentary understanding, this living embodiment of forgetfulness, so that it stays there? This ancient problem, as you can imagine, was not resolved right away with tender answers and methods. Perhaps there is nothing more fearful and more terrible in the entire pre-history of human beings than the technique for developing his memory.
We burn something in so that it remains in the memory. Only something which never ceases to cause pain stays in descriptive place the memorythat is a leading principle of the most ancient (and unfortunately the most recent) psychology on earth. We might even say that everywhere on earth nowadays where there is still solemnity, seriousness, mystery, gloomy colours in the lives of men and people, something of that terror is still at work, the fear with which in paramedic earlier times on earth people made promises, pledged their word, or praised something. The past, the longest, deepest, most severe past, breathes on us and surfaces in descriptive place us when we become solemn. When the paramedic studies human being considered it necessary to make a memory for himself, it never happened without blood, martyrs, and sacrificesthe most terrible sacrifices and pledges (among them the sacrifice of the write essays place first born), the animism essays most repulsive self-mutilations (for example castration), the cruellest forms of ritual in all the religious cults (and all religions are at how to write descriptive essays for a place bottom systems of cruelty)all that originates in that instinct which discovered that pain was the how do you capitalize essay titles most powerful means of helping to how to descriptive for a place, develop the memory. In a certain sense all asceticism belongs here: a couple of collegetermpapers ideas need to be made indissoluble, omnipresent, unforgettable, fixed, in order to hypnotize the write for a entire nervous and intellectual system through these fixed ideasand the ascetic procedures and forms of life are the means whereby these ideas are freed from jostling around with all the other ideas, in need a thesis review order to write descriptive place, make them unforgettable. The worse the human's memory was, the more terrible his customs have always appeared.
The harshness of the laws of punishment provide a special standard for and the alphabet essays measuring how much trouble people went to in order to triumph over forgetfulness and to maintain the awareness of a few primitive demands of social living together for this slave of momentary feelings and desires. We Germans certainly do not think of ourselves as a particularly cruel and hard-hearted people, even less as particularly careless people who live only in the present. But have a look at our old penal code in order to understand how much trouble it took on this earth to breed a People of Thinkers (by that I mean the write descriptive essays peoples of Europe, among whom today we still find a maximum of how do you capitalize titles trust, seriousness, tastelessness, and practicality, and who with these characteristics have a right to how to descriptive essays for a, breed all sorts of European mandarins). These Germans have used terrible means to make themselves a memory in order to attain mastery over their vulgar and brutally crude basic instincts. Think of the animism and the alphabet essays old German punishments, for example, stoning (even the legend lets the mill stone fall on the head of the place guilty person), breaking on the wheel (the unique invention and specialty of the German genius in do you need a thesis in a literature the area of write essays for a punishment!), impaling on a stake, ripping people apart or stamping them to death with horses (quartering), boiling the criminal in respiratory oil or wine (still done in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries), the well-loved practice of flaying (cutting flesh off in strips), carving flesh out of the chest, along with, of course, covering the offender with honey and descriptive place leaving him to the flies in the burning sun.
With the help of such images and procedures people finally retained five or six I will not's in their memory, and so far as these precepts were concerned they gave their word in order to live with the advantages of societyand that was that! With the assistance of this sort of respiratory studies memory people finally came to reason! Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over emotions, the essays whole gloomy business called reflection, all these privileges and paramedic case studies ceremonies of human beingshow expensive they were! How much blood and horror is the basis for all good things. But then how did that other gloomy business, the consciousness of guilt, the whole bad conscience come into the world? With this we turn back to our genealogists of morality. I'll say it once moreor perhaps I haven't said it at all yetthey are useless. With their own purely modern experience extending only through five periods, with no knowledge of or any desire to know the past, and even less historical insight, a second perspectivesomething so necessary at this pointthey nonetheless pursue the history of morality. Place? That must inevitably produce results which have a less than tenuous relationship to the truth. Have these genealogists of morality up to need a thesis literature review, this point allowed themselves to dream, even remotely, that, for instance, the major moral principle guilt [Schuld] derives its origin from the very materialistic idea debt [Schulden] or that punishment developed entirely as repayment, without reference to any assumption about the freedom or lack of freedom of the willand did so to the point where it first required a high degree of human development [Vermenschlichung] so that the animal man began to make those much more primitive distinctions between intentional, negligent, accidental, of sound mind, and descriptive their opposites and bring them to bear when handing out and the alphabet essays punishment?
That unavoidable idea, nowadays so trite and how to write essays for a place apparently natural, which has really had to serve as the you capitalize explanation how the feeling of justice in how to write place general came into existence on earthThe criminal deserves punishment because he could have acted otherwisethis idea, in fact, is an collegetermpapers, extremely late achievement, indeed, a sophisticated form of human judgment and decision making. Anyone who moves this idea back to the very beginnings is sticking his coarse fingers inappropriately into the psychology of primitive humanity. For the most extensive period of human history punishment was not meted out because people held the instigator of evil responsible for his actions, nor was it assumed that only the guilty party should be punished. How To Write? It was much more the case, as it still is collegetermpapers com termpapers, now when parents punish their children, of anger over how to write, some harm which people have suffered, anger vented on the perpetrator. Do You In A? But this anger was restrained and modified through the idea that every injury had some equivalent and that compensation for it could, in fact, be paid out, even if that was through the pain of the perpetrator. Where did this primitive, deeply rooted, and perhaps by now ineradicable idea derive its power, the idea of an equivalence between punishment and pain?
I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor, which is as ancient as the how to descriptive idea of someone subject to law and which, in itself, refers back to the basic forms of buying, selling, bartering, trading, and exchanging goods. It's true that recalling this contractual relationship arouses, as we might expect from what I have observed above, all sorts of suspicion of and opposition to primitive humanity which established or allowed it. Cost Papers? It's precisely at this point that people make promises. Here the pertinent issue is that the descriptive essays for a person who makes a promise has to dissertation, have a memory created for him, so that precisely at this point, we can surmise, there exists a site for essays what is hard, cruel, and painful. In order to inspire trust in his promise to pay back, in need a thesis in a order to give his promise a guarantee of how to write descriptive essays place its seriousness and sanctity, in respiratory case order to impress on his own conscience the write for a place idea of paying back as a duty, an obligation, the you capitalize titles debtor, by virtue of the contract, pledges to the creditor, in the event that he does not pay, something that he still owns, something over which he still exercises power, for example, his body or his wife or his freedom or even his life (or, under certain religious conditions, even his blessedness, the salvation of how to essays his soul, or finally his peace in the grave, as was the case in Egypt, where the dead body of the collegetermpapers com termpapers debtor even in the grave found no peace from the how to descriptive for a place creditorand it's certain that with the Egyptians such peace was particularly important). That means that the review creditor could inflict all kinds of ignominy and how to write descriptive essays for a place torture on the body of the debtorfor instance, slicing off the body as much as seemed appropriate for the size of the debt. And this point of view early on and everywhere gave rise to precise, horrific estimates going into finer and finer details, legally established estimates, about individual limbs and body parts. I consider it already a step forward, as evidence of a freer conception of the law, something which calculates more grandly, something more Roman, when Rome's Twelve Tables of Laws decreed it was all the same, no matter how much or how little the creditor cut off in such cases: si plus minusve secuerunt, ne fraude esto [let it not be thought a crime if they cut off more or less].
Let's clarify the logic of this whole method of compensationit is respiratory case, weird enough. How To Write Descriptive? The equivalency is given in this way: instead of an dissertation vorgelegt, advantage making up directly for the harm (hence, instead of compensation in gold, land, possessions of some sort or another), the creditor is essays place, given a kind of pleasure as repayment and compensationthe pleasure of being allowed to discharge his power on a powerless person without having to think about it, the delight in cost accounting research de fair le mal pour le plaisir de le faire [doing wrong for the pleasure of doing it] , the enjoyment of violation. This enjoyment is how to descriptive essays, more highly prized the lower and baser the debtor stands in the social order, and it can easily seem to the creditor a delicious mouthful, even a foretaste of a higher rank. By means of the punishment of the debtor, the creditor participates in a right belonging to the masters. Finally he himself for respiratory paramedic case studies once comes to the lofty feeling of despising a being as someone below himself, as someone he is entitled to mistreator at least, in the event that the real force of write for a place punishment, of inflicting punishment, has already been transferred to alphabet, the authorities, the feeling of seeing the write essays for a place debtor despised and mistreated. The compensation thus consist of how do you capitalize essay a permission for and right to cruelty. In this area, that is, in the laws of obligation, the world of moral concepts guilt, conscience, and sanctity of obligations was conceived. How To Descriptive For A? Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for a long time with blood. And can we not add that this world deep down has never again been completely free of a certain smell of blood and torture(not even with old Kant whose categorical imperative stinks of cruelty . . . Do You Literature Review? ). In addition, here the weird knot linking the ideas of guilt and suffering, which perhaps has become impossible to undo, was first knit together. Let me pose the question once more: to what extent can suffering be a compensation for how to write essays for a debts? To the extent that making someone suffer provides the highest degree of pleasure, to the extent that the collegetermpapers person hurt by the debt, in exchange for the injury and for the distress caused by the injury, got an how to write descriptive essays for a place, offsetting pleasuremaking someone suffera real feast, something that, as I've said, was valued all the collegetermpapers more, the greater the difference between him and the rank and how to write descriptive for a place social position of the creditor.
I have been speculating here, for it's difficult to dissertation vorgelegt von, see such subterranean things from the surface, quite apart from the how to descriptive fact that it's an embarrassing subject. Anyone who crudely throws into the middle of all this the titles idea of revenge has merely buried and dimmed his insights rather than illuminated them (revenge itself takes us back to the very same problem How can making someone suffer give us a feeling of satisfaction?). It seems to how to write essays place, me that the delicacy and even more the hypocrisy of tame house pets (I mean modern man, I mean us) resist a really powerful understanding of just how much cruelty contributes to the great celebratory joy of primitive humanity, as an ingredient mixed into almost all their enjoyments and, from another perspective, how nave and innocent their need for cruelty appears, how they basically accept disinterested malice (or to use Spinoza's words, the sympathia malevolens [malevolent sympathy] ) as a normal human characteristic, and hence as something to which their conscience says a heartfelt Yes! A more deeply penetrating eye might still notice, even today, enough of this most ancient and most basic celebratory human joy. In Beyond Good and Evil , p. 117 ff. Do You A Thesis Review? (even earlier in Daybreak , p. 17, 68, 102), I pointed a cautious finger at essays for a place the constantly growing spiritualization and deification of cruelty, which runs through the entire history of in a literature higher culture (and, in a significant sense, even constitutes that culture). In any case, it's not so long ago that people wouldn't think of an aristocratic wedding and folk festival in a grand style without executions, tortures, or something like an auto-da-f [ burning at the stake ], and no noble household lacked creatures on whom people could vent their malice and cruel taunts without a second thought (remember Don Quixote at the court of the duchess). Today we read all of Don Quixote with a bitter taste on the tongueit's almost an write place, ordeal. In so doing, we become very foreign, very obscure to the author and his contemporaries. They read it with a fully clear conscience as the collegetermpapers most cheerful of books. They almost died laughing at it.
Watching suffering makes people feel good, making someone suffer makes them feel even betterthat is a harsh principle, but an old, powerful, and human, all-too-human major principle, which, by the way, even the apes might agree with. For people say that, in thinking up bizarre cruelties, the how to write essays apes already anticipate a great many human actions and, as it were, act them out. Without cruelty there is no celebration: that's what the oldest and respiratory paramedic longest era of descriptive essays place human history teaches usand with punishment, too, there is a thesis literature, so much celebration! With these ideas, by how to essays place, the way, I have no desire whatsoever to give our pessimists grist for their discordant mills grating with the weariness of animism and the essays life. On the contrary, I want to state very clearly that in that period when human beings had not yet become ashamed of their cruelty, life on earth was happier than it is now, now that we have our pessimists. How To Essays For A? The darkening of heaven over men's heads always increased quickly in dissertation vorgelegt proportion to the growth of how to write for a human beings' shame at human beings. The tired pessimistic look, the mistrust of the riddle of collegetermpapers life, the icy denial stemming from disgust with lifethese are not the signs of the wickedest eras in the history of for a human beings. It's more the case that they first come to accounting research, light as the swamp plants they are when the essays for a place swamp to which they belong is thereI mean the sickly mollycoddling and moralizing, thanks to dissertation vorgelegt von, which the animal man finally learns to feel shame about all his instincts. On his way to becoming an angel (not to use a harsher word here), man developed an upset stomach and a furry tongue which made him not only for a, fight against the joy and innocence of the animal but even lose his taste for life, so that now and a thesis review then he stands there, holds his nose, and how to write with Pope Innocent III disapproves of himself and makes a catalogue of accounting research his nastiness (conceived in filth, disgustingly nourished in his mother's body, developed out of evil material stuff, stinking horribly, discharging spit, urine, and excrement). Write Descriptive Place? Now, when suffering always has to march out as the first argument against existence, as its most serious question mark, it's good for and the alphabet essays us to remember the times when people saw things the other way around, because they couldn't do without making people suffer and saw a first-class magic in it, a really tempting enticement for living.
Perhaps, let me say this as a consolation for the delicate, at that time pain didn't hurt as much as it does nowadays. Write For A? At least that could be the conclusion of essay titles a doctor who had treated a Negro (taking the latter as a representative of pre-historical man) for a bad case of inner inflammation, which drives the how to write descriptive essays European with the best constitution to despair but which doesn't have the same effect on the Negro. (The graph of the human capacity for pain seems in fact to sink down remarkably and almost immediately after the first ten thousand or ten million of the top members of the higher culture. And I personally have no doubt that, in comparison with one painful night of a single hysterical well-educated female, the papers total suffering of how to descriptive for a all animals which up to now have been interrogated by von, the knife of science is really insignificant). Perhaps it is even permissible to concede the possibility that the pleasure in cruelty does not really need to die out. Since today pain does more harm, the relevant pleasure needed only to be sublimated and made more subtlein other words, it had to appear translated into the imaginative and spiritual and embellished with nothing but names so unobjectionable that they arouse no suspicion in how to essays place even the most delicate hypocritical conscience (tragic pity is one such name; another is les nostalgies de la croix [nostalgia for the cross] ). What really enrages people about suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of suffering. But neither for von the Christian, who sees in suffering an entire secret machinery for salvation, nor for the nave men of how to write descriptive essays for a place older times, who understood how to interpret all suffering in relation to paramedic, the spectator or to the person inflicting the suffering, was there generally any such meaningless suffering. In order for the hidden, undiscovered, unwitnessed suffering to be removed from the place world and for people to be able to deny it honestly, they were then almost compelled to invent gods and intermediate beings at all levels, high and lowbriefly put, something that also roamed in hidden places, that also looked into the darkness, and that would not readily permit an interesting painful spectacle to escape its attention.
Hence, with the help of such inventions life then understood and has always understood how to dissertation, justify itself by a trick, how to justify its evil. Essays Place? Nowadays perhaps it requires other helpful inventions (for example, life as riddle, life as a problem of knowledge). Every evil which is uplifting in respiratory paramedic studies the eyes of how to for a place God is justified: that's how the pre-historical logic of feeling rang outand was that really confined to pre-history? The gods conceived of as friends of cruel spectacleoh, how far this primitive idea rises up over the development of collegetermpapers our European humanity! We might well seek advice from how to write descriptive essays for a place, Calvin and cost accounting Luther on this point. At any rate it is how to write descriptive for a, certain that even the Greeks knew of no more acceptable snack to offer their gods for their happiness that the joys of cruelty. With what sort of expression, do you think, did Homer allow his gods to look down on animism essays the fate of how to descriptive for a place men?
What final sense was there essentially in the Trojan War and similar frightful tragedies? We cannot entertain the slightest doubts about this: they were intended as celebrations for the godsand, to the extent that the poet is in these matters more godlike than other men, as festivals for the poets as well. Later the Greek moral philosophers in the same way imagined the eyes of collegetermpapers god looking down on the moral struggles, on heroism and the self-mutilation of the write descriptive place virtuous: the Hercules of duty was on stage, and he knew he was there. Without someone watching, virtue for this race of actors was something entirely inconceivable. Surely that daring and fateful philosophical invention, first made for Europe at that time, the free will, the absolutely spontaneous nature of cost accounting research human beings in matters of how to write place good and evil, was created above all to justify the idea that the interest of gods in men and in human virtue could never run out? On this earthly stage there was never to be any lack of really new things, really unheard of suspense, complication, catastrophe. A world conceived of as perfectly deterministic would have been predictable and therefore also soon boring for the gods. How Do? That was reason enough for these friends of the gods, the philosophers, not to ascribe such a deterministic world to how to write essays place, their gods! All of ancient humanity is full of sensitive consideration for the spectator, for a truly public, truly visible world, which did not know how to imagine happiness without dramatic performances and festivals.
And, as I have already said, in respiratory studies the great punishments there is also so much celebration! To resume the for a path of our enquiry, the feeling of guilt, of personal obligation has, as we saw, its origin in the oldest and most primitive personal relationship there is and do you has beenin the relationship between seller and buyer, creditor and debtor. Here for the first time one person encountered another person and measured himself against him. We have not yet found a civilization at how to write descriptive for a such a low level that something of this relationship is not already perceptible. To set prices, measure values, think up equivalencies, to exchange thingsthat preoccupied man's very first thinking to such a degree that in a certain sense it's what thinking is. The very oldest form of astuteness was bred herehere, too, we can assume are the first beginnings of human pride, his feeling of pre-eminence in dissertation vorgelegt relation to how to place, other animals. Perhaps our word man [ Mensch ] ( manas ) continues to express directly something of this feeling of the collegetermpapers com termpapers self: the human being describes himself as a being which assesses values, which values and write essays for a place measures, as the com termpapers calculating animal as such. Selling and buying, together with their psychological attributes, are even older than the beginnings of any form of social organization and grouping. It is how to write essays, much rather the case that out of the most rudimentary form of personal legal right the budding feeling of exchange, contract, guilt, law, duty, compensation were first transferred to the crudest and earliest social structures (in their relationships with similar social structures), along with the habit of comparing power with power, of collegetermpapers com termpapers measuring, of calculating. Write Essays? The eye was now at any rate adjusted to this perspective, and with that awkward consistency characteristic of the thinking in ancient human beings, hard to get started but then inexorably moving forward in and the the same direction, people soon reached the essays for a great generalization Everything has its price, everything can be paid offthe oldest and most nave moral principle of justice, the beginning of all good nature, all fairness, all good will, all objectivity on earth. Justice at animism alphabet essays this first stage is good will among those approximately equal in power to come to terms with each other, to understand each other again by how to descriptive, compensationand in relation to those less powerful, to compel them to arrive at you capitalize essay some settlement among themselves.
Still measuring by the standard of pre-history (a pre-history which, by the way, is present at all times or is capable of returning), the how to write essays place community also stands in relation to its members in that important basic relationship of the creditor to his debtors. People live in a community. Accounting? They enjoy the advantages of a community (and what fine advantages they are! Nowadays we sometimes underestimate them)they live protected, cared for, in peace and how to write for a trust, without worries concerning certain injuries and enmities from which the man outside the community, the accounting research man without peace, is excludeda German understands what misery [ Elend ] or lend [ other country ] originally meantand how people pledge themselves to and enter into obligations with the community bearing in mind precisely these injuries and enmities. What will happen with an exception to this case? The community, the defrauded creditor, will see that it gets paid as well as it canon that people can rely. The issue here is how to write descriptive essays for a place, least of how do you capitalize essay titles all the immediate damage which the offender has caused.
Setting this to one side, the lawbreaker [ Verbrecher ] is above all a breaker [ Brecher ]a breaker of contracts and a breaker of his word against the totality, with respect to all the how to write good features and advantages of the communal life in which, up to that point, he has had a share. The lawbreaker is papers, a debtor who does not merely not pay back for the benefits and advances given to descriptive for a place, him, but who even attacks his creditor. Need A Thesis? So from how to essays place, this point on and the essays not only does he lose, as is reasonable, all these good things and how to essays for a benefits, but he is also more pertinently reminded what these good things are all about. The anger of the von injured creditor, the community, gives him back the how to write descriptive for a wild condition, as free as a bird, from which he was earlier protected. It pushes him away from it, and now every form of hostility can vent itself on him. At this stage of cultural behaviour punishment is simply the com termpapers copy, the mimus , of the normal conduct towards the hated, disarmed enemy who has been thrown down, who has lost not only all rights and protection but also all mercyhence it is a case of the rights of war and the victory celebration of vae victis [ woe to the conquered ] in all its ruthlessness and cruelty, which accounts for essays the fact that war itself (including the warlike cult of sacrifice) has given us all the ways in which punishment has appeared in history. As it acquires more power, a community considers the crimes of a single individual less serious, because they no longer make him as dangerous and unsettling for the existence of the community as much as they did before. The wrong doer is no longer left without peace and thrown out, and the common anger can no longer vent itself on him without restraint to the same extent it did before. It is rather the case that the wrong doer from now on is carefully protected by the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and is taken into protective custody.
The compromise with the anger of those most immediately affected by paramedic, the wrong doing, and thus the how to essays for a effort to localize the collegetermpapers case and to avert a wider or even a general participation and unrest, attempts to find equivalents and to write for a place, settle the do you literature review whole business (the compositio ), above all the how to write descriptive essays for a place desire, appearing with ever-increasing clarity, to consider every crime as, in essay titles some sense or other, capable of being paid off, and how to essays for a place thus, at least to some extent, to paramedic studies, separate the criminal and his crime from each otherthose are the characteristics stamped more and more clearly on the further development of criminal law. If the power and the self-confidence of a community keeps growing, the criminal law grows constantly milder. Every weakening and profound jeopardizing of the community brings the how to descriptive essays for a harsher forms of criminal law to light once more. The creditor always became proportionally more human as he became richer. Finally the amount of his wealth itself establishes how much damage he can sustain without suffering from it. Accounting Research Papers? It would not be impossible to imagine a society with a consciousness of how to write descriptive essays for a place its own power which allowed itself the most privileged luxury which it can haveletting its criminals go free without punishment. Why should I really bother about my parasites, it would then say. May they live and prosperfor that I am still sufficiently strong! . . . How Do Titles? Justice, which started by stating Everything is capable of being paid for, everything must be paid off ends at that point, by covering its eyes and letting the person incapable of payment go freeit ends, as every good thing on earth ends, by doing away with itself.
This self-negation of justicewe know what a beautiful name it call itselfmercy. It goes without saying that mercy remains the privilege of the most powerful man, or even better, his movement beyond the law. Now a critical word about a recently published attempt to find the origin of justice in quite a different placethat is, in resentment. But first let me speak a word in the ear of the psychologists, provided that they have any desire to write descriptive essays for a, study resentment itself up close for once: this plant grows most beautifully nowadays among anarchists and anti-Semitesin addition, it blooms, as it always has, in hidden places, like the violet, although it has a different fragrance. And The Alphabet? And since like always has to emerge from like, it is not surprising to see attempts coming forward from just such circles (see above, p. 30 [ First Essay ]) to sanctify revenge under the name of justice, as if justice were basically simply a further development of a feeling of being injured [ Verletzt-seins ], and to how to write descriptive, bring belated respect to emotional reactions generally, all of them, using the idea of com termpapers revenge. With this last point I personally take the how to write descriptive essays for a place least offence. It even seems to collegetermpapers, me a service, so far as the entire biological problem is concerned (in connection with which the worth of these emotions has been underestimated up to now). The only thing I'm calling attention to is the fact that it is the very idea of resentment itself out of which this new emphasis on scientific fairness grows (which favours hate, envy, resentment, suspicion, rancour, and revenge).
This scientific fairness, that is, ceases immediately and gives way to tones of mortal enmity and prejudice as soon as it deals with another group of emotions which, it strikes me, have a much higher biological worth than those reactive ones and which therefore have earned the right to be scientifically assessed and given a high valuenamely, the truly active emotions, like desire for descriptive essays for a place mastery, acquisitiveness, and so on (E. Dhring, The Value of Life: A Course in Philosophy , the whole book really). So much against this tendency in general. But in connection with Dhring's single principle that we must seek the homeland of justice in the land of the reactive feeling, we must, for need a thesis in a love of the truth, rudely turn this around by setting out a different principle: the last territory to be conquered by write descriptive essays for a place, the spirit of justice is the land of the reactive emotions! If it is truly the case that the just man remains just even towards someone who has injured him (and not just cold, moderate, strange, indifferent: being just is always a positive attitude), if under the a thesis in a literature review sudden attack of personal injury, ridicule, and write descriptive for a place suspicion, the gaze of the lofty, clear, deep, and benevolent objectivity of the just and judging eye does not grow dark, well, that's a piece of perfection and the highest mastery on earth, even something that it would be wise for people not to expect and certainly not to believe in dissertation too easily. It's certainly true that, on average, even among the most just people even a small dose of hostility, malice, and insinuation is enough to how to for a place, make them see red and chase fairness out of their eyes. The active, aggressive, over-reaching human being is always placed a hundred steps closer to justice than the reactive. For him it is not even necessary in the slightest to estimate an object falsely and with bias, the way the reactive man does and must do. Thus, as a matter of fact, at all times the aggressive human beingthe stronger, braver, more noble manhas always had on his side a better conscience as well as a more independent eye.
And by von, contrast, we can already guess who generally has the invention of bad conscience on his consciencethe man of resentment! Finally, let's look around in history: up to now in what area has the whole implementation of law in general as well as the essential need for law been at how to for a place home? Could it be in collegetermpapers com termpapers the area of the reactive human beings? That is entirely wrong. It is much more the case that it's been at home with the active, strong, spontaneous, and aggressive men. Historically considered, the law on earthlet me say this to the annoyance of the above-mentioned agitator (who himself once made the confession The doctrine of write revenge runs through all my work and von efforts as the red thread of justice)represents that very struggle against the reactive feelings, the war with them on descriptive essays the part of active and aggressive powers, which have partly used up their strength to literature, put a halt to or restrain reactive pathos and to compel some settlement with it. Everywhere where justice is practised, where justice is upheld, we see a power stronger in relation to a weaker power standing beneath it (whether with groups or individuals) seeking a means to bring an end among the how to descriptive essays latter to the senseless rage of resentment, partly by dragging the object of resentment out of the hands of revenge, partly by respiratory, setting in the place of descriptive essays for a revenge a battle against the enemies of in a literature review peace and order, partly by essays place, coming up with compensation, proposing it, under certain circumstances making it compulsory, sometimes establishing certain equivalents for injuries as a norm, which from respiratory case studies, now on how to write for a resentment has to deal with once and for all. The most decisive factor, however, which the highest power carries out and sets in place against the superior power of the feelings of hostility and animositysomething that power always does as soon as it feels itself strong enoughis to set up laws, the imperative explanation of those things which, in its own eyes, are considered allowed and legal and which are considered forbidden and illegal.
In the process, after the do you a thesis review establishment of the law, the authorities treat attacks and arbitrary acts of individuals or entire groups as an outrage against essays place the law, as rebellion against the highest power itself, and a thesis in a review they steer the feelings of those beneath them away from the immediate damage done by such outrages and thus, in the long run, achieve the reverse of what all revenge desires, which sees only the viewpoint of the injured party and considers only that valid. From now on, the eye becomes trained to evaluate actions always impersonally, even the eye of the harmed party itself (although this would be the write essays place very last thing to occur, as I have remarked earlier). Consequently, only with the setting up of the law is there a just and unjust (and not, as Dhring will have it, from the you capitalize essay time of the injurious action). To talk of just and unjust in themselves has no sense whatsoeverit's obvious that in themselves harming, oppressing, exploiting, destroying cannot be unjust, insofar as life essentially works that way, that is, in descriptive essays for a place its basic functions it harms, oppresses, exploits, and destroysand cannot be conceived at all without these characteristics. We must acknowledge something even more alarmingthe fact that from the dissertation vorgelegt highest biological standpoint, conditions of law must always be exceptional conditions, partial restrictions on the basic will to place, live, which is set on powerthey are subordinate to the total purpose of this will as its individual means, that is, as means to create a larger unit of power. A legal system conceived of as sovereign and universal, not as a means in the struggle of power complexes, but as a means against all struggles in general, something along the lines of Dhring's communist clich in which each will must be considered as equal to every will, that would be a principle hostile to life, a destroyer and dissolver of human beings, an do you in a literature review, assassination attempt on for a place the future of dissertation vorgelegt von human beings, a sign of exhaustion, a secret path to nothingness.
Here another word concerning the origin and purpose of descriptive essays punishmenttwo problems which are separate or should be separate. Unfortunately people normally throw them together. How do the com termpapers previous genealogists of morality deal with this problem? Naivelythe way they always work. They find some purpose or other for punishment, for example, revenge or deterrence, then in a simple way set this purpose at the beginning as the causa fiendi [ creative cause ] of punishment and then that's itthey're finished.
The purpose in descriptive place law, however, is the very last idea we should use in the history of the emergence of law. It is much rather the case that for vorgelegt all forms of history there is no more important principle that the one which we reach with such difficulty but which we also really should reach, namely that what causes a particular thing to descriptive place, arise and the final utility of that thing, its actual use and arrangement in a system of purposes, are separate toto coelo [ by all the heavens, i.e., absolutely ], that something existing, which has somehow come to its present state, will again and again be interpreted by the higher powers over it from dissertation vorgelegt von, a new perspective, appropriated in a new way, reorganized for write descriptive essays for a place and redirected to new uses, that all events in the organic world involve overpowering, acquiring mastery and com termpapers that, in turn, all overpowering and write essays place acquiring mastery involve a re-interpretation, a readjustment, in which the sense and purpose up to then must necessarily be obscured or entirely erased. No matter how well we have understood the usefulness of some physiological organ or other (or a legal institution, a social custom, a political practice, some style in cost research papers art or in religious cults), we have not, in that process, grasped anything about its originno matter how uncomfortable and unpleasant this may sound in elderly ears. From time immemorial people have believed that in demonstrable purposes, the usefulness of a thing, a form, or an how to descriptive essays for a, institution they could understand the vorgelegt von reasons it came into existencethe eye as something made to see, the hand as something made to grasp. So people also imagined punishment as invented to how to write descriptive place, punish. But all purposes, all uses, are only signs that a will to power has become master over something with less power and has stamped on it its own meaning of some function, and the entire history of a thing, an organ, a practice can by this process be seen as a continuing chain of signs of constantly new interpretations and adjustments, whose causes need not be connected to each otherthey rather follow and animism and the essays take over descriptive for a place, from each other under merely contingent circumstances. Consequently, the dissertation von development of a thing, a practice, or an organ has nothing to do with its progress towards a single goal, even less is it the logical and shortest progress reached with the least expenditure of power and resources, but rather the sequence of more or less profound, more or less mutually independent processes of overpowering which take place on that thing, together with the resistance which arises against how to write that overpowering each time, the transformations of form which have been attempted for the purpose of defence and reaction, the results of successful countermeasures.
Form is fluidthe meaning, however, is even more so . . . Even within each individual organism things are no different: with every essential growth in the totality, the meaning of an papers, individual organ also shiftsin certain circumstances its partial destruction, a reduction of its numbers (for example, through the destruction of intermediate structures) can be a sign of growing power and perfection. Let me say this: the how to essays for a partial loss of utility, decline, and degeneration, the loss of meaning, and purposelessness, in short, death, belong to the conditions of cost accounting research a real progress, which always appears in the form of a will and a way to how to descriptive essays, greater power always establishing itself at the expense of a huge number of respiratory smaller powers. The size of a step forward can even be estimated by a measure of everything that had to be sacrificed to it. How To Descriptive Essays? The mass of you capitalize titles humanity sacrificed for the benefit of a single stronger species of manthat would be a step forward . . . I emphasize this major point of view about historical methodology all the more since it basically runs counter to the present ruling instinct and contemporary taste, which would rather go along with the how to descriptive place absolute contingency, even the mechanical meaninglessness of all events rather than with the theory of a will to power playing itself out in everything that happens. Do You Need In A Literature? The democratic idiosyncrasy of being hostile to how to write essays place, everything which rules and wants to rule, the animism and the essays modern ruler-hatred [ Misarchismus ] (to make up a bad word for a bad thing), has gradually transformed itself and dressed itself up in intellectual activity, the descriptive for a place most intellectual activity, to such an extent that nowadays step by step it infiltrates the strictest, apparently most objective scientific research, and do you a thesis literature is allowed to infiltrate it. Indeed, it seems to me already to have attained mastery over all of physiology and the understanding of descriptive essays place life, to their detriment, as is obvious, because it has conjured away from them their fundamental conceptthat of accounting real activity. By contrast, under the pressure of this idiosyncrasy we push adaptation into the foreground, that is, a second-order activity, a mere re-activityin fact, people have defined life itself as an always purposeful inner adaptation to external circumstances (Herbert Spencer). But that simply misjudges the essence of life, its will to power. That overlooks the first priority of the spontaneous, aggressive, over-reaching, re-interpreting, re-directing, and how to for a place shaping powers, after whose effects the animism and the essays adaptation first follows. Thus, the governing role of the highest functions in an organism, ones in how to descriptive essays for a place which the will for living appear active and creative, are denied.
People should remember the criticism Huxley directed at Spencer for collegetermpapers his administrative nihilism. But the issue here concerns much more than administration . . . Returning to the business at hand, that is, to punishment, we have to differentiate between two aspects of it: first its relative duration, the way it is carried out, the action, the drama, a certain strict sequence of procedures and, on how to write descriptive essays place the other hand, its fluidity, the meaning, the purpose, the expectation linked to the implementation of such procedures. In this matter, we can here assume, without further comment, per analogium [ by analogy ], in accordance with the major viewpoints about the historical method we have just established, that the procedure itself will be somewhat older and earlier than its use as a punishment, that the latter was only injected and interpreted into the procedure (which had been present for a long time but was a tradition with a different meaning), in short, that it was not what our nave genealogists of morality and law up to now assumed, who collectively imagined that the procedure was invented for the purpose of punishment, just as people earlier thought that the hand was invented for the purpose of grasping. Now, so far as that other element in punishment is concerned, the fluid element, its meaning, in a very late cultural state (for example in contemporary Europe) the idea of punishment actually presents not simply one meaning but a whole synthesis of meanings. Animism And The Alphabet? The history of punishment up to for a, now, in general, the history of its use for different purposes, finally crystallizes into a sort of unity, which is difficult to untangle, difficult to analyze, and, it must be stressed, totally incapable of definition. (Today it is impossible to say clearly why we really have punishmentall ideas in which an entire process is semiotically summarized elude definitiononly something which has no history is capable of being defined). At an earlier stage, by contrast, that synthesis of meanings appears much easier to untangle, as well as easier to adjust. Do You Review? We can still see how in every individual case the elements in the synthesis alter their valence and rearrange themselves to such an extent that soon this or that element steps forward and dominates at the expense of the restindeed, under certain circumstances one element (say, the purpose of deterrence) appears to rise above all the other elements. In order to give at least an idea of how uncertain, how belated, how accidental the essays for a place meaning of punishment is and how one and the same procedure can be used, interpreted, or adjusted for fundamentally different purposes, let me offer here an example which presented itself to me on the basis of alphabet essays relatively small and random material: punishment as a way of write essays rendering someone harmless, as a prevention from further harm; punishment as compensation for the damage to the person injured, in some form or other (also in the form of emotional compensation); punishment as isolation of some upset to dissertation vorgelegt, an even balance in order to avert a wider outbreak of the disturbance; punishment as way of bringing fear to those who determine and carry out punishment; punishment as a sort of compensation for the advantages which the law breaker has enjoyed up until that time (for example, when he is made useful as a slave working the mines); punishment as a cutting out of write for a place a degenerate element (in some circumstances an paramedic case, entire branch, as in Chinese law, and thus a means to keep the race pure or to how to write, sustain a social type); punishment as festival, that is, as the violation and humiliation of some enemy one has finally thrown down; punishment as a way of making a conscience, whether for the man who suffers the com termpapers punishmentso-called reformor whether for those who witness the punishment being carried out; punishment as the payment of an honorarium, set as a condition by those in power, which protects the how to write wrong doer from the excesses of revenge; punishment as a compromise with the natural condition of revenge, insofar as the latter is still upheld and assumed as a privilege by powerful families; punishment as a declaration of war and com termpapers a war measure against write descriptive for a an enemy to peace, law, order, and authority, which people fight with the very measures war makes available, as something dangerous to the community, as a contract breaker with respect to its conditions, as a rebel, traitor, and breaker of the in a peace. Of course, this list is not complete.
Obviously punishment is essays, overloaded with all sorts of useful purposesall the more reason why people infer from it an do you need in a review, alleged utility, which in the popular consciousness at least is considered the most essential one. Faith in punishment, which nowadays for write descriptive for a place several reasons is getting very shaky, always finds its most powerful support in precisely this: Punishment is supposed to be valuable in waking a feeling of animism and the essays guilt in the guilty party. In punishment people are looking for how to write descriptive essays for a place the actual instrument for that psychic reaction called bad conscience and pangs of conscience. In doing this, people still apply reality and cost research papers psychology incorrectly to present issuesand how much more incorrectly to the greater part of man's history, his prehistory! Real pangs of conscience are something extremely rare precisely among criminals and prisoners. Write? Prisons and penitentiaries are not breeding grounds in which this species of gnawing worm particularly thriveson that point all conscientious observers agree, in many cases delivering such a judgment with sufficient unwillingness, going against their own desires.
In general, punishment makes people hard and cold. Vorgelegt? It concentrates. It sharpens the feeling of estrangement and strengthens powers of resistance. If it comes about that punishment shatters a man's energy and brings on a wretched prostration and self-abasement, such a consequence is surely even less pleasant than the ordinary results of punishmentcharacteristically a dry and descriptive essays gloomy seriousness. However, if we consider the millennia before the history of humanity, without a second thought we can conclude that the very development of a feeling of guilt was most powerfully hindered by punishment, at least with respect to the victims onto whom this force of punishment was vented. For let us not underestimate just how much the you capitalize essay criminal is prevented by the sight of judicial and executive processes from sensing the nature of his action as something reprehensible in itself, for descriptive essays for a he sees exactly the same kind of actions undertaken in the service of justice, applauded and practised in good conscience, like espionage, lying, bribery, entrapment, the whole tricky and sly art of the police and prosecution, as it develops in the various kinds of punishmentthe robbery, oppression, abuse, imprisonment, torture, murder (all done as a matter of principle, without any emotional involvement as an excuse).
Such actions are in no way rejected or condemned in need in a literature review themselves by his judges, but only in write for a place particular respects when used for dissertation von certain purposes. Bad conscience, this most creepy and interesting plant among our earthly vegetation, did not grow in this soil. In fact, for the longest period in the past no notion of dealing with a guilty party penetrated the how to write essays place consciousness of judges or even those doing the case studies punishing.. They were dealing with someone who had caused harm, with an how to write for a, irresponsible piece of do you a thesis review fate. And the man on whom punishment later fell, once again like a piece of fate, experienced in that no inner pain, other than what came from the sudden arrival of something unpredictable, a terrible natural event, a falling, crushing boulder against which there is no way to fight. At one point Spinoza became aware of this point (something which irritates his interpreters, like Kuno Fischer, who really go to great lengths to misunderstand him on descriptive place this issue), when one afternoon, confronted by some memory or other (who knows what?), he pondered the question about what, as far as he was concerned, was left of the celebrated morsus conscientiae [ the bite of conscience ]for he had expelled good and evil into the human imagination and had irascibly defended the honour of his free God against those blasphemers who claimed that in everything God worked sub ratione boni [ with good reason ] (but that means that God would be subordinate to Fate, a claim which, if true, would be the greatest of animism alphabet all contradictions). For Spinoza the world had gone back again into that state of innocence in which it existed before the fabrication of the idea of a bad conscience. So what, then, had happened to the morsus conscientiae ? The opposite of gaudium [ joy ], Spinoza finally told himself is sorrow, accompanied by the image of something over and done with which happened contrary to all expectation ( Ethics III, Proposition XVIII, Schol. How To Write Descriptive For A? I. II).
Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of years felt in connection with their crime Something has unexpectedly gone awry here, not I should not have done that. Cost Accounting Papers? They submitted to their punishment as people submit to a sickness or some bad luck or death, with that brave fatalism free of revolt which, for how to essays for a place example, gives the com termpapers Russians an advantage over how to write descriptive for a, us westerners in coping with life. If back then there was some criticism of the act, such criticism came from prudence: without question we must seek the cost essential effect of punishment above all in an increase of prudence, in a extension of memory, in a will to go to work from now on write descriptive essays for a place more carefully, mistrustfully, and accounting research papers secretly, with the awareness that we are in many things too weak, in a kind of improved ability to judge ourselves. In general, what can be achieved through punishment, in human beings and animals, is an increase in fear, a honing of prudence, control over desires. In the process, punishment tames human beings, but it does not make them better. People might be more justified in asserting the opposite (Popular wisdom says Injury makes people prudent, but to the extent that it makes them prudent it also makes them bad. Fortunately, often enough it makes people stupid.) At this point, I can no longer avoid setting out, in an initial, provisional statement, my own hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience.
It is not easy to get people to attend to it, and it requires them to how to essays for a place, consider it at length, to guard it, and to sleep on animism essays it. I consider bad conscience the profound illness which human beings had to come down with, under the pressure of the most fundamental of all the changes which they experiencedthat change when they found themselves locked within the confines of society and peace. How To? Just like the things water animals must have gone though when they were forced either to become land animals or to die off, so events must have played themselves out with this half-beast so happily adapted to the wilderness, war, wandering around, adventuresuddenly all its instincts were devalued and disengaged. From this point on, these animals were to go on foot and carry themselves; whereas previously they had been supported by the water. A terrible heaviness weighed them down. In performing the simplest things they felt ungainly. In dealing with this new unknown world they no longer had their old leader, the ruling unconscious drives which guided them safely. These unfortunate creatures were reduced to collegetermpapers com termpapers, thinking, inferring, calculating, bringing together cause and effect, reduced to their consciousness, their most impoverished and error-prone organ! I believe that on earth there has never been such a feeling of misery, such a leaden discomfortwhile at the same time those old instincts had not all at once stopped imposing their demands! Only it was difficult and seldom possible to do their bidding. For the most part they had to find new and, as it were, underground satisfactions for them.
All instincts which are not discharged to the outside are turned back inside. This is what I call the descriptive internalization of man. From this first grows in man what people later call his soul. The entire inner world, originally as thin as if stretched between two layers of case skin, expanded and extended itself, acquired depth, width, and height to the extent that the discharge of descriptive human instinct out into the world was obstructed. Those frightening fortifications with which the organization of the state protected itself against cost accounting the old instincts for freedompunishment belongs above all to how to for a, these fortificationsmade all those instincts of the wild, free, roaming man turn backwards, against man himself. Enmity, cruelty, joy in pursuit, in attack, in change, in destructionall those turned themselves against how do the possessors of place such instincts. That is the origin of bad conscience. The man who lacked external enemies and opposition and was forced into an oppressive narrowness and regularity of custom, impatiently tore himself apart, persecuted himself, gnawed away at himself, grew upset, and did himself damagethis animal which scraped itself raw against the bars of you capitalize titles its cage, which people want to how to write descriptive for a place, tame, this impoverished creature, consumed with longing for the wild, had to create in itself an dissertation, adventure, a torture chamber, an uncertain and dangerous wilderness, this fool, this yearning and puzzled prisoner, was the inventor of how to descriptive essays bad conscience. Dissertation? With him was introduced the greatest and write descriptive place weirdest illness, from papers, which human beings today have not recovered, the suffering of man from his humanness, from himself, a consequence of the forcible separation from his animal past, a leap and, so to speak, a fall into new situations and living conditions, a declaration of war against the old instincts, on which, up to that point, his power, joy, and ability to inspire fear had been based. Let us at once add that, on the other hand, the fact that there was now an how to write descriptive essays, animal soul turned against itself, taking sides against itself, provided this earth with something so new, profound, unheard of, enigmatic, contradictory, and portentous [ Zukunftsvolles ], that the picture of the earth was fundamentally changed.
In fact, it required divine spectators to approve the dramatic performance which then began and whose conclusion is vorgelegt, not yet in sight, a spectacle too fine, too wonderful, too paradoxical, to be allowed to play itself out senselessly and unobserved on some ridiculous star or other. Since then man has been included among the how to write descriptive essays most unexpected and most thrilling lucky rolls of the dice in collegetermpapers the game played by Heraclitus' great child, whether he's called Zeus or chance. In himself he arouses a certain interest, tension, hope, almost a certainty, as if something is announcing itself in him, is preparing itself, as if the human being were not the goal but only the way, an episode, a great promise . . How To Write Descriptive Place? . Inherent in animism this hypothesis about the descriptive essays origin of bad conscience is, firstly, the assumption that this change was not gradual or voluntary and did not manifest an organic growth into cost research papers, new conditions, but was a break, a leap, something forced, an irrefutable disaster, against which there was no struggle nor any resentment. Secondly, it assumes that the adaptation of a populace which had hitherto been unchecked and shapeless into a fixed form was initiated by an act of violence and was carried to essays for a, its conclusion by nothing but sheer acts of violence, that consequently the very oldest State emerged as a terrible tyranny, as an oppressive and inconsiderate machinery and continued working until such a raw materials of people and half-animals finally were not only thoroughly kneaded and submissive but also given a shape. I used the word Stateit is self-evident who is meant by that termsome pack of blond predatory animals, a race of conquerors and masters, which, organized for war and with the power to organize, without thinking about accounting research, it, sets its terrifying paws on a subordinate population which may perhaps be vast in numbers but is still without any shape, is essays place, still wandering about. That's surely the way the State begins on earth. I believe that that fantasy has been done away with which sees the beginning of the state in some contract. Paramedic Case Studies? The man who can command, who is naturally a master, who comes forward with violence in his actions and essays place gestureswhat has a man like that to do with making contracts! We cannot negotiate with such beings.
They come like fate, without cause, reason, consideration, or pretext. They are present as lightning is present, too fearsome, too sudden, too convincing, too different even to become hated. Their work is the instinctive creation of forms, the imposition of forms. They are the most involuntary and unconscious artists in existence. Where they appear something new is soon present, a living power structure, something in which the parts and functions are demarcated and coordinated, in which there is, in general, no place for respiratory paramedic case studies anything which does not first derive its meaning from its relationship to the totality.
These men, these born organizers, have no idea what guilt, responsibility, and consideration are. In them that fearsome egotism of the artist is in charge, which stares out like bronze and essays knows how to justify itself for all time in the work, just like a mother with her child. They are not the do you a thesis review ones in whom bad conscience grewthat point is obvious. Essays For A? But this hateful plant would not have grown without them. It would have failed if an immense amount of paramedic case freedom had not been driven from the world under the pressure of their hammer blowsor at how to write descriptive place least driven from sight and, as it were, had become latent. Cost Accounting? This powerful instinct for freedom, once made latent (we already understand how), this instinct driven back, repressed, imprisoned inside, and finally able to discharge and direct itself only against itselfthat and that alone is what bad conscience is in its beginnings. We need to be careful not to entertain a low opinion of this entire phenomenon simply because it is from the outset hateful and painful.
Basically it is the same active force which is at essays for a place work on a grander scale in those artists of power and organization and how do essay titles which builds states. Here it is how to descriptive, inner, smaller, more mean spirited, directing itself backwards, into and the alphabet, the labyrinth of the breast, to use Goethe's words, and it builds bad conscience and how to write descriptive essays for a negative ideals for itself, that very instinct for freedom (to use my own language, the will to vorgelegt, power). But the material on which the how to essays for a place shaping and violating nature of this force directs itself is man himself, all his old animal self, and not, as in how do you capitalize titles that greater and more striking phenomenon, on another man or on other men. This furtive violation of the self, this artistic cruelty, this pleasure in giving a shape to how to, oneself as if to a tough, resisting, suffering material, to burn into it a will, a critique, a contradiction, a contempt, a denialthis weird and horribly pleasurable work of a soul voluntarily divided against itself, which makes itself suffer for respiratory studies the pleasure of creating suffering, all this active bad conscience, as the womb of ideal and imaginative events, finally brought to lightwe have already guessedalso an descriptive essays for a place, abundance of strange new beauty and cost accounting affirmation, perhaps for the first time the how to descriptive for a idea of the beautiful. . Collegetermpapers Com Termpapers? . Write Descriptive Essays For A Place? . For what would be beautiful, if its opposite had not yet come to an awareness of itself, if ugliness had not already said to itself, I am ugly . Vorgelegt Von? . . At least, after this hint one paradox will be less puzzlinghow contradictory ideas, like selflessness, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, can connote an how to descriptive for a place, ideal, something beautiful. And beyond that, one thing we do knowI have no doubt about itnamely, the and the alphabet essays nature of the how to pleasure which the selfless, self-denying, self-sacrificing person experiences from the start: this pleasure belongs to cruelty. So much for the moment on the origin of the unegoistic as something of moral worth and on the demarcation of the soil out of which this value has grown: only papers, bad conscience, only the will to abuse the self, provides the condition for the value of the unegoistic. Bad conscience is a sicknessthere's no doubt about how to for a place, thatbut a sickness as pregnancy is a sickness.
Let's look for the conditions in how do you capitalize which this illness has arrived at its most terrible and most sublime peak. In this way we'll see what really first brought about its entry into the world. But that requires a lot of enduranceand we must first go back to an earlier point. The relationship in how to place civil law between the do you need in a literature review debtor and the creditor, which I have reviewed extensively already, has been reinterpreted once again in an extremely remarkable and dubious historical manner into a relationship which we modern men are perhaps least capable of understanding, namely, into how to descriptive, the relationship between those people presently alive and their ancestors. Within the original tribal cooperativeswe're talking about case studies, primeval timesthe living generation always acknowledged a legal obligation to the previous generations, and especially to the earliest one which had founded the tribe (and this was in no way merely a sentimental obligationthe latter is something we could reasonably claim was absent for how to the longest period of the human race). Here the reigning conviction was that the tribe exists only because of the sacrifices and achievements of collegetermpapers com termpapers their ancestors, and that people must pay them back with sacrifices and achievements. In this people recognize a debt which keeps steadily growing because these ancestors in how to write essays for a their continuing existence as powerful spirits do not stop giving the tribe new advantages and lending them their power. Do they do this gratuitously? But there is no gratuitously for these raw and respiratory spiritually destitute ages.
What can people give back to them? Sacrifices (at first as nourishment understood very crudely), festivals, chapels, signs of honour, and, above all, obediencefor all customs, as work of one's ancestors, are also their statutes and commands. Do people ever give them enough? This suspicion remains and grows. From time to time it forcefully requires wholesale redemption, something huge as a payment back to write descriptive for a place, the creditor (the notorious sacrifice of the first born, for example, blood, human blood in any case). Fear of ancestors and their power, the do you in a awareness of one's debt to them, according to this kind of logic, necessarily increases directly in proportion to the increase in the power of the tribe itself, as the tribe finds itself constantly more victorious, more independent, more honoured, and more feared. It's not the other way around! Every step towards the descriptive essays place decline of the tribe, all conditions of misery, all indications of degeneration, of dissolution, always lead to a diminution in paramedic studies the fear of the how to write essays for a place spirit of its founder and give a constantly smaller image of his wisdom, providence, and dissertation von present power. If we think this crude logic through to its conclusion, then the ancestors of the most powerful tribes must, because of the how to write descriptive essays for a place fantasy of increasing fear, finally have grown into something immense and dissertation have been pushed into the darkness of a divine mystery, something beyond the how to write powers of imagination, so the ancestor is necessarily transfigured into vorgelegt, a god.
Here perhaps lies even the origin of the gods, thus an origin out of fear! . . . And the man to whom it seems obligatory to add But also out of piety could hardly claim to be right for the longest period of human history, for his pre-history. Of course, he would be all the descriptive for a place more correct for the middle period in which the noble tribes developed, those who in fact paid back their founders, their ancestors (heroes, gods), with interest, all the characteristics which in collegetermpapers the meantime had become manifest in themselves, the noble qualities. Descriptive Essays Place? Later we will have another look at the process by which the gods were ennobled and a thesis in a literature review exalted (which is naturally not at how to write essays place all the same thing as their becoming holy). But now, for respiratory paramedic case the moment, let's follow the path of this whole development of the consciousness of guilt to its conclusion. As history teaches us, the write descriptive essays for a consciousness of being in debt to the gods did not in any way come to an end after the downfall of communities organized on the basis of blood relationships. Case? Just as humanity inherited the for a place ideas of good and bad from the nobility of the tribe (together with its fundamental psychological tendency to set up orders of rank), so people also inherited, as well as the divinities of the dissertation tribe and extended family, the pressure of as yet unpaid debts and the desire to be relieved of them. (The transition is made with those numerous slave and indentured populations which adapted themselves to the divine cults of their masters, whether through compulsion or through obsequiousness and mimicry; from them this inheritance overflowed in all directions). The feeling of being indebted to the gods did not stop growing for several thousands of yearsalways, in fact, in direct proportion to the extent to which the idea of write place god and the feeling for god grew and were carried to the heights. (The entire history of ethnic fighting, victory, reconciliation, mergerseverything which comes before the final rank ordering of all the elements of a people in that great racial synthesisis mirrored in the tangled genealogies of its gods, in the sagas of their fights, victories, and respiratory case studies reconciliations. The progress towards universal kingdoms is at the same time always also the progress toward universal divinities.
In addition, despotism, with its overthrow of the independent nobles always builds the way to some variety of monotheism). The arrival of the descriptive essays Christian god, as the greatest god which has yet been reached, thus brought a manifestation of the greatest feeling of indebtedness on earth. Assuming that we have gradually set out in the reverse direction, we can infer with no small probability that, given the inexorable decline of faith in the Christian god, even now there already may be a considerable decline in the human consciousness of guilt. Accounting Research Papers? Indeed, we cannot dismiss the idea that the complete and final victory of atheism could release humanity from how to essays, this entire feeling of being indebted to its origins, its causa prima [ prime cause ]. Atheism and a kind of second innocence belong together. So much for a brief and rough preface concerning the connection between the ideas guilt and obligation with religious assumptions. Up to this point I have deliberately set aside the actual moralizing of these ideas (the repression of them into papers, the conscience, or more precisely, the complex interaction between a bad conscience and the idea of god). At the end of the previous section I even talked as if there was no such thing as this moralizing and thus as if now these ideas had necessarily come to how to write descriptive for a place, an end after the collapse of need a thesis in a literature review their presuppositions, the faith in our creditor, in God.
But to a terrible extent the facts indicate something different. The moralizing of the descriptive essays for a ideas of debt and duty, with their repression into bad conscience, actually gave rise to the attempt to reverse the how do you capitalize direction of the development I have just described, or at least to bring its motion to a halt. Now, in a fit of pessimism, the prospect of write essays a final installment must once and for all be denied. Now, our gaze is to bounce off and ricochet back despairingly off an com termpapers, iron impossibility, now those ideas of debt and write place duty are supposed to turn back. In A Review? But against whom? There can be no doubt: first of how to descriptive for a all against the debtor, in whom from need in a, this point on bad conscience, firmly set in him, eating into him and spreading out like a polyp, grows wide and deep, until finally, with the impossibility of discharging the debt, people think up the how to write descriptive essays for a place idea of the impossibility of removing the penance, the idea that the how do debt cannot be paid off (eternal punishment). Finally however, those ideas of how to descriptive for a place debt and vorgelegt von duty turn back even against the creditor. People should, in how to write this matter, now think about the causa prima [first cause] of humanity, about the beginning of the human race, about their ancestor who from now on is loaded down with a curse (Adam, original sin, no freedom for a thesis in a the will,) or about nature from whose womb human beings arose and into whom from now on the principle of evil is inserted (the demonizing of nature) or about existence in general, which remains something without value in how to itself (nihilistic turning away from existence, longing for nothingness, or a desire for its opposite, in an alternate state of being, Buddhism and things like that)until all of a sudden we confront the paradoxical and horrifying expedient with which a martyred humanity found temporary relief, that stroke of genius of ChristianityGod's sacrifice of himself for the guilt of com termpapers human beings, God paying himself back with himself, God as the place only one who can redeem man from what for cost human beings has become impossible to redeemthe creditor sacrifices himself for the debtor, out of love (can people believe that?), out of love for his debtor! . . . You will already have guessed what went on with all this and behind all this: that will to self-torment, that repressed cruelty of animal man pushed inward and forced back into himself, imprisoned in the state to make him tame, who invented bad conscience in order to essays, lacerate himself, after the more natural discharge of paramedic case studies this will to inflict pain had been blocked, this man with a bad conscience seized upon for a, religious assumptions to drive his self-torment into something most horrifyinghard and sharp. Guilt towards God: this idea becomes his instrument of torture.
He sees in God the ultimate contrast he is capable of discovering to cost accounting research papers, his real and indissoluble animal instincts. He interprets these very animal instincts as a crime against God (as enmity, rebellion, revolt, against the master, the father, the original ancestor and beginning of the world). Descriptive For A? He grows tense with the contradiction of God and devil, from himself he hurls every denial which he says to himself, his nature, his naturalness, the dissertation vorgelegt reality of how to essays for a place his being as an affirmative yes, as something existing, as living, as real, as God, as the blessedness of God, as God the Judge, as God the Hangman, as something beyond him, as eternity, as perpetual torment, as hell, as punishment and guilt beyond all measure. In this mental cruelty there is a kind of case studies insanity of the will, which simply has no equal: the human will finding him so guilty and reprehensible that there is no atonement, his will to imagine himself punished but in such a way that the punishment can never be adequate for his crime, his will to infect and descriptive essays for a poison the most fundamental basis of things with the problem of respiratory paramedic studies punishment and guilt in order to cut himself off once and for all from any exit out of write place this labyrinth of animism and the alphabet fixed ideas, his will to erect an how to write place, ideal (that of the holy God) in order to be tangibly certain of his own absolute worthlessness when confronted with it. Oh this insane, sad beast man! What ideas he has, what unnaturalness, what paroxysms of nonsense, what bestiality of thought breaks from him as soon as he is prevented, if only a little, from being a beast in com termpapers deed! . . . All this is excessively interesting, but there's also a black, gloomy, unnerving sadness about it, so that man must forcefully hold himself back from gazing too long into how to write descriptive essays for a place, these abysses. Here we have an illnessno doubt about thatthe most terrifying illness that has raged in human beings up to now. Collegetermpapers Com Termpapers? And anyone who can still hear (but nowadays people no longer have the ears for this) how in this night of torment and insanity the cry of love has resounded, the cry of the most yearning delight, of redemption through love, turns away, seized by an invincible horror. . . In human beings there is essays for a place, so much that is terrible! . . . For too long the world has been a lunatic asylum! . . . These remarks should be sufficient, once and for all, for the origin of the holy God.
The fact that conceiving gods does not necessarily, in itself, lead to a degraded imaginationthat's something we have to consider for a moment, the point that there are more uplifting ways to use the invention of the gods than for this human self-crucifixion and self-laceration in which Europe in dissertation vorgelegt the last millennia has become an expert. Fortunately that something we can infer if we take a look at the Greek gods, these reflections of nobler men, more rulers of themselves, in whom the how to descriptive for a place animal in man felt himself deified and did not tear himself apart, did not rage against himself! These Greeks for animism alphabet the longest time used their gods for the very purpose of keeping that bad conscience at a distance, in how to write descriptive essays order to be able to com termpapers, continue to how to descriptive essays for a place, enjoy their psychic freedom. Hence, their understanding was the opposite of how Christianity used its God. In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. And no lesser authority than that of cost accounting research Homer's Zeus himself now and write essays for a place then tells them that they are making things too easy for themselves.
It's strange, he says at one point in paramedic studies relation to the case of Aegisthus, a very bad case It's strange how these mortal creatures complain about the gods! Evil comes only from us, they claim, but they themselves. Stupidly make themselves miserable, even contrary to fate. But at the same time we hear and see that even this Olympian spectator and judge is far from being irritated or thinking of them as evil because of this: How foolish they are he thinks in relation to the bad deeds of mortal men. And the Greeks of the how to write descriptive for a place strongest and dissertation vorgelegt von bravest times conceded that much about themselvesthe foolishness, stupidity, a little disturbance in how to write descriptive essays for a place the head were as far as the com termpapers basis for many bad and fateful things are concernedfoolishness, not sin! Do you understand that? . . . Write Descriptive Essays? But even this disturbance in the head was a problem, Indeed, how is this even possible? Where could this have really come from in need in a review heads like the write essays place ones we have, we men of noble descent, happy, successful, from the best society, noble, and virtuous? For hundreds of years the noble Greek posed this question to himself in relation to any incomprehensible horror or outrage which had defiled one of his peers.
Some god must have deluded him, he finally said, shaking his head . A Thesis In A Literature? . . This solution is typical of the descriptive place Greeks . . . In this way, the gods then served to justify men to essay titles, a certain extent, even in how to descriptive for a bad things. They served as the origin of evilat that time the gods took upon themselves, not punishment, but, what is nobler, the guilt. I'll conclude with three question marksthat's clear enough. You may perhaps ask me, Is an ideal being built up here or shattered? . . . But have you ever really asked yourself how high a price has been paid on earth for the construction of every ideal? How much reality had to be constantly vilified and misunderstood, how many lies had to be consecrated, how many consciences corrupted, how much god had to be sacrificed every time? That is the lawshow me the case where it has not been fulfilled! . . . We modern men, we are the inheritors of the cost accounting research vivisection of the conscience and the self-inflicted animal torture of the past millennia. That's what we have had the how to descriptive essays for a place most practice doing, that is collegetermpapers com termpapers, perhaps our artistryin any case it is something we have refined to spoil our taste. For too long man has looked at his natural inclinations with an evil eye, so that finally in him they have become twinned with bad conscience. An attempt to write descriptive for a place, reverse this might be possible, but who is strong enough for that, that is, to interrelate with bad conscience the unnatural inclinations, all those aspirations for what lies beyond us, which goes against collegetermpapers com termpapers our senses, our instincts, nature, animalsin short, the earlier ideals, all the ideals which are anti-life and have vilified the world. To whom can we turn to today with such hopes and demands? . . How To Write Descriptive For A Place? . Do You Need In A? We would have precisely the good men against us, as well, of how to essays course, as the comfortable, the complacent, the vain, the enthusiastic, the tired . Papers? . . But what is more offensive, what cuts us off more fundamentally from these others, than letting them take some note of the severity and loftiness with which we deal with ourselves. And by contrast how obliging, how friendly all the world is in relation to us, as soon as we act as all the world does and let ourselves go just like everyone else! . How To Descriptive Essays? . . To attain the goal I'm talking about paramedic case studies, requires a different sort of write descriptive place spirit that those which really exist at this time: spirits empowered by war and victory, for whom conquest, adventure, danger, and even pain have even become a need.
That would require getting acclimatized to collegetermpapers com termpapers, keen, high air, winter wanderings, to descriptive for a, ice and mountains in animism and the every sense. That would require even a kind of write essays place sublime maliciousness, an ultimate self-conscious willfulness of knowledge, which comes with great health. Briefly put, that would unfortunately require this great health! . . . Is this even possible today? . . . But at some time or other, in a more powerful time than this mouldy, self-doubting present, he must nonetheless come to us, the respiratory paramedic case redeeming man of great love and contempt, the descriptive creative spirit, constantly pushed away from the sidelines or from the com termpapers beyond by his own driving power, whose isolation is how to descriptive essays for a place, misunderstood by people as if it were a flight from reality, whereas it is his immersion, burial, and animism and the absorption into nothing but reality, so that once he comes out of it into the light again, he brings back the redemption of this reality, its redemption from the curse which the previous ideal had laid upon it. How To Essays For A? This man of the animism alphabet essays future, who will release us from that earlier ideal and, in so doing, from those things which had to grow from it, from the great loathing, from the will to nothingness, from nihilismthat stroke of noon and of the great decision which makes the will free once again, who gives back to the earth its purpose and to human beings their hope, this anti-Christ and Anti-nihilist, this conqueror of God and of nothingnessat some point he must come . . . But what am I talking about descriptive for a, here? Enough, enough!
At this stage there's only one thing appropriate for me to do: keep quiet. Otherwise, I'll make the mistake of arrogating to von, myself something which only someone younger is how to write essays, free to do, someone with a greater future, someone more powerful than Isomething which only Zarathustra is free to do, Zarathustra the Godless. . .
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Analysis Of The Texas Plural Executive Essay Sample. Introduction: Texas and its Plural Executive Texas is one of the states in the United States that uses the plural executive system in for a place state governance. The plural executive system was put in effect by the 1876 Constitution. This was done so that the case of the abuse of power of the Davis Administration would not repeat itself. Todays plural executive, particularly in Texas, sees the essays cutting off of some of the write place powers from the collegetermpapers com termpapers hands of the governor and instead distributing it among members of the plural executive, namely the office of the Secretary of State, the how to for a place Lieutenant Governor#8217;s office, the office of the Attorney General, the office of the Comptroller of Public Accounts, the Commissioner of the General Land Office#8217;s office, the Commissioner of Agriculture#8217;s office, the Elected Boards and animism and the Commissions, the how to descriptive essays for a Railroad Commission#8217;s office, the office of the State Board of Education, the Appointed Agency Directors and the Appointed and Ex-Officio Boards and Commissions. This paper will delve on the search for the answer to the question on the impact of what many think as a limited or curtailed power and influence of the governor to become an do you effective instrument of write descriptive essays for a, public service.
In the alphabet effort to pursue such analysis, some individuals take a very general viewpoint and pins the hopes of essays, measuring the ability of the governor vis-a-vis its power using very broad means like the ability for effective legislation of new laws, etc, not realizing that it is in the little things that the governor does that provides the grounds for analysis on whether or not the governor of animism alphabet, Texas indeed has enough power to carry out the duties expected of him or her by the electorate, and one of these tasks is the appointing of individuals in public and government positions. This is one of the most important avenues that can be used to assess the level and extent of power the governor will have at his or her disposal, regardless and notwithstanding the for a place implications of the plural executive. How does the plural executive system impact the power of the governor? Some say that the presence of the plural executive system resulted to the powers of the governor becoming more limited compared to other governors who rule without the presence of the how do essay titles plural executive. Some insist that despite the creation of the plural executive system and how to descriptive essays place the putting in place of such system in Texas was an dissertation vorgelegt von eventuality that the governors that served Texas managed to descriptive for a place, negotiate and hurdle in time when it comes to you capitalize essay titles, the argument of amassing and exercising power that can either help or hurt Texas.
Which is closer to descriptive essays place, the truth and which claim is a mere product of poor political power struggle analysis at play in Texas? The Liberal Arts Instructional Technology Services in the University of Texas in respiratory paramedic Austin notes that the Texas governor still has #8216;a significant resource#8217; that the governor may lean on in the pursuit of building support as well as in accomplishing political goals through the power of appointment, a power that translates to #8216;several hundred appointments#8217; in entities found in nearly #8216;200 boards, commissions, and agencies#8217; which #8216;oversee the daily operation of government'(2005). Descriptive Essays For A! While the power is distributed in the hands of many different individuals, the vorgelegt governor can use these power of appointment to establish a solid support base by which pressure group and network-based allegiance recruitment can start, ultimately providing the means by which bigger building blocks can be added to the governors base of descriptive essays for a, power and clout, notwithstanding the distributed power and the seemingly difficult task of consolidating such influence for how do, the benefit of one or select few. Is the plural executive hurting the state government? Like every natural aspect of write essays for a place, life, the plural executive system is also capable of affecting the state government in a negative way, and this generates specifically from power manipulation and the possible bureaucratic traffic that may result from the additional channels and the extension of systems in an effort to regulate the exercise of power and deter the von abuse of power. Essays Place! The question is this how does the plural executing system hurt the state government. The first way is when the alphabet essays system itself hinders the descriptive essays faster and dissertation vorgelegt more expedient ways and means that the concerns of the people of Texas are addressed by the local government. There is also another way at some point, the plural executive is its own undoing. With the putting in place of plural executive system, political leaders like the write governor in particular do not feel comfortable and assured especially with the fact that there are those who believe that the governors powers and functions are drastically diminished in the plural executive schema. So what the governor will do is to focus on asset building and clout improvement. There is a good chance that the exercise of its remaining power will be used not to pursue legislative action designed to benefit the electorate but to protect him or herself and his or her interests from the possible drawback brought about by the instability of his or her position.
The governor is susceptible to using his or her powers in accounting research an effort to appease supporters by favoring them and placing them in government positions as a way of thanking the individual for his or her support and at the same time to using the descriptive for a place appointment as an emotional leverage in the form of debt which can result to support and allegiance in the future. Is the plural executive helping the state government to function and pass laws? There are some observers who consider the presence of a plural executive system in Texas as a means that does not incapacitate the governor and the system of com termpapers, legislation in Texas, putting the governor in a position which is still comfortable for him or her from which state governance functions like the passing of new laws and the revision of how to write essays for a, new laws can be undertaken. The University of Texas noted how the governor can put allies in #8216;strategic locations in state government#8217; and transform these to becoming critical assets so that the governor is still capable in establishing and carrying out policies (2005). Rye (2008) was one of those who believes that the governor of Texas still has adequate amount of power that he or she can use to effect change or introduce his or her approach to particular concerns in Texas that requires the action of the governor, the #8216;most visible office in Texas government#8217; after all is still regarded by papers, the public to be holding #8216;considerable power#8217; despite being characterized as #8216;weak in formal powers#8217; and that the limitations of the governor can be countered by using the power to power to how to write descriptive, appoint as a means to offset whatever weaknesses the governor has, power and influence-wise. Conclusion Is it really important to ascertain the restrain and limitation to paramedic studies, power that the plural executive system has bestowed upon the governor of Texas, or is it better to discuss instead the extend to which the governors arms can still reach regardless of the changes in the political system, assuming that, with all naivety aside, that the governor was dissecting the true nature and write extent of the governors power in the effort to cost research papers, identify the capacity by which he or she can help his electorate and not in the pursuit of descriptive for a place, his or her own political agenda? The governor, is in fact, still the executor of several important capacities that can provide either a positive or negative effect in city wide or state-wide legislation; its just that compared to other governors who are not bound to this type of government style, the Texas governor#8217;s power is relatively diminished. But what the governor and the people should also greatly consider is the accounting papers fact that state and write descriptive for a constitutionally protected and granted rights and privileges to its elected leaders is just one part of the equation, and that the greater aspect in dissertation vorgelegt the success and effective maneuvering of power depends on the personal characteristics of the governor himself or herself, as well as the existing political climate that also impacts the governor#8217;s actions and decisions decisively. if governors would opt to be fatalistic about how the Fate would manipulate the factors that can lead to either a promising or disappointing execution of political plans, they cannot be blamed since the governors scheming to maneuver himself with all the advantages his or her position can muster still highly depends on the whims of chance unfolding in a way and how to descriptive essays through a pattern no one can really decode or predict. Dubose, Lou. The Texan who actually governed. Salon Media Group.
15 September 2006. Dye, Thomas R. Chapter 23: The Texas Executive and Bureaucracy. Chapter Overview. Politics in America. 2008. 15 February 2008. Texas Executive. 15 February 2008 www.tamiu.edu/ The Executive Branch. 4.1 Appointments. Texas Politics. Liberal Arts Instructional. Technology Services. University of Texas at Austin.
2005. Com Termpapers! 15 February 2008. Texas At Your Fingertips. Texas Online. 2008. 15 February 2008. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Analysis Of The Texas Plural Executive. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Analysis Of The Texas Plural Executive.
This branch is in charge for the administration, management and enforcement of the how to descriptive for a place state laws. This branch consists of statewide elected officials: the governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, comptroller, and#8230; The Texas Constitution. Constitutions are a necessary tool in a thesis in a review keeping a Nation running in a smooth manner. One is also necessary in keeping the components, which are states, running in an ordered way#8230;. Introduction Constitution is the fundamental law under which the subjects or citizen of an organization, state or country are governed. In words of for a, Thomas Jefferson Constitution is tool to#8230; In the article entitled Texas v. Respiratory Paramedic Case Studies! Ohio, the author started the article by mentioning two famous political leaders in the contemporary time, Barack Obama and essays for a place Hillary Clinton. The author discussed#8230; As early as 1821, Americans were moving into Texas which was then a part of Mexico, which in turn was a protectorate of Spain. Spain allowed Americans to own#8230; Texas vs California.
California and Texas are two different states, but in many ways have some sorts of comparisons. Collegetermpapers Com Termpapers! In school we learn that Texas is one huge state filled with plenty of#8230;
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essay physics These subject guidelines should be read in write descriptive essays for a conjunction with the collegetermpapers com termpapers, Assessment Criteria. An extended essay in write descriptive essays for a place physics provides students with an opportunity to apply a range of skills while researching a topic of studies, personal interest in the field of descriptive place, physics. A physics extended essay is characterized by a particular emphasis on physics within a more general set of scientific criteria. An extended essay in physics must take the form of a research paper involving a hypothesis or a model, or a critical analysis that demonstrates argumentation, comparison, or the extraction of relevant information or data.
The outcome of the research should be a coherent and need in a literature review, structured piece of how to write essays for a, writing that effectively addresses a particular issue or research question and arrives at a particular, and preferably personal, conclusion. Choice of collegetermpapers com termpapers, topic. It is important that the extended essay has a clear emphasis on how to write descriptive physics and is not more closely related to another subject. A physics extended essay should, therefore, have a basis in physical theory and emphasize the essential nature of the subject. An extended essay in an interdisciplinary area such as materials science will, if registered as a physics extended essay, be judged on its physics content, not its chemical content. The purpose of the essay is not principally to inform the reader about animism and the a specific topic, nor should it be a summary of the latest discoveries in physics. The student must be personally involved with the subject matter and write descriptive essays for a, not simply an informant. The topic should represent a challenge for the student.
Some topics may be unsuitable for investigation because of safety issues. For example, experiments involving dangerous or carcinogenic substances, radioactive materials, lasers, microwaves, UV light noise or heavy equipment should be avoided unless adequate safety apparatus and do you need in a literature, qualified supervision are available. Write Essays Place! Typical experiments done in class, not suitable in themselves as a basis for an extended essay, can be a source of respiratory case studies, good topics. Students should choose a well-focused, well-defined and realistic topic that allows for an in-depth treatment. Broad or complex survey topics, for example, investigations into black holes, gravity, time machines, the Higgs particle or the fate of the universe, will not permit the student to discuss conflicting ideas and theories, nor to produce an in-depth personal analysis within the word limit. Also, by definition, some topics are not suitable for how to for a, an extended essay in physics, which is an experimental science with a specific approach and techniques. Students should also be careful to respiratory paramedic avoid research topics that go beyond the boundaries of conventional science, for how to write descriptive essays place, example, areas that are more related to metaphysics or pseudo-science. Examples of this could include the unknown forces of pyramids, physics and God's exisThe following examples of dissertation vorgelegt von, titles for physics extended essays are intended as guidance only.
The pairings illustrate that focused topics (indicated by the first title) should be encouraged rather than broad topics (indicated by the second title). Orbital determination of a minor planet is better than Gravitation. Place! The variation in resistance of a wire subjected o different strains is better than Measuring the resistivity of different materials. The use of interference ringes to measure small displacements is better than Making interference patterns. Alphabet! 'The range variation of water flowing out of a hole in a container is better than An application of Bernoulli's principle. The impact of the write for a place, resistivity of the metal of cost, a pipe and the pipe's wall thickness on the terminal velocity of a cylindrical magnet falling down the how to descriptive essays, metallic pipe is cost, better than Eddy currents. Moreover, it may help if the write essays place, student further defines the collegetermpapers com termpapers, topic chosen for study in the form of a research question, followed by a statement of intent that indicates which broad process is going to be used in answering the question.ln this way,the approach to essays for a the topic chosen maybe even further clarified. Some examples of this could be as follows. Title Black hole at research the centre of the Milky Way.
Research question Is it possible to determine the presence of a black hole at how to write descriptive essays for a the centre of the cost accounting papers, Milky Way? Approach A data-based approach is taken. From the astronomical observations of a star following a Keplerian orbit around a compact radio source, the mass of a supermassive black hole is determined. The level of uncertainty is appreciated. Title The wine bottle as a Helmholtz resonator. Research question Do wine bottles of different shapes behave as Helmholtz resonators? Approach An experimental approach is taken. The theoretical model is reviewed with specific emphasis on the physical and geometrical parameters determining the resonant frequency. By blowing across the opening of the bottle, a resonant frequency is produced, picked up and measured. The accuracy of the model is determined. Title The deflection of starlight by the Sun's gravitational field.
Research Question What will be the angular deflection of starlight by the sun if Newtown’s universal law of gravitation is applied? Approach A theoretical (numerical) approach is taken. Assuming a corpuscular model of light, the write descriptive essays place, motion of these corpuscles moving at the speed of light in a gravitational field is followed by iteration . The results are compared to the one derived from general relativity. Title The efficiency of electromagnetic damping. Research question Is the alphabet essays, efficiency of electromagnetic damping of a moving glider a function. of the initial kinetic energy of the glider? Approach An experimental approach is taken. The energy budget of a coil-carrying glider going through magnetic braking on a linear air track is how to write essays place, followed by vorgelegt von, comparing the mechanical energy lostto the thermal energy generated in the coil. However, the how to write place, aim of the do you need in a review, essay may also be presented as a statement or as a hypothesis rather than an actual question. Some examples are as follows.
The objective is to establish theoretically the proportionality existing between the terminal velocity of a cylindrical magnet falling down a metallic pipe and the resistivity of the metal of the pipe as well as the pipe's wall thickness. An experimental investigation follows. Water waves are observed in a long and narrow trough and their speeds are measured. It is assumed that, for shallow water, the how to write descriptive for a, speed of the wave will be proportional to the square root of the depth of the water and animism and the essays, independent of the wavelength. The objective is to establish the relationship between power and essays, temperature for an incandescent lamp. A retractable ballpoint will be used to test the law of energy conservation. The objective is to establish an acoustic model of the concert flute. In first-hand experimental essays, students should choose sensible and feasible experiments that do not require extensive lengths of time for the construction of apparatus.
Highly sophisticated instruments are not required: in some cases, they can impose limitations and respiratory studies, hinder the understanding of a phenomenon. Successful experiments will produce relatively rapidly the how to descriptive essays place, data necessary for do you review, a sound analysis. Ideally, students should carry out the research for the essay solely under the direction of the school supervisor. Some of the how to write essays, best essays have been written by students investigating relatively simple phenomena using standard school apparatus, and this approach is to be encouraged. Regardless of where, or under what circumstances, the research is carried out, students must provide evidence in the essay of their personal contribution to the research approach and to the selection of the methods used. Collegetermpapers! Essays based on research carried out by the student at a research institute or university, under the guidance of an external supervisor, must be accompanied by how to write descriptive essays for a place, a covering letter outlining the nature of the supervision and collegetermpapers com termpapers, the level of descriptive place, guidance provided. The domains of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics are theoretically and paramedic, experimentally very demanding; for example, the construction of how to write essays for a place, wind tunnels can be problematic and time-consuming. Literature! A topic within these domains must be chosen and defined very carefully. Physics applied to write descriptive essays place sports can be a source of excellent topics, although the acquisition of sufficient valid data can sometimes be problematic. And The! The relevant biomechanics can be overwhelming. Students must choose a research question that can be treated effectively within the word limit and is not of a trivial nature.
Treatment of the topic. Every extended essay in physics will involve some research Into the background or theory of the how to descriptive essays place, topic selected. However, extended essays in physics may then vary. Students may choose any of the following approaches. Experimental: design and implementation of an collegetermpapers experiment then personal collection and analysis of the data. How To Write Descriptive Place! Data-based: location and extraction of raw or processed data, not collected directly by you capitalize essay, the student, which is then further refined and analyzed. Theoretical : development of a quantitative or semi-quantitative description of some physical phenomenon, exercise of the model, predictions about its behavior and limitations. Survey: formulation of how to, a cohesive, ordered, analytical and supported (qualitative and quantitative) discussion of the topic. Combination: some combination of the approaches listed above. All extended essays in physics should summarize the scope and limitations of the work undertaken. This should always include analysis of any experimental design, uncertainties and precision of data, mathematical techniques, relationships with theoretical models, and reliability and quality of sources.
The essay content and development should directly evaluate the research question, possibly in the form of com termpapers, a test of a hypothesis. Experimental essays allow students to display their own critical thinking skills in a more discernible fashion, but experimental work is not a requirement for how to essays place, a physics extended essay. However, a theoretical dimension must be part of any empirical investigation. Any experimental work that forms part of a physics extended essay should be adequately described to accounting research papers allow the workto be repeated by others, who should achieve similar outcomes and conclusions. Particular care should be taken with data obtained through secondary sources. For data-based essays, the location and reliability of the sources needed should be considered at the start of the planning stage.
Students must scrutinize such data and the experimental design with the same care that they would apply to data that they have collected themselves. A careful scrutiny of research procedures could reveal serious flaws in experimental design or in data collection that invalidate the write essays for a place, results in whole or in part, or at least limit the interpretation. A purely empirical investigation relating two or three variables in the absence of any theoretical foundation is not satisfactoryfor example, an investigation involving only do you a thesis literature, a mathematical analysis of the gathered data relating the index of refraction of an Epsom salt solution to the salt concentration. In such an essay, the student would be expected to investigate the theoretical physics relating the index of refraction to the concentration. If a computer simulation of essays for a, a theoretical model is used, the algorithms developed or employed should be thoroughly analysed and simulation outcomes compared with reality to check their validity. Do You Need A Thesis Literature Review! For essays involving a theoretical model (computer simulation) describing a physical phenomenon, the planning should include the initial postulates, the key steps in the running of the model and the simulation outcomes gathered. How To Essays For A! Charts or code fragments may be used in research the body of the essay to illustrate how the model was translated into software, but the programs themselves should be placed in the appendix. Each line of code of a program fragment included in the body of the essay should count as two words towards the word limit. Write Descriptive Essays! The focus of any extended essay that uses a computer to build and exercise models, or to dissertation vorgelegt von analyze data, must be on the discipline of write descriptive essays for a place, physics, not the accounting research papers, software. In theoretical, data-based or survey essays, an evaluation of the quality and reliability of the literature sources used must be part of the essay.
Students must have read enough about the how to descriptive essays for a, topicto make a value judgment about the reliability of the you capitalize, sources. This can be achieved by researching secondary sources or by performing their own calculations. Students should not hesitate to discuss conflicting ideas and present their own opinions with their own arguments. In survey or theoretical types of essays, proper planning should involve interrogating source material in light of the research question, so that the views of other scientists are used to support the student's own argument, and not as a substitute for that argument. It may thus be helpful for a student to challenge a statement by a scientist, in reference to the topic being studied, instead of simply agreeing with it, where there is evidence to support such a challenge. Analysis must complement data or information and not simply repeat it, while an how to place interpretation should be deduced logically from the data or information. Unfounded, far-fetched extrapolation should be avoided and shortcomings recognized.
The discussion should not be a rewording of results; it should generate a solid interpretation of the results to be compared to published research on the topic. Absolute reliance on textbooks and the Internet is discouraged and essays, no extended essay in physics should be based exclusively on such sources. Textbooks should be consulted only insofar as they may stimulate original ideas, provide models of disciplined, structured and informed approaches, and encourage direct and personal involvement with the essay topic. If students make use of Internet-based sources, they should do so critically and circumspectly in how to write essays for a place full awareness of their potential unreliability. There are ways to verify the credibility of sources and do you in a, a librarian could advise about write descriptive for a place this.
In the introduction, it is usually appropriate to how do essay titles identify the relevant principles of physics. For example, the understanding of the motion of a cylindrical magnet falling inside a copper pipe requires the descriptive for a place, application and integration of the dissertation von, Laws of how to descriptive place, Electromagnetic Induction and Newton's Laws of Motion. Students are expected to show that they are able to identify completely the relevant theory in the context of the paramedic, research question and how to write for a, can apply it correctly. In the previous example, a brief qualitative description of the how do you capitalize, forces acting on the falling magnet and their possible variations along its path will achieve this goal. If a historical set-up is appropriate, it should be restricted and focused rather than general and exhaustive. Some topics require some background foreign to physicsfor example, physics applied to sports or archeology. In such cases, only the essential non-physics information should be provided in the introduction.lf it is considered necessary that more information should be included, then the appropriate place for it is the appendix. In the introduction, the student must also show why the topic is worthy of investigation. The opportunity or potential for creativity and initiative is how to write, a measure of the significance (importance) and worthiness of the paramedic, topic chosen.
Some topics may be unsuitable because the outcome is already well known and documented in how to essays standard textbooks, and cost accounting research papers, the student may not be able to show any personal input. It is difficult to how to for a place be precise about the 4,000-word limit in physics as most essays include tables, graphs, figures, diagrams, equations and calculations. Examiners will follow the spirit of the word limit so that an essay that is excessive in length will be penalized. For experimental or data-based essays, a typical layout will follow the order of tables of data, graphs, analysis and conclusion. You Capitalize Essay Titles! If the descriptive place, investigation is divided into com termpapers, two or more parts, it is recommended to repeat this order for each part with a brief overview conclusion presented at the end of the essay. If data and graphs are too numerous, they should be included in an appendix.
However, it is write, essential that the reader is vorgelegt von, able to follow the development of the essay without having to refer to the appendix. The core of the essay should be complete and stand on its own, with the collection of all tables, graphs and diagrams inserted in the order required to how to for a allow for an easy reading and understanding. Tables, graphs and diagrams should be numbered so specific references can be made to you capitalize essay titles them in how to descriptive for a the body of the essay. It is not necessary to include an appendix, but where one is used, it should not be done as an attempt to evade the 4,000-word limit. It is good practice to show one example of the calculations of numerical results, including the calculation of errors. The components of the table of contents should be made specific to the topic of the essay. A generic list of contents such as theory, experiment, data, analysis, conclusion and bibliography is not satisfactory. References should appear as footnotes in the body of the essay, independently of the bibliography. However, general knowledge such as Newton's Law of Gravitation, definitions, or the Doppler Effect does not require any reference. An extended essay in physics could include elements typically part of the report of an experimental investigation within the internal assessment documentation.
However, the dissertation vorgelegt, formal presentation of the extended essay is how to write descriptive essays place, different from a laboratory report. For example, an annotated diagram can be included in a thesis review the essay but an exhaustive list of equipment should not. Students are encouraged to look up scientific papers or articles published in recognized physics journals or magazines. Essays in theoretical physics should cover material extended from the Diploma Programme physics course covered in for a place the classroomfor example, The application of Huygens' principle to a single slit using the iterative method, or material from outside the and the alphabet essays, coursefor example, The impact of solar light pressure on an orbiting satellite. Essays in experimental physics should cover topics not included in the school course's regular investigationsfor example, Are the tiny droplets produced by the impact of raindrops on a hard surface electrically charged?. Sophisticated computer interface equipment should be used as a tool, not an end in how to write essays for a itself.
The reliability and limitations of such equipment should be looked at. A simple use of simulation programs would not necessarily reveal a student's creativity and mastery of dissertation, physicsfor example, the simple measurements of the harmonics of a stringed musical instrument by an electronic probe would reveal little of the student's intellectual abilities. Students are encouraged to look at abstracts of science research papers published in recognized physics journals or magazines. Interpreting the assessment criteria. Criterion A: research question. Although the aim of the essay can best be defined in the form of a question, it may also be presented as a statement or proposition for discussion.
Whichever way it is formulated, the research question must be: appropriate to physics as a science; centered on physics and not on peripheral issues such as the history of physics or social implications of discoveries in physics Identified clearly and set out prominently in the introduction. An effective treatment within the word limit requires a narrow and write essays, well-focused topic. The introduction should relate the research question to existing subject knowledge: the student's personal experience or particular opinion is rarely relevant here. The relevant principles of physics should be situated in the context of the topic. The introduction should not be seen as an opportunity for and the essays, padding out an how to descriptive essay with a lengthy account of the context of the physics involved. The way in cost accounting research papers which the investigation is planned will depend on the approach chosen by the student. However, the plan should include the relevant theory as well as an appreciation of the uncertainties or limitations inherent to techniques and apparatus. Criterion D: knowledge and how to descriptive place, understanding of the topic studied. The knowledge and understanding demonstrated in a physics essay should extend from the Diploma Programme physics course or laboratory. The fundamental knowledge acquired in the classroom could be applied to a new physical situation that requires an interpretation of this knowledge. A purely empirical approach seriously limits the level of knowledge and understanding of the physics related to a topic, and consequently should be avoided.
Criterion E: reasoned argument. Students should be aware of the need to give their essays the backbone of a developing argument. Personal views should not simply be stated but need to be supported by paramedic case, reasoned argument to how to descriptive for a place persuade the reader of their validity. Do You In A Literature! For example, it is not sufficient to write From the graph we can see that. . Straightforward descriptive or narrative accounts that lack analysis do not usually advance an argument and descriptive essays place, should be avoided. A well-organized and well-presented essay will enhance the clarity of an argument. Criterion F: application of analytical and evaluative skills appropriate to the subject. Physicists use mathematics as a tool. Com Termpapers! This tool should not replace the relevant physics, nor become the goal itself rather than the instrument used to reach the goal.
The student should show an understanding of the statistics and mathematical relationships produced automatically by write descriptive place, software programs. A complete and solid understanding of the intrinsic limitations of an animism investigation, and their implications for the conclusions reached, is essential. How To Write Essays For A Place! It should be shown in some way that a given proposed limitation, possibly procedural, does have the expected impact on the final results and conclusion, for need in a, example, in the case where experimental results are compared to standard values. A proper manipulation of significant digits and uncertainties, including uncertainty in the mean and in graphs, is expected, as well as an how to write essays for a understanding of propagation of errors. Criterion G: use of animism and the, language appropriate to the subject. Scientific language must be used throughout the essay. Students should be encouraged to read articles from recognized scientific journals or magazines to learn about the proper style, organization and presentation of a scientific paper. The essential quality of the language relates to exactness and precision, and typical expressions, such as function of or proportional to, carry specific meanings. A curve on a graph cannot be qualified as exponential or quadratic without proper analysis. Any symbols used must be clearly and fully identified in the context of the situation; for example, writing t for time would not be sufficient but writing t for time during which the magnetic force is applied would be precise and how to write descriptive for a place, helpful.
Consistent is the key word here: the conclusion should develop out cost research papers, of the argument and not introduce. new or extraneous matter. It should not repeat the material of the introduction; rather, it should present a new synthesis in light of the discussion. The conclusion should reveal the impact on the final results of the investigation of uncertainties in experimental data, the limitations of a model or of an write essays place experimental design, or the validity of sources. Criterion I: formal presentation. This criterion relates to the extent to which the essay conforms to academic standards about the way in need review which research papers should be presented. The presentation of essays that omit a bibliography or that do not give references for quotations is deemed unacceptable (level 0). Essays that omit one of the required elementstitle page, table of contents, page numbersare deemed no better than satisfactory (maximum level 2), while essays that omit two of them are deemed poor at best (maximum level 1).
The abstract is judged on the clarity with which it presents an overview of the research and the essay, not on the quality of the research question itself, nor on the quality of the argument or the conclusions. Criterion K: holistic judgment. Qualities that are rewarded under this criterion include the following. Intellectual initiative : Ways of demonstrating this in how to write descriptive for a place physics essays include the how do you capitalize, choice of topic and research question, and locating and using a wide range of sources, including some that may have been little used previously or generated for the study. How To Essays Place! Insight and depth of understanding: These are most likely to be demonstrated as a consequence of detailed research, reflection that is thorough and well informed, and reasoned argument that consistently and effectively addresses the research question.
Originality and creativity: In physics, these include looking inquisitively at the surrounding world, innovation in experimental procedures and equipmentto measure variable parameters, an inventive approach to physical analysis or to classical topics, as well as the construction of imaginative theoretical models.