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blanki resume BLANK, MARTIN, Ph.D. Special Lecturer (Retired) Effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on cells and reactions with DNA, as in the cellular stress response. MARTIN BLANK earned PhDs in physical chemistry (1957) from Columbia University and in colloid science (1960) from University of Cambridge. He came to the department in 1959, retired as Associate Professor in 2011 and is now a Special Lecturer. His research has been on marketing, membranes, transport processes, excitation, and recently on health effects of online essay checker for grammar electromagnetic radiation (EMR). His book on health effects of EMR is due out at the end of 2013. During his tenure, he had short-term appointments at 11 universities around the world, as well as at five industrial research labs and the US Office of Naval Research. He also organized many meetings, including two World Congresses on Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 4 Erice (Italy) Courses on Bioelectrochemistry, and he started the Gordon Research Conferences on Bioelectrochemistry. He has been Chairman of the Organic and Biological Division of the Electrochemical Society, President of the master thesis marketing methodology Bioelectrochemical Society, President of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, and has been on editorial boards of ninety 5 thesis Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, Electromagnetic Medicine and Biology. He was editor of the 2009 special issue of Pathophysiology on master marketing, EMR.
He has published over 200 papers and reviews, as well as twelve edited books on electrical properties of biological systems, including the Proceedings of the First World Congress on Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, Electromagnetic Fields: Biological Interactions and gratis Mechanisms. He was one of the thesis organizers of the online Bioinitiative Report, and edited the 2009 update in essay checker for grammar Pathophysiology. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been used therapeutically for accelerated healing and pain control, but they have also been associated with adverse health effects. To understand these biological effects, we have been studying the interaction of thesis low frequency EM fields with cells at both the cellular and molecular levels. Our studies with cells have shown that power frequency (60Hz) fields induce stress genes and stress response proteins in cells. The stress response is a protective mechanism induced by harmful environmental stimuli and is characterized by the synthesis of specific proteins that assist the renaturation and transport of damaged proteins.
Our studies suggest that EMR initiates the stress response by interacting with electrons within DNA. We have identified a 900 base pair segment associated with the response to EMR, that when removed, eliminates the thesis response, and when transfected into a reporter construct, causes the construct to become EMR responsive. We have also investigated EMR interactions at the molecular level through effects on three reactions, electron transfer in cytochrome oxidase, ATP hydrolysis by the Na,K-ATPase, and the Belousov-Zhabotinski (BZ) reaction (the catalyzed oxidation of malonic acid). All three reactions show: • EMR accelerates the reaction rate, i.e., electron transfer rate. • EMR competes with the chemical force driving the reaction, so the effect of EMR varies inversely with the reaction rate. Methodology. • Interaction thresholds are low, comparable to levels found in EMR-cancer epidemiology studies. • Effects vary with frequency, and there appear to fuente thesis be different optima for the reactions studied: ATPase (60Hz), cytochrome oxidase (800Hz), BZ (250Hz) These properties, in addition to stimulation of thesis marketing methodology DNA in the cellular stress response, are consistent with EMR effects on many biological systems through interaction with electrons moving during redox reactions and also within DNA. Obama's. The ubiquity of EMR reactions with DNA and the low observed reaction thresholds indicate the need for greater caution and control over the spread of EMR in master thesis marketing the environment. Blank M (2014) Overpowered: The Dangers of kidnapping Electromagnetic Radiation (EMF) and What You Can Do About It. Seven Stories Press, 271pp. Blank M (2014) Cell Biology and EMF Safety Standards. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine.
Posted online on August 25, 2014. (doi:10.3109/15368378.2014.952433) Blank M (2012) Section 7, pp. 1-39. Evidence for Stress Response (Stress Proteins). In BioInitiative Report - A Scientific Perspective on Health Risk of thesis methodology Electromagnetic Fields. Published Online December 31, 2012. Blank M, Goodman R (2012) Electromagnetic fields and health: DNA-based dosimetry. Checker. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 31(4):243-249. Master Methodology. Blank M, Goodman R (2012) Electromagnetic Fields and Health: DNA-based Dosimetry. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine.
Early Online: 1–7, 2011 Copyright Q Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. ISSN: 1536-8378 print / 1536-8386 online DOI: 10.3109/15368378.2011.624662. Blank M, Goodman R (2011) DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields (EMF). Internat. J. Radiation Biol 87: 409-15. Goodman R, Lin-Ye A, Matthew S. Geddis MS, Wickramaratne PJ, Susan E. Hodge SE, Pantazatos S, Blank M, Richard T. Ambron RT (2009) Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields activate the ERK cascade, increase hsp70 protein levels and promote regeneration in Planaria. International Journal of thesis Radiation Biology, in press 85: 851–859. Blank M, Goodman R (2009) Electromagnetic Fields Stress Living Cells. Pathophysiology, published on line, doi 10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.
10.01.006. Blank M, editor (2009) Special issue of master thesis marketing Pathophysiology, devoted to Electromagnetic Fields. Published on line, doi 10.1016/j.pathophys.2009. 10.02.002. George I, Geddis MS, Lill Z, Lin H, Gomez T, Blank M, Oz MC, Goodman R (2008) Myocardial Function Improved by Electromagnetic Field Induction of Stress Protein hsp70. Journal of Cellular Physiology.
216: 816-823. Published Online: 4 March 2008 DOI: 10.1002/jcp.21461. Blank M (2008) EMF Dose Defined by Biology. Biotech. Bioelectromagnetics Society Newsletter, January-February, 200:6-7. Blank, M. 2008.
Protein and DNA Reaction Stimulated by master marketing methodology, Electromagnetic Fields. Bioelectromagnetic Biology and ninety 5 thesis Medicine 27: 1-21. Thesis Marketing. Blank, M., and Goodman, R. 2007. Online For Grammar. A Mechanism for Stimulation of Biosynthesis by Electromagnetic Fields: Charge Transfer in DNA and Base Pair Separation. Journal of master thesis marketing methodology Cellular Physiology.
Published Online: 9 Jul 2007 DOI: 10.1002/jcp.21198. Blank, M. Master. 2007. Section 7, pp. 1-40. Evidence for marketing methodology, Stress Response (Stress Proteins). In BioInitiative Report A Scientific Perspective on nature biotech cover, Health Risk of Electromagnetic Fields. Published Online 31 August 2007 Section 7, pp.
1-40. http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/index.htm. Thesis Methodology. Blank, M. 2005. A proposed explanation for effects of online essay electric and magnetic fields on the Na,K-ATPase in terms of interactions with electrons. Bioelectromagnetics 26(8):591-597. Blank, M., and Goodman, R. 2004. Initial interactions in electromagnetic field-induced biosynthesis.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 199:359-363. Blank, M., and Goodman, R. 2004. Thesis Marketing Methodology. A biological guide for electromagnetic safety: The stress response. Bioelectromagnetics, 25(8):642-646. Weisbrot, D., Lin, H., Ye, L., Blank, M., and Goodman, R. 2003. Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Reproduction and Development in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of online checker for grammar Cellular Biochemistry 89: 48-55. Blank, M., and Soo, L. 2003. Electromagnetic acceleration of thesis Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction. Bioelectrochemistry 61: 93-97.Blank, M and Goodman, R (2003) Stress Protein Synthesis and Enzyme Reactions are Stimulated by Electromagnetic Fields. In Magnetotherapy: Potential Therapeutic Benefits and Adverse Effects.
MJ McLean, S Engstr_m, RR Holcomb (eds), Floating Gallery Press, New York, pp. 19-28. Honors. Goodman, R., and Blank, M. 2002. Master Thesis Marketing Methodology. Insights into Electromagnetic Interaction Mechanisms. Journal of Cellular Physiology 192:16-22. Blank, M., and honors criteria Goodman, R. 2002. Interaction of marketing methodology Weak Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields with DNA: Mechanism and Biomedical Applications. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 30: 1497-1500. Lin, H., Blank, M., Rossol-Haseroth, K., and Goodman, R. 2001.
Regulating Genes with Electromagnetic Response Elements Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 81:143-148. Blank, M., and Soo, L. Nature Biotech Letter. 2001. Electromagnetic Acceleration of master thesis marketing methodology Electron Transfer Reactions. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 81: 278-283. Blank, M., and Soo, L., 2001. Optimal Frequencies in Magnetic Field Acceleration of Cytochrome Oxidase and Na,K-ATPase Reactions. Bioelectrochemistry 53: 171-174. Blank, M., and Goodman, R. 2001.
Electromagnetic Initiation of Transcription at Specific DNA Sites. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 81: 689-692. Blank, M., and Goodman, R. 2000. Stimulation of the Cellular Stress Response by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields: Possibility of Direct Interaction with DNA. Ninety 5 Thesis. IEEE Transactions on marketing, Plasma Science 28:168-172. Carmody, S., Wu, X.L., Lin, H., Blank, M., Skopicki, H., and Goodman, R. Master. 2000. Cytoprotection by Electromagnetic Field-Induced hsp70: A Model for Clinical Application. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 79:453-459. Lin, H., Blank, M., and methodology Goodman, R. 1999, Magnetic Field-Responsive Domain in the Human HSP70 Promoter.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 75:170-176. Blank, M. 1999. Mechanisms of Biological Interaction with Electric and Magnetic Fields. Plenary Lecture. Proceedings of Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine. Bersani, editor, Plenum, pp.
21-25. Goodman, R., and Blank, M. 1998. Magnetic Field Induces Expression of hsp70. Cell Stress and nature cover letter Chaperones 3:79-88. Blank, M., and Soo, L. 1998. Enhancement of Cytochrome Oxidase Activity in 60Hz Magnetic Fields. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 45:253-259. Han, L., Lin, H., Head, M., Jin, M., Blank, M. and Goodman, R., 1998. Application of Magnetic Field-Induced Hsp70 for Pre-Surgical Cytoprotection. Journal of master thesis methodology Cellular Biochemistry 71:577-583.
Blank, M., and Soo, L., 1998. Frequency Dependence of Cytochrome Oxidase Activity in Magnetic Fields. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 46:139-143.
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Master Thesis - The Importance of Sustainable Business
Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo. Latter-day Saints believe that monogamy—the marriage of one man and one woman—is the Lord’s standing law of marriage. 1 In biblical times, the Lord commanded some of His people to practice plural marriage—the marriage of one man and thesis methodology more than one woman. 2 Some early members of The Church of thesis, Jesus Christ of marketing, Latter-day Saints also received and obeyed this commandment given through God’s prophets. After receiving a revelation commanding him to practice plural marriage, Joseph Smith married multiple wives and introduced the gratis, practice to close associates. This principle was among the most challenging aspects of the marketing methodology, Restoration—for Joseph personally and for other Church members. Plural marriage tested faith and master thesis provoked controversy and opposition.
Few Latter-day Saints initially welcomed the restoration of master thesis marketing methodology, a biblical practice entirely foreign to their sensibilities. But many later testified of lindbergh research, powerful spiritual experiences that helped them overcome their hesitation and gave them courage to accept this practice. Although the Lord commanded the adoption—and later the cessation—of plural marriage in the latter days, He did not give exact instructions on how to obey the commandment. Significant social and cultural changes often include misunderstandings and difficulties. Church leaders and members experienced these challenges as they heeded the command to practice plural marriage and thesis methodology again later as they worked to discontinue it after Church President Wilford Woodruff issued an thesis, inspired statement known as the Manifesto in 1890, which led to the end of plural marriage in the Church. Through it all, Church leaders and members sought to follow God’s will. Many details about the early practice of plural marriage are unknown. Plural marriage was introduced among the master marketing, early Saints incrementally, and participants were asked to keep their actions confidential.
They did not discuss their experiences publicly or in writing until after the Latter-day Saints had moved to Utah and essay for grammar Church leaders had publicly acknowledged the practice. The historical record of early plural marriage is therefore thin: few records of the master thesis marketing, time provide details, and research later reminiscences are not always reliable. Some ambiguity will always accompany our knowledge about this issue. Like the master thesis marketing methodology, participants, we “see through a glass, darkly” and cover are asked to walk by faith. 3. The Beginnings of Plural Marriage in the Church. The revelation on plural marriage was not written down until 1843, but its early verses suggest that part of it emerged from Joseph Smith’s study of the Old Testament in marketing 1831. People who knew Joseph well later stated he received the revelation about that time. Papers. 4 The revelation, recorded in thesis methodology Doctrine and Covenants 132, states that Joseph prayed to know why God justified Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, and Solomon in having many wives.
The Lord responded that He had commanded them to enter into the practice. 5. Latter-day Saints understood that they were living in the latter days, in what the revelations called the “dispensation of the fulness of times.” 6 Ancient principles—such as prophets, priesthood, and temples—would be restored to the earth. Plural marriage was one of those ancient principles. Polygamy had been permitted for ninety 5 thesis, millennia in many cultures and thesis marketing methodology religions, but, with few exceptions, was rejected in research Western cultures. 7 In Joseph Smith’s time, monogamy was the only legal form of thesis marketing, marriage in the United States. Joseph knew the practice of plural marriage would stir up public ire.
After receiving the commandment, he taught a few associates about lindbergh it, but he did not spread this teaching widely in the 1830s. 8. When God commands a difficult task, He sometimes sends additional messengers to encourage His people to obey. Thesis Marketing. Consistent with this pattern, Joseph told associates that an honors thesis, angel appeared to him three times between 1834 and 1842 and commanded him to proceed with plural marriage when he hesitated to move forward. During the thesis methodology, third and final appearance, the obama's, angel came with a drawn sword, threatening Joseph with destruction unless he went forward and obeyed the commandment fully. 9. Fragmentary evidence suggests that Joseph Smith acted on the angel’s first command by marrying a plural wife, Fanny Alger, in Kirtland, Ohio, in the mid-1830s.
Several Latter-day Saints who had lived in Kirtland reported decades later that Joseph Smith had married Alger, who lived and master thesis marketing methodology worked in the Smith household, after he had obtained her consent and ninety 5 thesis that of her parents. 10 Little is known about this marriage, and thesis methodology nothing is known about the conversations between Joseph and Emma regarding Alger. After the marriage with Alger ended in separation, Joseph seems to have set the subject of plural marriage aside until after the Church moved to kidnapping research Nauvoo, Illinois. Plural Marriage and Eternal Marriage. The same revelation that taught of master thesis marketing, plural marriage was part of a larger revelation given to Joseph Smith—that marriage could last beyond death and that eternal marriage was essential to inheriting the fulness that God desires for thesis, His children. As early as 1840, Joseph Smith privately taught Apostle Parley P. Pratt that the “heavenly order” allowed Pratt and his wife to be together “for time and all eternity.” 11 Joseph also taught that men like Pratt—who had remarried following the death of his first wife—could be married (or sealed) to their wives for eternity, under the thesis methodology, proper conditions. 12.
The sealing of husband and wife for lindbergh research papers, eternity was made possible by the restoration of priesthood keys and marketing ordinances. On April 3, 1836, the Old Testament prophet Elijah appeared to fuente Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery in the Kirtland Temple and restored the master thesis marketing, priesthood keys necessary to perform ordinances for the living and fuente gratis the dead, including sealing families together. Thesis Marketing. 13 Marriages performed by priesthood authority could link loved ones to each other for eternity, on condition of letter, righteousness; marriages performed without this authority would end at death. 14. Marriage performed by marketing methodology priesthood authority meant that the fuente thesis gratis, procreation of children and perpetuation of families would continue into the eternities. Joseph Smith’s revelation on marriage declared that the “continuation of the seeds forever and ever” helped to fulfill God’s purposes for His children.
15 This promise was given to all couples who were married by priesthood authority and master thesis were faithful to their covenants. For much of Western history, family “interest”—economic, political, and social considerations—dominated the choice of spouse. Parents had the power to arrange marriages or forestall unions of which they disapproved. By the late 1700s, romance and honors criteria personal choice began to rival these traditional motives and practices. 16 By Joseph Smith’s time, many couples insisted on marrying for love, as he and marketing methodology Emma did when they eloped against her parents’ wishes. Latter-day Saints’ motives for plural marriage were often more religious than economic or romantic. Besides the desire to be obedient, a strong incentive was the hope of living in lindbergh research papers God’s presence with family members. In the revelation on marriage, the Lord promised participants “crowns of eternal lives” and “exaltation in the eternal worlds.” 17 Men and women, parents and children, ancestors and progeny were to be “sealed” to thesis methodology each other—their commitment lasting into the eternities, consistent with Jesus’s promise that priesthood ordinances performed on obama's master earth could be “bound in heaven.” 18. The first plural marriage in Nauvoo took place when Louisa Beaman and Joseph Smith were sealed in April 1841. 19 Joseph married many additional wives and master marketing methodology authorized other Latter-day Saints to practice plural marriage. The practice spread slowly at first.
By June 1844, when Joseph died, approximately 29 men and 50 women had entered into plural marriage, in addition to Joseph and his wives. When the Saints entered the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, at least 196 men and 521 women had entered into plural marriages. 20 Participants in these early plural marriages pledged to keep their involvement confidential, though they anticipated a time when the practice would be publicly acknowledged. Nevertheless, rumors spread. A few men unscrupulously used these rumors to seduce women to join them in an unauthorized practice sometimes referred to as “spiritual wifery.” When this was discovered, the men were cut off from the Church. 21 The rumors prompted members and thesis gratis leaders to thesis marketing issue carefully worded denials that denounced spiritual wifery and thesis polygamy but were silent about what Joseph Smith and others saw as divinely mandated “celestial” plural marriage. 22 The statements emphasized that the Church practiced no marital law other than monogamy while implicitly leaving open the possibility that individuals, under direction of God’s living prophet, might do so. 23.
During the master marketing, era in biotech letter which plural marriage was practiced, Latter-day Saints distinguished between sealings for time and eternity and sealings for eternity only. Sealings for time and eternity included commitments and relationships during this life, generally including the possibility of sexual relations. Eternity-only sealings indicated relationships in the next life alone. Evidence indicates that Joseph Smith participated in both types of sealings. The exact number of women to whom he was sealed in his lifetime is thesis marketing methodology, unknown because the evidence is fragmentary.
24 Some of the women who were sealed to Joseph Smith later testified that their marriages were for kidnapping research papers, time and eternity, while others indicated that their relationships were for master, eternity alone. 25. Most of those sealed to ninety 5 thesis Joseph Smith were between 20 and 40 years of age at master thesis marketing the time of their sealing to him. The oldest, Fanny Young, was 56 years old. The youngest was Helen Mar Kimball, daughter of obama's master, Joseph’s close friends Heber C. and Vilate Murray Kimball, who was sealed to Joseph several months before her 15th birthday. Marriage at master such an age, inappropriate by today’s standards, was legal in that era, and some women married in their mid-teens. 26 Helen Mar Kimball spoke of her sealing to thesis Joseph as being “for eternity alone,” suggesting that the relationship did not involve sexual relations.
27 After Joseph’s death, Helen remarried and became an articulate defender of him and of plural marriage. 28. Following his marriage to Louisa Beaman and before he married other single women, Joseph Smith was sealed to a number of women who were already married. 29 Neither these women nor Joseph explained much about these sealings, though several women said they were for eternity alone. 30 Other women left no records, making it unknown whether their sealings were for time and eternity or were for eternity alone. There are several possible explanations for this practice.
These sealings may have provided a way to create an eternal bond or link between Joseph’s family and marketing methodology other families within the Church. 31 These ties extended both vertically, from parent to child, and horizontally, from one family to another. Today such eternal bonds are achieved through the temple marriages of individuals who are also sealed to lindbergh kidnapping research papers their own birth families, in this way linking families together. Joseph Smith’s sealings to women already married may have been an thesis marketing methodology, early version of linking one family to another. In Nauvoo, most if not all of the first husbands seem to have continued living in the same household with their wives during Joseph’s lifetime, and complaints about these sealings with Joseph Smith are virtually absent from the thesis, documentary record. 32. These sealings may also be explained by Joseph’s reluctance to master marketing methodology enter plural marriage because of the sorrow it would bring to his wife Emma. He may have believed that sealings to married women would comply with the Lord’s command without requiring him to have normal marriage relationships. 33 This could explain why, according to Lorenzo Snow, the angel reprimanded Joseph for obama's master, having “demurred” on thesis plural marriage even after he had entered into the practice. 34 After this rebuke, according to this interpretation, Joseph returned primarily to sealings with single women. Another possibility is that, in an era when life spans were shorter than they are today, faithful women felt an urgency to biotech letter be sealed by priesthood authority.
Several of these women were married either to non-Mormons or former Mormons, and thesis marketing more than one of the women later expressed unhappiness in their present marriages. Living in a time when divorce was difficult to obtain, these women may have believed a sealing to Joseph Smith would give them blessings they might not otherwise receive in the next life. 35. The women who united with Joseph Smith in plural marriage risked reputation and self-respect in being associated with a principle so foreign to their culture and ninety 5 thesis so easily misunderstood by others. “I made a greater sacrifice than to give my life,” said Zina Huntington Jacobs, “for I never anticipated again to methodology be looked upon as an obama's master, honorable woman.” Nevertheless, she wrote, “I searched the scripture by master thesis methodology humble prayer to online essay my Heavenly Father I obtained a testimony for myself.” 36 After Joseph’s death, most of the women sealed to him moved to master thesis methodology Utah with the Saints, remained faithful Church members, and defended both plural marriage and fuente thesis gratis Joseph. Master Thesis Marketing. 37. Plural marriage was difficult for all involved. For Joseph Smith’s wife Emma, it was an excruciating ordeal. Records of Emma’s reactions to plural marriage are sparse; she left no firsthand accounts, making it impossible to reconstruct her thoughts.
Joseph and Emma loved and respected each other deeply. After he had entered into plural marriage, he poured out research papers his feelings in his journal for his “beloved Emma,” whom he described as “undaunted, firm and marketing methodology unwavering, unchangeable, affectionate Emma.” After Joseph’s death, Emma kept a lock of his hair in a locket she wore around her neck. 38. Emma approved, at least for a time, of four of Joseph Smith’s plural marriages in Nauvoo, and she accepted all four of those wives into her household. She may have approved of other marriages as well. 39 But Emma likely did not know about all of Joseph’s sealings. 40 She vacillated in obama's master her view of plural marriage, at some points supporting it and at master thesis marketing methodology other times denouncing it. In the research, summer of 1843, Joseph Smith dictated the revelation on marriage, a lengthy and thesis marketing methodology complex text containing both glorious promises and stern warnings, some directed at Emma. 41 The revelation instructed women and men that they must obey God’s law and commands in order to receive the fulness of His glory. The revelation on ninety 5 thesis marriage required that a wife give her consent before her husband could enter into thesis plural marriage.
42 Nevertheless, toward the end of the revelation, the master, Lord said that if the first wife “receive not this law”—the command to practice plural marriage—the husband would be “exempt from the law of Sarah,” presumably the requirement that the husband gain the consent of the first wife before marrying additional women. Thesis Marketing. 43 After Emma opposed plural marriage, Joseph was placed in an agonizing dilemma, forced to choose between the master, will of God and the will of his beloved Emma. He may have thought Emma’s rejection of thesis marketing, plural marriage exempted him from the law of master thesis, Sarah. Her decision to “receive not this law” permitted him to marry additional wives without her consent. Because of Joseph’s early death and master marketing Emma’s decision to remain in Nauvoo and not discuss plural marriage after the Church moved west, many aspects of nature biotech letter, their story remain known only to master methodology the two of them. Years later in Utah, participants in Nauvoo plural marriage discussed their motives for entering into the practice. God declared in the Book of online for grammar, Mormon that monogamy was the standard; at times, however, He commanded plural marriage so His people could “raise up seed unto [Him].” 44 Plural marriage did result in an increased number of children born to believing parents.
45. Some Saints also saw plural marriage as a redemptive process of master thesis methodology, sacrifice and spiritual refinement. According to Helen Mar Kimball, Joseph Smith stated that “the practice of this principle would be the hardest trial the Saints would ever have to test their faith.” Though it was one of the obama's thesis, “severest” trials of methodology, her life, she testified that it had also been “one of the greatest blessings.” 46 Her father, Heber C. Kimball, agreed. “I never felt more sorrowful,” he said of the moment he learned of plural marriage in 1841. “I wept days. … I had a good wife. I was satisfied.” 47. The decision to accept such a wrenching trial usually came only after earnest prayer and intense soul-searching. Brigham Young said that, upon learning of plural marriage, “it was the first time in my life that I had desired the grave.” 48 “I had to pray unceasingly,” he said, “and I had to exercise faith and the Lord revealed to me the truth of it and that satisfied me.” 49 Heber C. Kimball found comfort only after his wife Vilate had a visionary experience attesting to the rightness of plural marriage. “She told me,” Vilate’s daughter later recalled, “she never saw so happy a man as father was when she described the vision and told him she was satisfied and knew it was from God.” 50. Lucy Walker recalled her inner turmoil when Joseph Smith invited her to checker become his wife. “Every feeling of master methodology, my soul revolted against it,” she wrote. Yet, after several restless nights on her knees in kidnapping research papers prayer, she found relief as her room “filled with a holy influence” akin to master marketing methodology “brilliant sunshine.” She said, “My soul was filled with a calm sweet peace that I never knew,” and “supreme happiness took possession of my whole being.” 51. Not all had such experiences. Some Latter-day Saints rejected the principle of fuente, plural marriage and left the Church, while others declined to enter the practice but remained faithful.
52 Nevertheless, for many women and men, initial revulsion and anguish was followed by struggle, resolution, and ultimately, light and master marketing methodology peace. Sacred experiences enabled the Saints to move forward in faith. 53. The challenge of introducing a principle as controversial as plural marriage is almost impossible to overstate. A spiritual witness of fuente, its truthfulness allowed Joseph Smith and other Latter-day Saints to accept this principle.
Difficult as it was, the introduction of plural marriage in master thesis marketing methodology Nauvoo did indeed “raise up seed” unto God. Fuente Thesis. A substantial number of today’s members descend through faithful Latter-day Saints who practiced plural marriage. Church members no longer practice plural marriage. Master Marketing Methodology. 54 Consistent with Joseph Smith’s teachings, the Church permits a man whose wife has died to lindbergh kidnapping papers be sealed to another woman when he remarries. Moreover, members are permitted to perform ordinances on behalf of deceased men and women who married more than once on earth, sealing them to all of the spouses to master thesis methodology whom they were legally married. The precise nature of these relationships in the next life is not known, and many family relationships will be sorted out in the life to come. Latter-day Saints are encouraged to trust in our wise Heavenly Father, who loves His children and does all things for their growth and salvation. 55.
See “The Family: A Proclamation to thesis criteria the World”; Jacob 2:27, 30. Doctrine and master Covenants 132:34–39; Jacob 2:30; see also Genesis 16. 1 Corinthians 13:12; Jeffrey R. Holland, “Lord, I Believe,” Ensign, May 2013. Nature Cover Letter. See Andrew Jenson, “Plural Marriage,” Historical Record 6 (May 1887): 232–33; “Report of master thesis marketing, Elders Orson Pratt and lindbergh kidnapping Joseph F. Smith,” Millennial Star 40 (Dec. Thesis Marketing. 16, 1878): 788; Danel W. Bachman, “New Light on an Old Hypothesis: The Ohio Origins of the lindbergh research, Revelation on thesis marketing methodology Eternal Marriage,” Journal of Mormon History 5 (1978): 19–32. See Doctrine and Covenants 132:1, 34–38. Doctrine and Covenants 112:30; 124:41; 128:18. “Polygamy,” in The Oxford Dictionary of lindbergh kidnapping research, World Religions, ed. John Bowker (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 757; John Cairncross, After Polygamy Was Made a Sin: The Social History of Christian Polygamy (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1974). Lorenzo Snow, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, p. 124, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:193; Ezra Booth to Ira Eddy, Dec.
6, 1831, in Ohio Star, Dec. 8, 1831. See Brian C. Hales, “Encouraging Joseph Smith to Practice Plural Marriage: The Accounts of the thesis marketing methodology, Angel with a Drawn Sword,” Mormon Historical Studies 11, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 69–70. See Andrew Jenson, Research Notes, Andrew Jenson Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Benjamin F. Johnson to Gibbs, 1903, Benjamin F. Johnson Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; “Autobiography of kidnapping research, Levi Ward Hancock,” Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Thesis. Parley P. Pratt, The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of obama's master, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, ed. Thesis. Parley P. Pratt Jr. (New York: Russell Brothers, 1874), 329. Hyrum Smith, sermon, Apr. For Grammar. 8, 1844, Historian’s Office General Church Minutes, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.
These were the same priesthood keys Elijah had given to Apostles anciently. (See Matthew 16:19; 17:1–9; Doctrine and Covenants 2.) Doctrine and Covenants 132:7; 131:2–3. Master Marketing. Doctrine and Covenants 132:19–20, 63; see also “Becoming Like God.” Stephanie Coontz, Marriage, A History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage (New York: Viking Penguin, 2005), 145–60; Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500–1800, abridged ed. (Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books, 1985), 217–53. Doctrine and Covenants 132:55, 63. Doctrine and Covenants 132:46; Matthew 16:19. Joseph Smith’s practice of fuente gratis, plural marriage has been discussed by master thesis Latter-day Saint authors in fuente official, semi-official, and independent publications.
See, for example, Jenson, “Plural Marriage,” 219–34; B. H. Master Thesis Marketing. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1930), 2:93–110, Danel W. Bachman and Ronald K. Esplin, “Plural Marriage,” in online essay checker Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 2:1091-95; and Glen M. Leonard, Nauvoo: A Place of thesis, Peace, a People of kidnapping research papers, Promise (Salt Lake City and Provo, UT: Deseret Book and Brigham Young University, 2002), 343–49. Brian C. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 3 vols. (Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2013) , 1:3, 2:165. Joseph Smith, Journal, May 19, 24, and 26, 1842; June 4, 1842, available at josephsmithpapers.org. Proponents of “spiritual wifery” taught that sexual relations were permissible outside of thesis, legalized marital relationships, on condition that the relations remained secret. Online Checker. In the denials, “polygamy” was understood to mean the marriage of master marketing methodology, one man to more than one woman but without Church sanction. See, for lindbergh research, example, “On Marriage,” Times and Seasons, Oct. 1, 1842, 939–40; and Wilford Woodruff journal, Nov. 25, 1843, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Parley P. Pratt, “This Number Closes the First Volume of the ‘Prophet,’” The Prophet, May 24, 1845, 2. George A. Smith explained, “Any one who will read carefully the denials, as they are termed, of plurality of wives in marketing methodology connection with the ninety 5 thesis, circumstances will see clearly that they denounce adultery, fornication, brutal lust and the teaching of plurality of wives by those who were not commanded to do so” (George A. Master Marketing Methodology. Smith letter to Joseph Smith III, Oct. Biotech. 9, 1869, in Journal History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Oct. 9, 1869, Church History Library, Salt Lake City).
Careful estimates put the number between 30 and 40. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:272–73. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy , 2:277–302. Despite claims that Joseph Smith fathered children within plural marriage, genetic testing has so far been negative, though it is possible he fathered two or three children with plural wives. (See Ugo A. Perego, “Joseph Smith, the Question of Polygamous Offspring, and DNA Analysis,” in Newell G. Bringhurst and Craig L. Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy: Joseph Smith and the Origins of thesis, Mormon Polygamy [Independence, MO: John Whitmer Books, 2010], 233–56.) J. Spencer Fluhman, “A Subject that Can Bear Investigation’: Anguish, Faith, and Joseph Smith’s Youngest Plural Wife,” in lindbergh research papers Robert L. Millet, ed., No Weapon Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues (Provo and Salt Lake City: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011), 104–19; Craig L. Foster, David Keller, and Gregory L. Smith, “The Age of Joseph Smith’s Plural Wives in Social and Demographic Context,” in master marketing Bringhurst and Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy , 152–83. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Autobiography, , Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Plural Marriage as Taught by the Prophet Joseph: A Reply to Joseph Smith, Editor of the Lamoni (Iowa) “Herald” (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882); Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1884). Estimates of the number of these sealings range from 12 to 14. (See Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of papers, Joseph Smith [Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997], 4, 6; Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:253–76, 303–48.) For an early summary of methodology, this practice, see John A. Widtsoe, “Evidences and Reconciliations: Did Joseph Smith Introduce Plural Marriage?” Improvement Era 49, no. 11 (Nov. 1946): 766–67. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:421–37.
Polyandry, the marriage of one woman to more than one man, typically involves shared financial, residential, and sexual resources, and children are often raised communally. There is no evidence that Joseph Smith’s sealings functioned in this way, and much evidence works against that view. Rex Eugene Cooper, Promises Made to ninety 5 thesis the Fathers: Mormon Covenant Organization (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990), 138–45; Jonathan A. Stapley, “Adoptive Sealing Ritual in Mormonism,” Journal of methodology, Mormon History 37, no. 3 (Summer 2011): 53–117. For a review of the evidence, see Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:390–96. Richard Lyman Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling (New York: Knopf, 2005), 440.
See Lorenzo Snow, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, p. Ninety 5 Thesis. 124. The revelation on methodology marriage provided powerful incentives for a marriage performed by priesthood authority. (See Doctrine and Covenants 132:17–19, 63.) Zina Huntington Jacobs, autobiographical sketch, Zina Card Brown Family Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; spelling modernized. Honors. The historical record is master, striking for the lack of criticism found among those who had once been Joseph Smith’s plural wives, although most of the wives left no written record. Joseph Smith, Journal, Aug. Honors Thesis Criteria. 16, 1842, in Andrew H. Thesis Methodology. Hedges, Alex D. Smith, and Richard Lloyd Anderson, eds., Journals, Volume 2: December 1841–April 1843 , vol. 2 of the Journals series of The Joseph Smith Papers , edited by nature letter Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and master methodology Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011), 93–96, available at josephsmithpapers.org; Mary Audentia Smith Anderson, ed ., Joseph Smith III and the Restoration (Independence, MO: Herald House, 1952), 85. Jenson, “Historical Record,” 229–30, 240; Emily Dow Partridge Young, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, pp. 365–66, 384; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:194. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:8, 48–50, 80; Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling, 473.
Doctrine and Covenants 132:54, 64. The warning to Emma Smith also applies to all who receive sacred ordinances by authority of the ninety 5 thesis, priesthood but do not abide the covenants associated with those ordinances. See, for marketing, example, Psalm 37:38; Isaiah 1:28; Acts 3:19–25; and Doctrine and obama's master thesis Covenants 132:26, 64. Doctrine and Covenants 132:61. In Utah, the first wife was part of the master thesis, plural marriage ceremony, standing between her husband and the bride and online essay placing the hand of the master thesis methodology, bride in the hand of the husband. “Celestial Marriage,” The Seer 1 (Feb. 1853): 31. Doctrine and Covenants 132:65; see also Genesis 16:1–3.
Jacob 2:30. On the question of children, see note 6 of obama's master thesis, “Plural Marriage and Families in Early Utah.” Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage, 23–24. Heber C. Thesis Marketing. Kimball, Discourse, Sept. Lindbergh. 2, 1866, George D. Master Thesis Methodology. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by master LaJean Purcell Carruth. Brigham Young, in master thesis methodology Journal of Discourses, 3:266. Brigham Young, Discourse, June 18, 1865, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from obama's thesis Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth; see also Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 11:128.
Orson F. Master Thesis. Whitney, Life of Heber C. Kimball, an Apostle: The Father and Founder of the British Mission (Salt Lake City: Kimball Family, 1888), 338; see also Kiersten Olson, “‘The Embodiment of nature biotech letter, Strength and Endurance’: Vilate Murray Kimball (1806–1867),” in Women of Faith in the Latter Days, Volume One, 1775–1820, ed. Richard E. Master Methodology. Turley Jr. and Brittany A. Chapman (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 137. Lucy Walker Kimball, “Brief Biographical Sketch,” 10–11, Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Sarah Granger Kimball, for example, rejected plural marriage in Nauvoo but came west with the Saints. Many of the individuals who rejected plural marriage, including Emma Smith, later became members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
For example, see “Evidence from Zina D. For Grammar. Huntington-Young,” Saints’ Herald, Jan. 11, 1905, 29; Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, “Mary Elizabeth Rollins,” Susa Young Gates Papers, Utah State Historical Society. Gordon B. Hinckley, “What Are People Asking about Us?” Ensign, Nov. 1998; “Polygamy,” Newsroom, topics page. Alma 26:35; Doctrine and Covenants 88:41; 1 Nephi 11:17.
The Church acknowledges the contribution of scholars to master methodology the historical content presented in this article; their work is used with permission.
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From Group Practice to Herding Cats. Thesis Marketing? One cold winter night many years ago, someone dropped off a calico cat and master her two kittens in our snowy driveway and master thesis methodology we went from thesis a two cat family to a five cat household. Master Thesis Methodology? I learned a few things from that. When I was a resident, two thirtysomething family docs had an office upstairs from the residency program. Ned and Peter precepted us and they sometimes ran downstairs to ask the director, Dr. Pete, for his input when they had a tough case themselves. It was very clear to me that Ned and Peter had a shared vision of how a practice should run, even though I#8217;m sure they weren#8217;t clones of each other. They also seemed to be really in tune with the residency, and one of them later became its director.
My first job after graduation was with two middle aged doctors in a small Maine mill town. They covered seamlessly for each other, even though they seemed like very different people. I realized quickly that my comfort level with some of the things they tackled in the hospital was never going to catch up with theirs, so I moved on to where I am now the obama's thesis Medical Director. I did express my discomfort with handling patients in the Intensive Care Unit, for example, and they did tell me they were considering giving it up, but not right away. I was their employee, and although they offered me a partnership, they were the majority and the founding partners.
The clinic where I ended up spending most of marketing, my career is research, very different, and very typical for medical practices today. Marketing? We are a nonprofit organization with a board and a Chief Executive Officer. I may be the Medical Director, but the physicians and nurse practitioners here really answer more to the CEO than to me. The providers here are a little like my one time herd of five cats, gathered under one roof by circumstance rather than from a clear and online essay for grammar particular desire to work with each other. Sure, Dr. Brown was my doctor when he worked in the city many years ago and he came here in part because he knew me, and Dr. Kim had practiced in the next town over and had been curious about us. He did call and talk to me before going very far in negotiations with our CEO, just to make sure he#8217;d fit in, but others came here because of our location or some other reason besides knowing that we would all work well together or that we shared some deep practice philosophy. We are not a group practice in master marketing methodology, the sense that group practices were formed when I started out.
So my job as Medical Director is a lot more like herding cats than leading a group of likeminded visionaries in the early days of the new specialty of ninety 5 thesis, Family Practice. Also, because I care for a full compliment of patients alongside my colleagues and depend on master, their coverage and cooperation, I am in no position to be heavy handed in leading our medical staff. I may work to set an example in some cases, by building consensus in others, but I seldom lay down commandments on stone tablets. That is a stark contrast to Elijah Lamb at fuente, Cityside Medical Group. Thesis Marketing Methodology? At his hospital owned mega practice, he isn#8217;t just the Medical Director, but a hospital Vice President of Medical Affairs. He is ninety 5 thesis, more clearly in methodology, the chain of command, and his medical staff knows it. Online? He even fires people. Right now, a newly hired provider at my clinic is methodology, asking that we not contradict her antibiotic stewardship when she sees another provider’s patient for a bronchitis. I did a “Practice style inventory” several months ago and ninety 5 thesis we all said we didn#8217;t prescribe antibiotics for a bronchitis of thesis marketing, less than seven days’ duration.
But Karen knows we often do, and she feels we undercut her by giving in to thesis, patients that call us the day after seeing her. We have also had several exchanges and meetings about how we handle opioid prescriptions. When one of my colleagues reduced her hours in semiretirement, Dr. Kim inherited many of her patients, and started tapering some off their opiates. Much unrest followed.
We had to sit down to thesis marketing methodology, find common ground about whether patients could switch from online for grammar Dr. Kim to another provider just to see if they would reinstate their opioids. We decided, along with our CEO, not to marketing methodology, allow internal transfers of that nature. Anything else would likely tear apart the fabric of our group, we reasoned. Nature Biotech? Interestingly, the retiring physician told us that the master thesis marketing methodology patients Dr. Honors Criteria? Kim had tapered off opioids were people she herself had contemplated doing the same with. Marketing? She just hadn#8217;t done it yet.
Do I wish my job was more like Dr. Lambs? Would I be happy seeing a few token patients and spending the rest of my time being a medical administrator? I don#8217;t think so, no more than I would have preferred not to live with five cats of different disposition. As a doctor, I never tell my patients what to lindbergh kidnapping research, do. I outline, explain and support my patients in master, choosing between options. Fuente Thesis Gratis? That is how I act toward my colleagues, too. Just like with integrating five cats, it may not be the quickest way to get things done, but in the big scheme of things it is the master thesis marketing only way that really works if you want peace in your house. “The fool doth think he is online essay checker for grammar, wise, but the marketing methodology wise man knows himself to be a fool.” I learned about the Dunning-Kruger effect at a medical conference recently. It certainly seems to apply in medicine. So often, a novice thinks he or she has mastered a new skill or achieved full understanding of something complicated, but as time goes on, we all begin to see how little we actually know.
Over time, we may regain some or most of our initial confidence, but never all of it. Experience brings at least a measure of humility. Thesis? Just the other day I finished a manuscript for an article in a Swedish medical journal with the statement that, 38 years after my medical school graduation, I’m starting to “get warm in my clothes”, as we say in master marketing methodology, Swedish. I think the Dunning-Kruger effect applies not only to people who are in the beginning of a career in thesis, medicine, but also to people who learn about it for master thesis purposes of judging its quality or efficiency or of regulating or managing it from a governmental or administrative point of view. I think many people outside medicine think “how hard can it be” and then proceed to imagine ways to change how trained medical professionals do their work. But the Dunning-Kruger effect is thesis, also a particular problem in rural primary care. Newly trained physicians, PA’s and Nurse Practitioners are asked to work in relative professional isolation with full responsibility for sizeable patient populations.
Unlike the hospital environment, primary care practices seldom have time earmarked for teaching and master thesis marketing supervision, and there is little feedback given to fuente thesis gratis, such new providers. There is master marketing methodology, also very seldom collaboration and communication about fuente thesis specific patients or cases. We probably get more feedback from our specialist consultants than we do from the providers in our own clinics, because we are all busy with our own patients. So, how does a new clinician avoid the newbie hubris Dunning and Kruger describe? Seek out potential mentors and ask them to be yours, start a case conference at your clinic, read the marketing leading journals, NEJM, JAMA, BMJ, The Lancet and ones like them, and read about the history of medicine and the old masters. Honors? And consider honestly how often a brand new driver should expect to instantly do better than the person who taught them, parent or driving instructor. A medical license is in master thesis marketing methodology, no way proof of kidnapping papers, mastery of the master thesis marketing art of master, medicine, it is only a license to begin practicing, in a very literal sense. Every year I get at least half a dozen new patients who are “from away”, as we say in Maine. Obviously, I#8217;m “from away” myself. I chose to come here after once driving up from Massachusetts, where I had been an master exchange student, and seeing the untouched vastness and the slower pace of life in lindbergh papers, rural Maine. Until a few years ago, these new patients were all people who had fallen in love with Maine by vacationing here, or they had come here because of job opportunities.
Lately, I have puzzled over why some of my new patients have chosen to move here; many of them have serious health problems and disabilities, they have never visited Maine before (or seen a Maine winter) and master marketing methodology they don#8217;t know a soul here. A few have hinted about the nature lower cost of living, and I didn#8217;t really think very hard about that until I saw an thesis article in the Wall Street Journal about ninety 5 thesis a baby boomer in California who moved to an Iowa town of 700 just to thesis marketing methodology, be able to survive on the resources she had left to live out her life on. Honors Criteria? Here, you can buy a modest house for a tenth of what a similar one costs in California or a third of the cost in thesis, Brockton, Massachusetts. But Maine, as much as I love my adopted home state, offers some serious challenges for nature biotech cover letter dislocated older patients with serious health problems. We have a shortage of physicians in most of the thesis marketing state, in both primary and specialty care. Dialysis centers and ninety 5 thesis radiation oncology clinics are few and thesis marketing methodology far apart. We have few options for public transportation, and small towns rarely have taxi services. Winters can indeed be hard, heating costs are high, and the town I live in regularly loses power during snowstorms, sometimes longer than 24 hours at a time. Ninety 5 Thesis? I have many patients who are “snowbirds”, and methodology as they get older, they often decide to give up their second homes in Florida and lindbergh stay year round in Maine. But they know what it#8217;s like here, and most of them have most of their family right here.
I wonder if those of my patients who have moved here alone in their sixties or early seventies have thought of master thesis, how their journey will end not where they wanted to essay checker, be, but where they ended up. I worry about them. Something very interesting happened to my patient visits when I changed my office attire. My clean long cotton lab coats, hanging on the back of my office door, suddenly all seemed dingy when I set out to change lab coat about a week ago. Methodology? I decided to pretend it was Saturday. On Saturdays I usually wear a pocketed button-down shirt instead of one of thesis, my usual Jermyn Street ones. I skip the lab coat, hang my stethoscope around my neck, put some pens in my breast pocket and attach my magnetic name tag. I still wear a tie, but sometimes with a doctor motif or Snoopy (I miss my beagles). On Saturdays I seldom have very serious visits. Most are physicals for working people and sick visits, sore throats, earaches and such. Nobody from the administration, lab or X-ray is master, in, there are fewer messages, no faxes and no meetings.
It’s just me, a medical assistant and the patients. It#8217;s all very basic. So there I was, deciding to go coatless. I put the magnet inside my pocketless English shirt and obama's master the name tag lined up outside, draped the stethoscope around my neck, clipped a pen inside my pants pocket and thesis entered the exam room to greet my first patient of the day. “Nice shirt”, said the biotech letter sixty-something man. He was chattier than usual, I noted quietly. I had two more similar compliments that day and I started to feel something was different about the master thesis methodology dynamic in the exam room. Since then, I have had the distinct impression that my visits are more laid back, more intimate and less demanding. It#8217;s as if my patients are relating to me in a more personal way, even though I#8217;ve always felt very close to my patients. Thesis Criteria? I have also not had a single patient try to cram in master thesis methodology, a long shopping list of ninety 5 thesis, concerns I couldn#8217;t possibly address in thesis, one single visit. I feel as if everyone is viewing me as more human, just as competent, but not a healthcare robot or action hero.
I still delivered good and ninety 5 thesis bad news, I still explained the inner workings of the body in plain English and I still typed away with only two fingers on master methodology, the computer or my iPad. But I felt as if a veil had been lifted and ninety 5 thesis my patients saw me as more than just their doctor, or dared to master thesis, treat me that way. I missed a drug interaction warning the criteria other day when I prescribed a sulfa antibiotic to master thesis methodology, Barton, a COPD patient who is also taking dofetilide, an uncommon antiarrhythmic. The pharmacy called me to question the prescription, and I quickly changed it to a cephalosporin. The big red warning had popped up on my computer screen, but I x-ed it away with my right thumb on the trackball without reading the kidnapping research warning. Quite honestly, I am so used to getting irrelevant warnings that it has become a reflex to bring the cursor to master marketing, the spot where I can make the warning go away after a quick glance at it. Online Checker? Even though I have chosen the setting “Pop up drug interaction window only when the interaction is severe”, I get the master thesis pop up with almost every prescription. Today I went back to Barton’s chart and looked at his interaction screen. With the Bactrim DS no longer there, the first of the red boxes was a major interaction between his 81 mg aspirin and his Pradaxa (dabigatran) two blood thinners are more likely to make you bleed than one. That is honors, basic knowledge, even common sense.
The next red box was a moderate interaction between his baby aspirin and master thesis his lisinopril. Theoretically, higher doses of NSAIDs can interfere with the blood pressure lowering properties of online essay checker for grammar, ACE inhibitors. That is very basic knowledge, too. The third red box, another moderate interaction, was between the aspirin and his steroid-bronchodilator inhaler. Theoretically, steroids and aspirin can increase the risk for stomach irritation and methodology supposedly, the pharmacologic effect of aspirin may be decreased by the inhaler. Kidnapping Research? After these came several warnings labeled “extreme caution” and some that were “not recommended”. The scrolling seemed endless, so I printed out the warnings instead. Master Marketing Methodology? They filled eight pages. I counted 61 “extreme caution” warnings, from metoprolol and essay checker diabetes to the poor man’s steroid-antifungal cream and his diabetes. Beta blockers can, at thesis, least theoretically, decrease the tremors and other warning symptoms of low blood sugar, and master oral steroids can raise blood sugars, but a mild steroid cream doesn#8217;t do that.
There were 32 “use cautiously”, many of them quite tangential, like the blessed fungus cream and Barton’s history of hepatitis C. Marketing Methodology? On the ninety 5 thesis last two pages were the dietary warnings, including not to swallow your atorvastatin with grapefruit juice, or to mix your pain pills with alcohol. I hate to sound uppity, but no amount of pop-up interaction alerts or other forms of “decision support” can replace basic medical education. In Barton’s case, the only warning I needed was the one about his dofetilide, which he gets from his cardiologist, and thesis the antibiotic I wanted to prescribe. The aspirin-Pradaxa interaction is common sense, and the baby aspirin-Symbicort interaction is nonsense. And if I were to even read through the honors criteria eight pages worth of precautions and “use with caution”, I would have doubled the master 15 minutes it took to thesis, assess and master thesis marketing document his infection in the first place. Or I could have listened to ninety 5 thesis, a tutorial about evaluating lung sounds how much coaching do the EMR designers think we need? So, here is my suggestion: Make these warnings behave like some computerized card games let users decide based on their skill level whether to get all the warnings or only the critical ones that are not generic class effects we all learned in pharmacology class.
Because when everything is a red alert, alarm fatigue sets in and all the warnings are wasted. It reminds me of the story about the boy who cried wolf#8230;
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China’s Compliance with its obligations under GATT and WTO. The history of China and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) dates back to 1948, when China became a contracting party after being among the 23 founding members of the organization. In 1950 however, the country under the Kuomintang government pulled out of GATT, but was later granted an observer status in 1982 after pleading that the pull-out was not done by master marketing a legitimate government. By 1986, China’s persistence to resume its position in GATT set a platform for talks with other member countries, which continued throughout the 1990’s. The country only managed to regain its membership in ninety 5 thesis, 1999 and joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. By Joining WTO, China agreed to be bound by Subsidies and Countervailing Measures Agreement (SCM), GATT and Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement (TRIMs) trade agreements. Master Thesis Marketing? The entrance of China to the WTO was of great importance not only to the country, but to essay checker for grammar other world economies, which had observed the economic expansion of the country with heightened interests in the past decades. In 2000 for master thesis marketing, example, China was the world’s eighth largest importer and the seventh largest exporter of goods. The country accounted for $249. 2 billion in thesis criteria, exports and $225.
1 billion in imports. Master Methodology? In the commercial services sector China ranked twelfth in position at $ 29. 7 billion, while it was it was ranked as the tenth largest importer at $34. 8 billion (WTO news ). It was not however smooth sailing for the country and the other WTO signatories mainly because China is enormous in size and had a set trade regime by the time it joined WTO. As such, a change of the country’s legal and regulatory system in ninety 5 thesis, trade was required in order to ensure consistency with the WTO regulations. Although most countries supported the entrant of master marketing, China to WTO, many observed that compliance for the country would not only need dedication, but also transparency. Sentiments regarding the hard task ahead for China were for example expressed by the United States’ Trade Representative, Mr. Robert Zoellick in 2002 , who said that since China had freely chosen its WTO obligations freely, other countries expected that the country would comply with all. Zoellick however agreed that meeting some of the biotech letter obligations would not be easy for China, but would play a major role in ensuring that China was open to trade with the rest of the world.
CHINA’S WTO OBLIGATIONS China took up obligations laid down in GATT, under the WTO by agreeing to non-discriminate and master marketing, equally treat national trade from WTO member countries and biotech cover, also agreed to a adhere to the national trade policies as set out by WTO. First on China’s list of master methodology, obligations under GATT/WTO, was the quota’s withdrawal requirement as earlier stated by the People’s Republic of China, under a protocol document. The country was also obligated to conform to the GATT 1994 agreement and the WTO agreement that addressed procedures involved in import licensing. Another obligation was the right to have enterprises in China trading in exports and imports as authorized under the ninety 5 thesis customs territory of China. As such, China agreed to master thesis methodology wipe out state import monopolies earlier maintained in the agricultural sector. In addition, china was required to subject all its imports and exports to obama's thesis rules set out under the WTO. More to this, the country was also subject to master thesis marketing varying terms regarding price control restrictions and state trading (Vallera pp 2-3)
GATT obligations included the prohibition of ninety 5 thesis, restrictions on imports specifically agriculture related imports. Another requirement under the GATT agreement related to giving imported goods equal treatment with the domestic products. In addition, the GATT agreement spelt out that fees or charges imposed on imports would be approximate to services rendered (Williams, Brett p 3) GATT Requirements GATT was a brain child of the United States, which first floated the idea of regulating 45,000 tariff rates in 1947 during an international conference held in Geneva (econ. Master Methodology? iastate. du) . Essay Checker? A year later, 22 other countries signed the trade agreement. Under GATT, a member country was to treat other signatory countries as a “Most Favored Nation” (MFN). Master Thesis? The MFN treatment assured GATT member countries that non signatory countries would not receive lower tariffs than them. Ninety 5 Thesis? China was at master thesis methodology, war during the early years of the implementation of GATT, the discussions to rejoin GATT , which started in the 1980’s was further curtailed by the Tiananmen announcement , which marked halted Chinese interaction with the GATT member countries in 1989 (Skanderup p32) . On resumption of the talks in 1995, WTO had taken over honors thesis from GATT and thesis marketing, with the new identity came stricter requirements, which often led to stalemates of the negotiations. It was however, china’s realization of economic gains in ninety 5 thesis, terms of expertise, technology and capital gains from other countries that eventually convinced the master thesis marketing country leaders of the importance of obama's master thesis, joining GATT/WTO.
China was petitioning to be recognized as a developing country upon resumption to GATT/WTO. This was rightfully so because despite China being the largest economy among the developing countries, most regions in the country still registered very low GDP. Being recognized as a developing country allowed the country to thesis methodology enjoy special benefits under the agreement. Lindbergh Research Papers? Such included the elimination or reduction of tariffs on products from the developing countries; developed countries were also encouraged to avoid imposing tariffs and internal taxes on products from the developing countries. Master Marketing Methodology? More so, the developed countries were alerted not to checker for grammar expect reciprocal trade from the developing countries (econ. iastate. edu). Compliance with WTO By the methodology time that China was re-admitted to the WTO, the organization had 140 countries signed up for membership. The Bilateral agreement between china and the other member countries was therefore complex and long, such that the entire document was 900 pages and covered every aspect of trade as discussed. It was a consensus that China would implement some of the agreements in the 900 page document immediately, while others would be stretched over a five year period. Others still w ere expected to last the entire decade before China could finally reform its system entirely to match the honors compliance requirements.
To aid the Chinese government in this, a WTO secretariat was appointed, with an assisting 16 subcommittees being mandated at master thesis methodology, monitoring the country’s progress and producing annual reports about China over an 8 year period of time (Skanderup, Jane p32). On its part, the Chinese government took up massive public education campaigns that sought to lindbergh kidnapping offer insight on what compliance meant. Local universities started offering degrees on international law, finance, foreign trades and master thesis marketing methodology, trade. By the look of it, China had every intention to stick to the rule of WTO. Foreign governments, such as the United States government extended a helping hand and offered to create oversight bodies in Chinese state departments with an aim of honors criteria, ensuring that China complied with the master thesis WTO agreement. Transparency China did not always operate transparently in its trade dealings, regulations and decision making. Online Essay Checker? As such, the WTO requirement signified a great shift in the country and so far, the country has done well in compliance with the GATT/WTO requirement’s on transparency. Marketing? In this, China publicized trade related laws to kidnapping papers improve how people accessed them.
The most notable efforts were from the Ministry of Commerce, which adopted impressive policies with the aim of complying to the WTO transparency requirements (United States Trade Representative). However, there were complaints that China was not fast enough in its compliance. This was especially the thesis methodology case with short term goals that were supposed to cover be met within the first two years. In a 2004 review, it was noted that China had challenges with conforming to transparent practices especially with international set standards and value-added tax. In the six year period ending in 2007, China had eight dispute cases filed against it by other WTO members (Stewart et al p7) . Five of these cases were by master thesis the United States, while the essay for grammar European Union, Mexico and master thesis marketing, Canada had one case each. The eight cases were based on china’s non-compliance on checker, Value added Tax, automobile imports, tax reductions and exemptions, trading rights, distribution services and intellectual rights on publication and audiovisual. The Transitional Review Mechanism is in charge of monitoring China’s progress and has raised these issues. Because of non-compliance, foreign and domestic business suffers frustrations when establishing businesses and often suffers from systemic uncertainties.
Because of the language barrier, China still under the transparency requirement agreed to translate laws and regulations relating to trade into French, English or Spanish. The country also agreed to master modify hundreds of biotech, its laws and regulations in order to become WTO compliant (USTR. gov) China also agreed to eliminate the local content requirement, foreign currency balancing requirement and export performance requirements from its laws. Allegations that China still manipulates its currency to date however abound. Intellectual Property rights China has been accused of marketing methodology, not doing enough to ensure that the intellectual property rights are upheld in the country. Since joining the WTO, a 2007 TLAG report states that IPR infringement was at its worst in nature letter, 2005 and 2006. To make it even worse, the report indicates that China had demonstrated no initiatives in trying to reform the criminal code in thesis, the country, which is the only way through which the country can enforce the biotech cover letter protection of the intellectual properties (Stewart et al p11). Industrial policies China’s industrialized policies have always sought to protect local industries.
This was meant to change after the ratification of the WTO agreement. However, complaints from thesis marketing methodology, other countries still abound pertaining to china’s protectionism measures over its auto part industry, export restrictions, regulatory interventions and subsidies on fuente thesis gratis, domestic industries. Subsidies China agreed to eliminate subsidies on exports and industrial goods. This was done under the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM), China further agreed to stop subsidies on state-owned enterprises especially because some of the state owned companies were not profitable and only aided in destabilizing trade. The SCM agreement only prohibited subsidies on a limited range of products, and imposed countervailing duties. Thesis Marketing? Such compliance encouraged Chinese industries to become more competitive especially because they were exposed to market pressures from foreign investors. Discriminatory Safeguard. By acceding to the safeguard agreement China agreed to online steer clear of master marketing, WTO inconsistent tariffs and quotas, except those allowed by the organization on temporary measures. Under this agreement, non-compliance by lindbergh research China would earn her penalties that would see other WTO members imposing tariffs and marketing, Quotas on Chinese products, while denying China the ability to counter such actions (Halverson, Karen). Trading and Distribution rights China has scored fairly well in this front.
However, the complaints from other member countries allege that the country still impose restrictions to specific products. Among the cases highlighted are import restrictions on master, copyrighted materials such as periodicals, books, audio and thesis marketing, audio-visual products. The 2007 TLAG report indicates that China is yet to fully comply with the direct selling requirement since it still restricts direct sales from foreign companies (Stewart et al p12). Agriculture China has largely complied with the agricultural requirements but this depends on the market situation. At times, the country employs selective market interventions that cause delays in agricultural shipments. In addition, the country sometimes applies scientific rationales with the intention of preventing some agricultural commodities from honors thesis criteria, entering her market. Other complaints allude that China lacks a consistent and predictable regulatory administration, which is laden with capricious practices in the customs departments.
The Chinese agricultural market also lacks predictability and transparency. China’s agriculture obligations included her commitment to avoid providing export subsidies to the domestic producers. China also was obligated to lift the master marketing methodology meat, citrus products, corn and wheat bans. The country further had to implement some tariff –rate quotas that world provide sufficient market to farmers from signatory countries. Services- Arguably, this is among the sectors where China has scored the least points as far as compliance to the WTO commitments is concerned. Despite the initial promises made under the general Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), China is yet to lift some of its restrictions in the services sector. As such, other countries still experience limited access to the Chinese services industry. Areas of concern between 2001 and fuente, 2004 remained the financial sub-sectors (insurance and banking), in a 2007report however, the United States lauded Chinas efforts to comply with the obligations (USCBC) . It confirmed that China has indeed complied with the thesis marketing insurance requirements by lowering the total assets to $200 million down from the earlier requirement of $300 million on foreign insurers. In the banking sector, the USCBC report further indicates that China has lifted geographic barriers earlier set on its local currency, which mad business challenging for foreign based financial institutions.
China also allowed her nations to freely choose among foreign or domestic owned financial institutions. Nature Cover? In addition, the country removed restrictions that hindered ownership and operations of master marketing, financial institutions thus allowing more foreign owners to invest in the industry. Telecommunication sector was however dragging behind, with the report stating that although China had committed itself to lift geographic limitations on data services and mobile voice for joint ventures, China was yet to draft regulations on how to meet that commitment. Another requirement on the telecom sector yet to be met by ninety 5 thesis China is her commitment to expand the master thesis marketing methodology geographical capacity of obama's master, domestic owned telecom services by raising foreign ownership to 35 percent. The engineering, architectural and urban planning requirements were however met between 2003 and 2007 and foreign owned enterprises can now take part in master thesis marketing, integrated engineering, planning and architecture without the requirement of domestic partnerships. The country is also yet to for grammar fully comply with WTO requirements set on the express delivery sub sector (Stewart et al p13). Foreign owned enterprises can operate in thesis marketing methodology, courier services but restrictions on the scope of master thesis, business that such enterprises can engage in still exist. Obtaining licenses for the foreign based firms remains a big challenge for many. China’s obligation in allowing foreign firms to operate in freight inspection and testing services were yet to thesis marketing be met in 2007 as their were restrictions on the scope of business that a foreign firm could engage in. In a 2005-2006 US-China Business Council’s (USCBC) report, China is said to ninety 5 thesis have complied with the advertising requirements, which allowed foreign-owned enterprises to invest in master methodology, advertising companies. China met this requirement in online, 2005 through the country’s ministry of Commerce Foreign owned business own and operate hotel and restaurant business in China, but have to abide by set regulations.
In this sub-sector, China is yet to comply with the WTO requirements since foreign-owned enterprises are restricted on the amount of air cargo space they can book (USCBC). Tariff Reductions China agreed to methodology reduce its tariffs on honors criteria, agriculture products to 15 percent, with average tariff level for industrial goods being set at 8. 9 percent. Tariff reduction obligations were scheduled for immediate, short term and thesis marketing methodology, long-term implementation. Trading Rights Trading rights are two way under the WTO agreement. They include the rights to I) other WTO member countries importing products and services to china, and ii) China exporting its domestic products to other WTO countries. In 2004, China enforced trading rights process that ensured that foreign nationals registering businesses in the country did so without any hindrances. This was a step that was lauded by many signatory countries, most notably the United States. However, some deficiencies in trading rights still existed. Such included commitments on pharmaceutical and books importations. Another deficiency noted in China’s compliance to the WTO trading rights requirement was the lack of liberalization of obama's master thesis, agreed trading rights. Such includes wholesaling services, retail services, franchising services, agent’s services and other related services.
By 2004, China was yet to open its markets to allow foreign investors to practice direct sales or off-location sales. Among the master methodology notable compliances in the trading rights requirements was china allowing importers and exporters to conduct their businesses directly, without using middle men. Tourism In 2004, China took the kidnapping research papers first steps to complying with the WTO in the tourism sector by thesis marketing allowing foreign based firms to acquire joint ventures in nature cover letter, China. It was expected that by December 2007, wholly foreign-based enterprises would be able to operate in master methodology, the Chinese tourism industry. It was also expected that all branch restrictions, registered capital restrictions and geographical barriers would be lifted. The WTO requirements for China in the Tourism Industry were initially meant for biotech cover letter, Xi’an, Shaanxi, Shangai, Guangzhou and Beijing regions. In a 2004 report to master thesis marketing methodology Congress, the ninety 5 thesis US lauded China’s progress in complying with the tourism, professional, education and master, environmental services (United States Trade Representative ) . CONCLUSION China’s compliance and non-compliance is widely a matter of government and nature biotech cover, industry protectionism.
Whereas the private sector players may intentionally avoid adhering to the WTO rules, the government, which has the capacity to master thesis methodology press the private industry players towards compliance does not apply the necessary internal pressure required to move the players. The spirit of WTO agreement that China exhibited on its entry to the WTO was already running out in online essay checker for grammar, the third year of implementation. Other issues that arise in the only communist country as it puts up measures that ensures compliance to master methodology WTO is the online essay for grammar fear of the China Communist Party of loosing national support. This is especially likely because the income inequalities in marketing methodology, China are on ninety 5 thesis, a steep incline, something that the locals blame on the market reforms under WTO and the expanded private sector (Halverson, Karen) Overall, China has received mixed rating for its compliance levels of the WTO requirements. The United States is master thesis marketing, among the biggest bilateral trader whose public holds mixed reactions on the role of China’s trade to the US under WTO. Some of the notable complaints from US investors include China’s continued protection of its steel and auto producers. Kidnapping Papers? Other claims allege that China uses her tax system to discriminate particular imports. Some export regulations in China also contravene the methodology WTO requirements. Thesis Gratis? Such include restrictions placed on raw materials, thus driving up production costs.
Foreigners claim this is master methodology, discriminatory since foreign investor’s ends up producing at higher costs, while the Chinese nationals operate at lower costs thus giving the former a market advantage. Eight years later after China joined the online essay checker WTO; many member countries agree that it is the high time that the country took accountability for its obligations. This is master thesis methodology, especially so because most of its requirements were meant for accomplishment in ninety 5 thesis, the first five years. The United States is one such country, which is pursuing dialogue, dispute settlement mechanisms, legal action or a combination of all in order to ensure that China complies.