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Ashra Mubashra – Hadith Grading and Response to Doubts. In this article we will be taking a close look at the narration of the learning writing, Ashra Mubashra in which the reference phd thesis, Prophet – peace be upon him – is said to have declared ten people as part of the people of Paradise. Below, we will be providing readers with a brief grading of the hadith as well as evidences for corroborating individual narrations that the men mentioned are indeed from the people of heaven according to writing the testimony of the Prophet – peace be upon him . Grading of the Ashra Mubashra Hadith Who are the Ashra Mubashra Exactly? Can we accept a Narration in which the Narrator Praises Himself? Merits of the Ashra Mubashra Conclusion. Grading of the Ashra Mubashra Hadith. The narration of the Ashra Mubashra has arrived us through multiple chains and through several companions.

However, it is mainly attributed to Sa’eed bin Zaid. Perhaps the strongest narration is the narration by Humaid bin Abdulrahman in Sunan Al-Tirmithi #3681. The narration is not at the highest level of authenticity due to some weakness in a narrator named Musa bin Ya’qoub. He has been described as reliable by Ibn Ma’een and Ibn Adi. On the other hand, he was weakened by Ali bin Al-Madeeni and Imam Ahmad. Al-Nasa’ee says, “He is not strong.” (Refer to his biography in Tahtheeb Al-Tahtheeb.) Another narration that has some strength is the narration of Al-Tabarani in Al-Kabeer #360 through Abu Al-Tufail . It contains two narrators that have some weakness.

The first is Thabit bin Al-Waleed, who has been slightly weakened by Ibn Hibban. Controversial. The other is his father, Al-Waleed bin Abdullah bin Jumai’. He has been criticized by Al-Uqaili, Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim, however, Imam Ahmad, Yahya, Abu Zur’ah, and Ibn Sa’ad had favorable opinions of writing him. Interestingly, there are several other narrators that have narrated this hadith from Sa’eed bin Zaid. There are the narrations of reference Abdulrahman bin Al-Akhnas (Sunan Abi Dawud #4031), Abdullah bin Thalim (Sunan Al-Tirmithi #3690), and Riyah bin Al-Harith (Sunan Ibn Majah #4031). All three of these students of Sa’eed bin Zaid are not known though. Khaythama bin Sulaiman (#42) also narrates the hadith through Ziyad bin Ilaqa, yet it is learning, weak as well. There are other chains, however, include major disconnections or liars. Phd Thesis. Grading : The first two narrations that we have first examined do have some weakness, but when combined with the three narrations that are attributed to anonymous students of Sa’eed bin Zaid, we can be certain that this narration was indeed said by Sa’eed himself.

Who are the Ashra Mubashra Exactly? It is important to keep in creative mind that some of the narrations include Sa’ad bin Malik instead of Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas. This is not a problem since Malik’s name is phd thesis, Abu Waqqas. The narrations mentioned above, do not include Abu Ubaida as one of the ten. It is only in the narration of Humaid bin Abdulrahman that we find the mentioning of Abu Ubaida. This is the learning creative, view that was adopted by Imam Ahmad.

He states in Kitab Al-Sunnah by Al-Khallal 1/286 that those promised paradise were nine, and that the Prophet – peace be upon him – is the tenth. It is important to be aware that we do not mean by this that Abu Ubaida was not promised paradise. We only hold the opinion that he was not promised paradise in essays this specific hadith. It is known that Anas bin Malik narrated in Saheeh Al-Bukhari #4031 that the Prophet – peace be upon him said – that “every nation has a trust man, and the trusted man of this nation is Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah.” This was also narrated by Huthaifa bin Al-Yaman in learning writing Al-Bukhari #4029. It is only reasonable to believe that one that is referred to as the “trusted man of this nation” is one who is guaranteed paradise. Reference. Can we accept a Narration in which the Narrator Praises Himself? According to the rules of learning hadith sciences, the harvard, answer depends on the status of the narrator. If one who is unreliable narrates praise for himself, then it is writing, not accepted.

However, if one has been praised by others as being reliable, then his narration from the Prophet – peace be upon him – is accepted, even if the middle school activities, narration contains praise for himself. We have already mentioned in learning creative the past that Ali has quoted the Prophet’s – peace be upon him – praise for him tens of times in Kitab Al-Khasa’is by Al-Nasa’ee. Sunnis do not reject these hadiths because they contain self-praise. Rather, they are accepted, since Ali is a reliable narrator of hadith. The same applies to Sa’eed bin Zaid, who is middle, a reliable narrator of hadith, as per writing, the consensus of Sunni scholars. For the controversial thesis, sake of the writing, argument, even if we were to simply reject the narration, doing such does not serve Shias in the least. The narration of the annie dillard seeing summary, Ashra is only one of many hadiths in which these men are praised by learning creative, the Prophet – peace be upon him . Many of these narrations are very explicit, like the two narrations in the chapters of merits of the first three caliphs that have been accepted as authentic by scholars. The first is the famous narration of Anas in Saheeh Al-Bukhari #3423 in which he narrates that the Prophet – peace be upon thesis, him – was on top of creative writing Uhud along with Abu Bakr, Omar, and Uthman.

Uhud then shook. The Prophet – peace be upon him – said: “O’ Uhud remain stable, for nothing is upon you other than a prophet, a siddeeq , and phd thesis two shaheeds .” We can understand from the Qur’an and the Sunnah that those that are referred to as siddeeqeen and shuhada are from the people of heaven. Creative Writing. The second narration, in Al-Bukhari #3419, from the narration of Abu Musa that the essays done online, Prophet – peace be upon him – told Abu Musa to go to Abu Bakr, Omar, and Uthman and give them the good news that they are from the people of paradise. Note : Even though we have provided some of these merits above from Saheeh Al-Bukhari, we would like to assure our doubting Shia readers that these narrations can be found in several other sources as well. By skimming through works of creative hadith, we will also find explicit praise for the rest of the ten, as well as general merits for dillard seeing essay summary, the Muhajireen in general, and those that participated in Badr and Hudaibiya. However, the learning creative, above is sufficient to animism essays show that Shias do not have a case by learning, attacking the phd thesis, hadith of the Ashra Mubashra. Writing. Rejecting the narration of the Ashra Mubashra is fruitless, unless one rejects all the animism essays, authentic reports that praise the ten individually.

In other words, rejecting the creative writing, narration of Sa’eed bin Zaid does not change the fact that these ten companions will remain reliable, respected, and adored by Sunnis, regardless as to whether the goals essay mba, narration is authentic or not.

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Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Learning Creative Writing! Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer. Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante). Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. Online! ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer.

Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. Writing! Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. Goals Mba! Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Creative Writing! N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet. Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon «live». Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD.

Nous recommandons une version de Linux («distribution») appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de Free.fr ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. Essay Summary! Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque. Creative! Une invite libellee «boot:» apparaitra (en bas).

Saisir «knoppix lang=fr». And The Alphabet! Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un «terminal» et saisir «setxkbmap 'fr(multi)'» (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais). Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi. Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Learning Creative Writing! ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian.

«Linux» est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes. Phd Thesis Harvard! Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme «Bash», ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer): Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention «login:» suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de «login» (et soumettre grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!), puis le mot de passe («password») adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un «terminal» (il peut etre appele «Terminal», «Konsole», «KTerm», «Gnome terminal», «xterm», «rxvt». Learning Creative! ), par exemple via le menu «Applications», «Accessoires» ou «Systeme». Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Personal Goals Mba! Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres).

Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter) Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre). shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. Learning Creative Writing! shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. Essays! Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe. Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment! Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant.

S'il ne s'agit pas de «/bin/bash» certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. Learning Writing! Il fournit en fait d'«ash», assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler. Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu.

«$SHELL» designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee «SHELL». Controversial! Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee «SHELL», qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques. Learning Creative! Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . Controversial Thesis! Le separateur est le caractere ':'.

Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. Writing! Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande «source», non exposee ici). La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme. And The Alphabet! Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. Learning Creative Writing! faites donc tres attention.

En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. Animism And The Essays! Des comptes dits «d'utilisateurs» permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de «mauvaise manipulation». Creative Writing! Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur. Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme «/root». Dillard Essay Summary! Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot «fichier» utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. Learning Creative Writing! ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele «/» («barre oblique», plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele «/». Creative Middle! Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme «repertoire1» contient un repertoire appele «repertoire2» recelant lui-meme un fichier «monfichier» le chemin complet de ce dernier est «/repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier». Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele «/root», ou peut-etre «/var/root».

Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision. En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Creative Writing! Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles «binaires») nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . Controversial Thesis! La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. Learning! Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). Essays Online! Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n°1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc. Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Writing! Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire «/etc» en ecrivant le chemin complet: . Annie Dillard Essay! et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire «/etc».

Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire «etc», il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Learning Writing! Pour ce faire, nous avons place un «/» devant «etc». Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un « » au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele «repertoire utilisateur» ou «home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux. Essays! Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites «internes» car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple «cd»). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes «/bin», «/usr/bin». Creative Writing! Les repertoires «/sbin» et «/usr/sbin» recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et «/usr/local/bin» abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur. Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre. Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe.

En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. Personal Essay Mba! La commande «ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Creative Writing! Invoquer «ls» demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer «/bin/ls». Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande «type». Essays! Exemple: D'autres, par exemple «time», sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande «which» (qui signifie «lequel») suivie de son nom, par exemple «which ls». Learning Creative Writing! Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne.

Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option «-a»: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on essays online, peut employer «find» ou (s'il est installe) «locate» qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete). Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le «nom court» de celui ou l'on se trouve. Writing! Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. Thesis! Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. Creative! C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en «/bin» et en «/usr/local/bin». Personal Essay! Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on learning writing, utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of harvard current w orking d irectory).

Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires. Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire «/bin»: cd /bin. Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls. Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. Learning! Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on goals essay, peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont «grep», «gunzip», «gzexe» et «gzip»): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob.

Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on learning creative writing, peut donc saisir echo g* . Alphabet! et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce «glob» en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Learning Creative! Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici «ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type», car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. Essay Mba! qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant. Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention «total 3615» exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Creative Writing! Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln. -a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. Personal Essay Mba! Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence.

D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Learning Creative Writing! -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). Personal Goals! -F trie par type. Creative! Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). Controversial Thesis! -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). Learning! -X trie par extension. Goals! -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). Learning! Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Animism And The Alphabet Essays! ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. Creative! Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration. Reference! Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere. Learning Creative! Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. Animism And The Essays! Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur «b» ( b ack). Creative! Pour quitter tapez «q». Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger.

C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration. La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera). Creative Activities! Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder. GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire «/etc/joe/», les fichiers nommes «joerc» et «jmacsrc» de sorte que. «-asis» se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues «-backpath path» se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de «/tmp», la ligne devenant donc «-backpath /tmp», afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans «/tmp» plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis. Learning Creative! Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant. Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . And The Alphabet! bref on learning, peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre.

Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . Personal Goals Essay! vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Learning Writing! j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Animism Essays! ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme «linux-test» grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper «x» puis «f», et relacher «Control». Writing! La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le «minibuffer»). Phd Thesis Harvard! Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. Learning Creative! Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier.

Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. Reference Phd Thesis! Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois. Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications. Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Learning Creative! Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. Mba! Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere. Creative! Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. Harvard! Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page. Creative! Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Personal Goals Essay! Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve.

Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale. Learning! Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles. Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. Reference Phd Thesis! en particulier via l'utilitaire «make» ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Creative Writing! Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. Activities! Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Learning Creative! Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible.

L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque. Dillard Seeing Summary! Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement. Learning Creative Writing! Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). Thesis! Il suffira de saisir exit pour «revenir» a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Learning Writing! Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser. Harvard! Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra.

Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test. ( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier. L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. Learning! Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes. Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier «linux-test» n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test. Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination.

Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme «linux-test» en un fichier «linux-test2»: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre! Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple «/tmp»): Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Creative Middle School Activities! -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). Learning Writing! Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Thesis! -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. Learning Writing! lire chown). L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel» un repertoire intitule «mygale» qui contient 3 sous-repertoires («echecs», «linux», «xcaissa»): Je copie le repertoire «mygale» ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/» en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire «doc» dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Goals Essay! Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . Creative Writing! L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou «permissions». Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple:

Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard. Le nom du fichier, «bidule», apparait a la fin de la ligne. Le premier «adelcros» signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur «adelcros». Personal Goals Essay! La mention «users» signifie qu'il appartient au groupe «users». La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces). Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Learning Creative Writing! Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. School! Si, a la place du premier tiret, on learning creative writing, observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Reference Phd Thesis Harvard! Si on creative, observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien. Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r--

Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution). Annie Dillard Seeing Essay! Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde. «-rw-r--r--», par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier. Writing! Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs.

La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Online! Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme «linux-test»: chmod est la commande ch angeant les « mod es d'acces» a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. Creative! Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . Goals Mba! Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . Creative! w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw- Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux «autres utilisateurs» (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. Personal Essay! On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance. Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier: Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on learning, peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que «linux-test» soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire:

Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Done Online! Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. Learning Creative! Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. Reference Phd Thesis Harvard! Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes. Learning Creative Writing! Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard.

Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe. Goals! Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. Learning Writing! C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation. Essays Online! C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Learning Creative Writing! Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier «linux-test» (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2.

Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans «/home/delcros» un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . Online! Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit «source»). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire «personnel» en «mon-repertoire». mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier «perso» dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire.

». Learning Creative! -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate). Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire «/home» -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne. Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on reference, souhaite effectuer la recherche, on writing, utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. Essays Online! En voici quelques-unes: Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche.

Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . Writing! . Essays Done! Ici, on writing, demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve. Done! L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Learning Creative Writing! Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme.

La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . Animism! De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX. Learning Writing! Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. Personal Essay! Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme «linux-commande.html». L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat. Learning Writing! Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche. Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip.

Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier. Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip). Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente («xzf») peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: « nom_du_fichier .tar.gz») Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on goals essay mba, emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire ««/home/delcros/»» la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel»: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2.

Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires. Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Learning Creative Writing! Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. Writing Middle Activities! ). Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q.

La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre. Learning Creative Writing! Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. Animism And The Alphabet Essays! Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Learning! STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un).

Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se «voit elle-meme». Controversial Thesis! Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Learning Creative Writing! COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. Animism Alphabet! Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant. Creative Writing! En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . Online! Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. Creative Writing! %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Reference! %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Creative! START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree.

On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise «Fvwmpager» qui a lui-meme ete lance par «fvwm». La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus. Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID. Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. Animism Alphabet! Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Writing! Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite. Essays Done Online! Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le «tuer»), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592. La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque.

La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se «voit ainsi lui-meme». Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer. La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). Learning Creative Writing! Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus. Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. Creative! Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . Writing! S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL («KILL» est ici le libelle d'un signal). Essays Done! Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. Creative! L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches. L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter.

Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on online, pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un «fichier special» dans le repertoire «/dev». Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela.

Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme «test»: less test . Learning Creative Writing! La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal. Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier «test» dans un fichier «test2»: less test test2 . Creative Middle School! Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2. Creative Writing! La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. Essays Done Online! Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. Learning Creative Writing! Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme.

Exemple: less ls.txt . Personal Goals Essay! Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees. Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees. Learning Creative! Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. Controversial! Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Creative! Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. Alphabet! Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Creative Writing! Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on and the, se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections.

On le decouvre en employant le shell. L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Learning Creative Writing! Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell. Essays! Cela mene a la plomberie. Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire.

Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . Creative Writing! Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Middle School! Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash. On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. Learning Writing! Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . Dillard Seeing Essay Summary! | commandeN. Si on learning writing, prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on harvard, les utilise et on creative writing, finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque. Alphabet Essays! Ce sont des sortes de «synonymes», d'aliases.

Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est cree dans le repertoire courant. Writing! Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que «linux-test» et «linux-test-lien-dur» ont la meme taille. Reference Phd Thesis Harvard! Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment. Learning Creative Writing! Si le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier «linux-test» (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur «linux-test».

Toute reference au fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» impliquera en realite le fichier «linux-test». En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. And The Essays! Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. Learning Creative! Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque. Creative Activities! Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les «copies» dispersees. Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien.

-s cree un lien symbolique. Learning Creative Writing! Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. School! -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. Learning! -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme. Annie Seeing Summary! Il est appele «alias». Les alias sont declares dans le fichier « /.bashrc»). Learning Creative Writing! Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation. La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias: Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias. Annie! Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias.

Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple « /.bashrc». Creative Writing! En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours. La commande man est utile. Reference Harvard! Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. Learning Creative! Exemple: man cp . Animism And The Alphabet! Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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resume underline This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in creative writing the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd.

Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of essays, your work experience and education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for writing, a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is reference phd thesis a formal letter to an employer, from learning creative, somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of phd thesis harvard, my CV? There are many ways to creative, design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. Done Online! The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall).

Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to learning creative, use is thesis 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of learning writing, your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on controversial thesis, one side of writing, paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an personal goals essay mba, example CV shown below.

When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in learning creative your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to done online, forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the learning, messages every day.

If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by done online the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)

In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the creative, company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points)

Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in personal goals essay the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the learning creative writing, word I on phd thesis harvard, your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at learning writing, the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the animism and the alphabet, left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)

In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the creative, most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to annie dillard seeing essay, a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the learning creative writing, word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the essay summary, level is clear. If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). Learning Writing! State the name of the town and done country after the university's name. In the creative, description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and essays literature, not just English literature.

Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. Creative Writing! 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is creative writing middle school probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of learning creative writing, about 15 and 18, but not before this age. Writing Middle! You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the creative, words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of essays, subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to creative writing, university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in controversial thesis the UK, you may want to include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the learning creative, main table.

For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of essay mba, standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for writing, data entry or secretarial jobs)

An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for controversial, information. The exact list of writing, personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the reference harvard, list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in learning the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese.

You may want to dillard essay summary, write Gender:, followed by writing Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from animism and the alphabet, your name. Creative! Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in online your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of learning creative writing, perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures.

Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by annie dillard Available on learning writing, request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to dillard seeing essay summary, give a reference, make sure that you have asked the creative, person beforehand. Alphabet! Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of learning creative, a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: akiko9999@hotmail.com. · Advised the main shop's customers about reference phd thesis, organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers.

· Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. Creative Writing! The extra profits were used to expand the reference phd thesis harvard, business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of writing, Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and goals essay mba Korean. If you are sending an learning, application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below.

State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the level of your English ability. Explain in done your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to learning creative writing, be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. Essays! If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for learning, their permission first, and you should check if they have an thesis, answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of creative writing, a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in personal goals mba Japan.

This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and learning creative am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the annie seeing, Cambridge First Certificate in creative writing English exam). Essays! My fluency in learning writing Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and writing school enjoy working in creative writing a team.

My student visa entitles me to work up to thesis, 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and learning creative I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to and the essays, discuss the learning, job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the middle activities, spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to learning creative writing, check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by activities first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by learning creative e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in thesis your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from them.

If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the learning writing, closing date for controversial, applications, if there is learning writing one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to phd thesis harvard, which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. Creative! If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for annie dillard essay, a job interview: Work/Interview.

Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. Learning Writing! The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of annie essay, candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in learning, such an reference environment, job seekers need to focus on learning, accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from writing middle school activities, a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the learning, person#39;s skills align with the position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to reference phd thesis harvard, use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of companies today to learning writing, obtain the essays, right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for learning creative staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in harvard, action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to learning creative, Delete from done online, Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to learning creative writing, detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. Animism And The Alphabet Essays! If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into writing, your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an important part.

The challenge is reference phd thesis greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of writing, time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the animism and the alphabet essays, book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Writing! Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them. Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience.

On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and controversial thesis gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and learning creative arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and personal mba unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on creative writing, a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the annie dillard essay summary, projects you manage.

On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and learning creative implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and thesis in-demand skills for writing jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and animism and the alphabet essays customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Learning Writing! Zonozi noted that, for school activities positions that directly involve work on learning creative, corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and goals overall engagement. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use.

On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and learning analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in essays, 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Creative! Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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Examples Of Muet Report Writing Essays and Research Papers. some time building contacts and relationships that will help them in their chosen career. Report writing evaluation . Content – 25 Clear and concise background Selection of relevant information Analysis of information collected Substantial and well-researched data Achievement report objectives Language 30 Grammatically accurate Appropriate vocabulary Appropriate language for report writing Originality of text production Visual aids 10 Accuracy of data and clarity of information . 2010 , Leisure , Personal life 465 Words | 3 Pages. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORT BASED ON THE LATEST NATIONAL PASSENGER SURVEY (SPRING 2011) AUTHOR: ONUR AYAN DATE: 27/10/2011 TO: MANAGERS . Writing. OF SOUTH WEST TRAINS Summary In this report we have analysed the results of National Passenger Survey. The research gives us vital information about our customers’ opinions on our services. From the analysis it could be seen that the recent priority issues are the lack of employees in direct service areas, parking place problems and animism and the alphabet, physical conditions. 2011 , Amtrak , Customer 1048 Words | 5 Pages. LONG REPORT FORMAT A typical lab report should include the following sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Learning Creative Writing. 9. 10. Annie Essay. 11. 12.

Title Page . Learning Creative. Table of reference harvard, Contents List of Figures Abstract Introduction Apparatus Procedure Safety Results Recommendations and Conclusion Appendix References Follow the detailed instructions in the CHE writing guide. Learning. Make sure to include page numbers. 1. Title Page Follow the sample on reference phd thesis page 15 of learning creative writing, this document. Although counted in the pagination, this page is not numbered. (A. Abstraction , Documents , Error 1958 Words | 7 Pages. 2/24/13 MUET MUET /D MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY ENGLISH TEST ( MUET ) REGISTRATION SLIP FOR MARCH SESSION 2013 . NAME : TENGKU SHAFIQ BIN TENGKU ADAM AZLI IC NUMBER : 941218-05-5421 INDEX NUMBER : MC0805/7016 TEST CENTRE : KULLIAH AL-LUGHAH WADDIN AS-SULTAN ABU BAKAR (C), PEKAN CODE PAPER DATE TIME DURATION 800/2 SPEAKING 25 FEBRUARY 2013 7:30 am 30 minutes 800/3 READING 9 MARCH 2013 8:00 am - 9:30 am 90 minutes 800/4 . Constitutional amendment , Fielding , Identity document 303 Words | 4 Pages. * Past Year Questions MUET Malaysian University English Test ( MUET ) Paper 4 ( writing ) You are advised to essay, spend . about 50 minutes on learning creative this task. * Mid Year 2011 MUET.You are advised to spend about 50 minutes on writing activities this task. Learning Creative Writing. * “The most valuable thing in life is friendship.” Do you agree? Discuss. You should write at least350 words. * End Year “A person’s choice should be determined by controversial, his or her interest.” Discuss. * March- Year 2012 MUET “Education is the most important factor in the. Critical thinking , Pilcrow , Question 1599 Words | 5 Pages.

Psychology 1011 How to Write a Research Report Psychological Report The purpose of an experimental report . is to writing, communicate, briefly but precisely, the theoretical and empirical bases for annie dillard seeing essay, a particular hypothesis, the way the hypothesis has been tested, and the results of the test. Report Resources Available on learning BlackBoard: - Marking criteria - e .g. of good/bad reports - APA referencing guide - Manual - Toolkit www.lc.unsw.edu.au Structure – The Hourglass Model TITLE ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION. Citation , Following , Hypothesis 1281 Words | 7 Pages. http://www.businessballs.com/writing.htm ? Link This article summarizes effective writing techniques for writing school activities, reports . I. The . typical structure is as follows: II. Title, author, date. III. Writing. Contents.

IV. Introduction and Terms of Reference (plan for school, report ). Creative Writing. V. Executive Summary (containing main points of evidence, recommendations and outcomes.) VI. (1-2 pages maximum) VII. Background/history/situation. VIII. Writing. Implications/issues/opportunities/threats, with source-referenced facts and. Report , Technical communication , Writing 1308 Words | 5 Pages. ? REPORT WRITING You are strongly advised to review the creative, guidance on report writing provided by the . library. The following is an abridged version taken from the library website “Key Skills” by creative middle school, Claire MacTavish © De Montfort University 27.08.01 How is creative a report different from an essay? In purpose: A report needs to finish with clear recommendations about what action is suggested as a result of the findings. An essay is unlikely to need such an important and emphatic conclusion, (depending on its title).

2005 albums , Abbas Kiarostami , Bombshell Rocks 732 Words | 4 Pages. ?AHAA 1043 CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING Assignment Report “Thinking is easy, acting is essay difficult, and put one’s thoughts into action is . the learning, most difficult thing in the world.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (German Playwright, Poet, Novelist and Dramatist. Middle School Activities. 1749-1832) Looking back at the lecturer career, the important of critical thinking to success in the career thinking skills is real, students may not know how to actually apply the information that receive to real world application culture. Attacking Faulty Reasoning , Critical thinking , Fallacy 1005 Words | 3 Pages. ?Book Report Writing Template This is a guide only. Learning Creative. It is not meant to write the report for you. It gives you a . Personal Mba. format or template for writing your own report . The original draft was developed by a teacher friend of learning creative writing, mine to use with her own students. I have made a few additional enhancements which I believe make the and the alphabet essays, model more clear and complete. Learning Creative Writing. A note of caution here.

Your instructor may have another book report format that he/she prefers. So, make sure they approve of this format before. Character , Protagonist , Typography 934 Words | 4 Pages. purpose for this hole is to make the joint or connection by essays online, using the screw. As we know, the joint between the part is very important for learning creative writing, the machine . Animism Alphabet Essays. rigidity. A hole is learning creative writing needs to middle activities, transfer the flow of the liquid that use in this machine. For example , the liquid used for the coolant will be transfer by a pipe that need the hole for this piping system.

This machine required electricity as the learning writing, main source energy. So, this hole is annie essay summary very important to create a hole for learning creative writing, the installation of the wiring. Bending , Bolted joint , Force 1041 Words | 5 Pages. MEMO TO: | Recipient’s Name | FROM: | Sender’s Name | DATE: | Current Date | SUBJECT: | Writing Memo . Reports | A memo report is an informal report format often used to reply to essays done, a request for information. Memo reports are intended for learning writing, internal use. Formatting To begin a memo report , key the heading words and information to print about one inch from the top of the page, as you would for any memo. Use the default side margins for your word processor. Leave one blank. Intern , Line , Paragraph 805 Words | 4 Pages.

well with long-term goals more difficult to essays done, engage with the cigarette / tobacco / drugs compared with the permissive family, with emphasis on the philosophy . of doing its own affairs, and The most powerful influence is when the learning writing, old self into shape example that is as heavy smokers, so their children will likely to mencontohnya. Conduct smoke more is controversial thesis found in learning, those living with one parent (single parent). Teenagers will behave as a smoker faster when their mothers smoke from the father who smokes, it. Adolescence , Childhood , Cigarette 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Guidelines for Writing a Lab Report. LAB REPORT GUIDELINES Writing a good lab report is an dillard seeing, important goal of your science education, and gives you . the opportunity to enhance your writing skills and to communicate your understanding of the creative writing, scientific process to others. Your lab report for this semester will be a write up of alphabet essays, your independent research project. This will follow the standard format for a lab report and should include the following sections: Title Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Conclusion . Design of experiments , Experiment , Hypothesis 1453 Words | 6 Pages. Business Reports Example By Candy. Business Reports Business Studies HSC The Business Report Structure There are 2 options for learning creative writing, addressing your answer in the body . of the report I suggest you use Option 1 in case you run out of time!

How to start the controversial, Business report before you start writing it! 1 Re read stimulus 2 Underline the key words 3 Determine if the stimulus is drawing upon concepts covered in one or two of the syllabus topics i.e Nature of business, Business Management, Business Planning 4 Annotate the directive verbs e. Business , Business ethics , Corporate governance 662 Words | 13 Pages. Abstract Examples Writing an learning, Abstract – Examples. ABSTRACT EXAMPLES Writing an Abstract – Examples Each student who completes a science fair project must write an . abstract to be displayed with the project. An abstract gives the essence of the project in writing middle school activities, a brief but complete form — it should not exceed 250 words. Creative Writing. Judges and the public should have a fairly accurate idea of the project after reading the abstract.

The abstract must focus on the current year’s research and give only animism alphabet essays, minimal reference to previous work. Details and discussions should. Algae , Experiment , High school 862 Words | 3 Pages. Writing an learning writing, Engineering Report The report can be divided into the following sections: • Letter of transmittal • . Annie. Covers and label • Table of contents • List of learning creative, figures • Executive summary (abstract) • Introduction • Body of the report • Conclusions • Appendixes (includes references) Letter of Transmittal • This is a cover letter. • Use the goals essay, formal business letter format. • Attach it to the outside of the report OR bind it inside the report . Learning Creative Writing. • It explains the content of the report . Controversial. • Content and writing, organization. Arabic numerals , Book design , Business letter 1010 Words | 10 Pages. Introduction to Technical Report Writing. Chapter # 01 Introduction To Technical Report Writing Technical report writing is phd thesis a practical . writing that people do as a part of their jobs.

It is a different form of writing , both different from and learning creative, similar to middle school, other forms of writing . Technical writing both analyzes and explains in learning writing, order to creative writing middle, communicate with the reader. Definitions: 1. Technical Report Writing aims to get work done, to change people by learning, changing the way they do things. (Killingsworth and phd thesis, Gilbertson) 2. The most critical. Audience , Communication , Interpersonal communication 1700 Words | 7 Pages. Writing a Scientific Report on Drosophila: Instructions. APPENDIX 5 - Writing Reports Report 1: Drosophila F1 Generation Report General Notes: This . Learning. report is alphabet very much a practice run to writing, get you used to this style of report writing , rather than simply filling in lab sheets. It should not be a long report (no longer than these notes, in fact). Scientific writing is not like writing essays in goals mba, other genre. In many ways it is easier! There are three important rules to learning creative, scientific writing and if you adhere to these, the rest is creative school activities quite easy: 1. Learning Creative. Sentences.

Academic publishing , Open access , Peer review 1305 Words | 4 Pages. QuickRef 6 What is a report ? This is an introductory guide to report writing . Online. It gives some general advice on . the content and structure of a report . Learning Creative Writing. It is very important for you to middle, consult your Departmental Guidelines or Unit Guide for advice on the required report format for the units in which you are enrolled. Differences between the report and the essay Report • is learning usually a question or a proposition. • is based on reading and sometimes field work. Thesis. is to learning creative writing, investigate, present. Essay , Report , Technical communication 580 Words | 7 Pages. A Guide to Writing a Reflective Report.

A Guide to Writing a Reflective Report What does it mean ‘to reflect’? Officially, it means to explore experiences in order to . lead to new understandings and improved practice. At its simplest it means: • To think deeply about an experience. To go beyond the simple question, ‘What’s going on here?’ to ask ‘What’s really going on thesis here?’ • To ask yourself what this experience means to you and your practice • To churn ideas, thoughts and experiences around in writing, your head and make connections . Experience , Mind , Reflection 1324 Words | 5 Pages. All reports need to be clear, concise and well structured.

The key to writing an effective report is to allocate . time for planning and preparation. With careful planning, the writing of a report will be made much easier. The essential stages of successful report writing are described below. Consider how long each stage is likely to take and divide the time before the deadline between the different stages. Be sure to leave time for final proof reading and controversial, checking. Stage One: Understanding the. Clear , Conscription in the United States , First Draft of learning creative writing, a Report on the EDVAC 808 Words | 3 Pages. A Guide to Writing a Reflective Report. A guide to writing a Reflective Report The purpose of the essay mba, Reflective Report is to learning creative writing, foster an done online, ability to reflect on . Learning Creative Writing. their experience and consider ways in which their developing understanding of the theory, which underpins practice, can help them to develop an attitude of critical awareness of animism and the alphabet, their own actions, values, motives etc, and also to the actions, values and motivations of others that they work with. Students complete a weekly reflective report during level 1, and a fortnightly reflective.

Critical theory , Critical thinking , Reflection 1290 Words | 4 Pages. Academic Writing Analysis Example. the audience (i.e. tutor) against human cloning and expresses the writing, author’s lack of competency in annie seeing essay, presenting his arguments. Based on the channel chosen . to creative writing, convey his message, the essay is, to a large extent, an thesis, ineffective piece of academic writing upon evaluation of its content, language and creative, organization of arguments. This essay critique analyses and alphabet, evaluates the above points. One of the essay problems includes the poorly developed thesis statement at the end of the 1st paragraph. Academia , Argument , Critical thinking 969 Words | 6 Pages.

MUET VERSUS IELTS. In today’s global world, the importance of English cannot be denied and ignored since English is the most common . language spoken everywhere. Although Malay language is our mother tongue, we still have to learning creative writing, conquer this language if we want to compete with other international countries. With the help of developing technology, English has been playing a major role in many sectors including medicine, engineering, and education is the controversial thesis, most important arena where English is needed. Dutch language , England , English language 1070 Words | 3 Pages.

IBS Standards for Report Writing and Re. ?1. Creative Writing. Report Writing Check List The written report should have the online, following sections, each starting on a new page: . Title page (mandatory) Title of assignment Unit number and name Student’s name Date of submission Submission or Resubmission Name of assessor Table of contents (mandatory) Use page numbers Title page, table of learning writing, contents page and appendices do not need page numbers. Introduction (mandatory) The introduction describes the background, purpose and goals mba, scope of the assignment; it explains. Anglia Ruskin University , APA style , Bibliography 819 Words | 7 Pages. Interpretation and Report Writing. Interpretation And Report Writing by KISHORE on FEBRUARY 8, 2010 After collecting and analyzing the data, the researcher . has to accomplish the task of drawing inferences followed by report writing . This has to learning creative writing, be done very carefully, otherwise mi conclusions may be drawn and the whole purpose of controversial thesis, doing research may get vitiated. It is only through interpretation that the researcher can expose relations and learning, processes that underlie his finding In case of hypotheses testing studies, if hypotheses. Exploratory research , Generalization , Hypothesis 2060 Words | 6 Pages.

Business Report Writing The purpose of a business report is to communicate information to assist in the business . Creative. decision making process. Some reports might propose solutions for business problems or might present relevant information to creative writing, assist in and the essays, the problem solving process. Writing. A business plan is a kind of report which serves to writing middle school, communicate the creative writing, business model, business management model and the commercial objectives of a business. In general when writing a business report the following steps have. Business Decision Mapping , Decision making , Management 650 Words | 3 Pages. Abstract Writing: The Essence Of The Report. Abstract The abstract, although it comes first logistically, always should be written last. It needs to be written last because it is the creative middle, essence of your . report , drawing information from all of the other sections of the report . It explains why the experiment was performed and what conclusions were drawn from the results obtained. A general guideline for an abstract has five sections or areas of focus: why the experiment was conducted; the problem being addressed; what methods were used to solve. Enzyme , Gastric acid , Grammatical tense 1847 Words | 5 Pages. Business Letter and Report Writing.

Business Letter and Report Writing Table of Contents Introduction 1 Discussion 2 Writing Business . Learning Creative. Correspondence 2 Appropriate Style and Tone to Address intended Audience 4 Formal and Informal Business Writing 5 Create and Format Basic Documents used in Businesses 5 Clear and Compelling Writing Styles for Business Communication 6 Conclusion 8 References 9 Business Letter and Report Writing Introduction In business, communication is everything either at. Communication , Writer , Writing 2449 Words | 7 Pages. Guidelines For Writing Training Report. ?Guidelines For Writing Training Report The Guidelines for carrying out the personal goals essay, STR is given in the following paragraphs. Each . student is to compile his/her study in learning creative, six chapters as detailed below: Chapter-I : Introduction 1.1 Introduction: It should include (a) Meaning of the concept, ie, Job Satisfaction, Consumer Satisfaction, Working Capital Management, (b) Rationale for choosing the topic/problem under study, (c) Implementation strategy of and the alphabet, concept in creative, your present study.

1.2 Objectives of Study. Data , Data analysis , Exploratory data analysis 906 Words | 3 Pages. MUET Writing (Paper 800/4) Tips How to dillard seeing essay summary, improve your English essay writing skills? Write Grammatically Correct . Essay The English grammar level presented in the essay decides whether it is a well-written or low-graded essay. Creative. A grammatically incorrect essay distracts the readers’ attention from the content written by controversial, the writer. Creative Writing. So, you should read the Important English Grammar Notes for Essay Writing posted on writing school activities this blog previously. Learning Writing. In addition to annie dillard, that, you should always avoid doing minor errors. Communication , Creative writing , Essay 366 Words | 2 Pages. Cafeteria , College tuition , Eating 959 Words | 8 Pages. relatively high, in the 8Oth percentile. * Two students received a 5 using the learning writing, EPT rubric; four students received a 4, three students received a 3; and animism and the essays, . two students received a 2, * It was very apparent that some students had a far better grasp of writing technique and organization. After completing the learning writing, Juvenile Justice Module, the “Reading and Composing Skills Test” Post Test was given to controversial thesis, our 10 AP English Literature students. * Students showed growth from 86% to 92% * Students showed.

Education , English people , Student 1043 Words | 4 Pages. ?BINUS UNIVERSITY Business Report Contents Executive Summary 3 1. Creative. Introduction 3 1.1 Background 3 1.2 purpose 4 1.3 Assumptions . 4 1.4 Method 4 2. Findings 4 2.1 Strengths 4 2.2 Weaknesses 5 3. Discussions ( pls explain all your findings in essays, details) 5 3.1 5 3.2 5 3.3 5 3.4 5 3.5………. Creative. 5 4. Conclusion 5 5. Recommendations and Implementation 6 6. References 6 Executive Summary The purpose of online, this report was to learning creative writing, investigate a student club at a private university in Jakarta. Board of directors , English people , Language proficiency 928 Words | 6 Pages. Nature of Organizing Information and Content in Report Writing. REPORT WRITING : ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING LEARNING OBJECTIVES: ? ? Week 4 . To appreciate the complex nature of organizing information and dillard seeing summary, content in report writing To understand further the creative, critical role of PPQ in report writing I NTRODUCTION In the planning stage, you have been introduced to personal goals essay mba, the concept of PPQ – Problem, Purpose and Questions – as the main driving force of your report writing . If your PPQ is creative writing not formulated well, chances are your report will not make sense. Abbas Kiarostami , Critical thinking , Singapore 4969 Words | 6 Pages.

? MUET ! LISTENING TIPS : 1) Read question 2) Listen to writing middle activities, track 3) Answer formally ( not fully ) 4) Listen again to . the track 5) Check and learning writing, repair your answer INFO TRANSFER SHORT ANSWER 1) Correct spelling. ONLY 1 LETTER mistake is allowed. ( means kalo korg salah eja , 1 huruf je boleh salah. ) 2)Should not change the meaning ( means , kalau korang salah eja, dia akan check meaning words tu . kalau maksud dah lain dengan jawapan sepatutnya, consider. Answer , Language , Question 416 Words | 3 Pages. Report Writing of alphabet, Investigatory Project. WRITING A REPORT An investigatory science project ends with a report . This report also known as . technical paper, includes the following patterns: A. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This is the creative writing, list of people who advise the personal mba, student in undertaking the investigatory project. B. TITLE The title should be able to catch the attention of the reader. It should be concise, descriptive and self-explanatory. It should indicate clearly what the project is learning creative about. The phrase “A Study to Show” should be avoided.

Academic publishing , Christopher Nolan , Citation 894 Words | 4 Pages. Example Investigative Fire Report. Observations Data collection began with photos being taken beginning outside and moving indoors. No smoke alarms or water sprinklers have been noted. . Pictures should always be labeled when providing evidence and these photos will be numbered in this report . Writing Activities. Upon entry of the learning writing, structure, the majority of fire damage was concentrated to essay summary, the main living room area which indicates that this is the point of origin. This room contained a heavily burned sofa and table next to learning, the sofa as shown in pictures #12-#14. Cigarette , Cigarettes , Fire 1174 Words | 4 Pages. MUET PRESENTATION SCRIPT: “ABOLITION OF PPSMI, NOT A SMART MOVE. Animism Essays. “ Sie Yii: Good morning Madam Jasmine and all my fellow friends. As the first . (speaker/presenter), I will be talking on the background of today’s topic, which is “ABOLITION OF PPSMI, NOT A SMART MOVE”.

First of all, what is PPSMI? *pause, wait for response. If no one responds, move on.* PPSMI stands for Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sains dan Matematik dalam Bahasa Inggeris, or the teaching and learning of learning creative writing, Science and thesis, Mathematics in. French language , Languages of the Philippines , Lingua franca 1505 Words | 4 Pages. Writing an creative, Organic Chemistry Lab Report. Writing an Organic Chemistry Lab Report Components of seeing essay, a Laboratory Notebook The following components should be contained for . Creative Writing. each experiment, along with any additional material required by and the, your instructor. Creative Writing. • Title and date • Introduction (purpose, reaction) • Physical data (including calculations) • Procedure outline • Data and observations • Discussion of results (conclusions) Prelab Title and Date Give the personal essay, title of the experiment and the date on which. Chemical compound , Chemistry , Experiment 738 Words | 3 Pages. Overview of business report writing for Business Studies Because it so closely mirrors the real commercial world, business . actually has a language of its own. Creative. The language of business is known either as the personal mba, report format or as report style writing . In this tutorial the two terms are used interchangeably. Writing. In most cases your Business Studies teachers will prefer that you use report style writing for your assignments instead of the more familiar essay style of writing that you have become so accustomed. Annual report , Balance sheet , Business 1705 Words | 6 Pages. Definitions of personal goals, technical writing 1. The goal of technical writing is to enable readers to use a technology or understand a . process or concept.

Because the creative, subject matter is more important than the writer's voice, technical writing style uses an seeing summary, objective, not a subjective, tone. The writing style is direct and utilitarian, emphasizing exactness and clarity rather than elegance or allusiveness. Creative. A technical writer uses figurative language only when a figure of speech would facilitate understanding. Communication , Technical communication , Technical writer 468 Words | 3 Pages. ?Recommendation Report Of evaluate office products to improve working environment To: Ellen Page From: Roger Liao Date: November 2.2014 . Animism Essays. Summary: Smash Design decide to learning creative writing, purchase new chairs and essays online, some ergonomic items to solve the problem of creative writing, employees feel uncomfortable and phd thesis harvard, get sick in their work environment. This report evaluate the Herman Miller Chairs and Steel Case Leap Chairs, Simple Package and Deluxe Package offer by Staple supplies, and Rocco and learning creative, Rita’s Gym membership. Aeron Chairs with higher. Aeron chair , Chair , Chairs 906 Words | 4 Pages. Trial Report Writing for Industrial Attachment. SHORT REPORTS PURPOSE: When a brief written communication is necessary and essays online, can do the learning, job for annie essay, the reader. ? For . example , a weekly or monthly financial or production report can be handled by a Short Report . ? Or, a proposal for a simple project or improvement on a process can be written up in a Short Report . Creative. WHAT IS THE FORM? Can be written as a Letter or as a Memo. ? Memo when it is written within your department or company. (Sometimes a letter is OK here.) ? Letter when.

Memorandum , Page , Pages 860 Words | 4 Pages. Writing Unit Folio Case Study Report. TOTAL Intern: Alexandra Carmichael Andrece: Final Case Study Report for animism essays, Unit Writing Folio Teacher: Mrs. Kathy Jacobs . Grade: 3rd Blanche Fuqua Elementary School DEMOGRAPHICS SHEET Name: Alex Carmichael Teacher: Kathy Jacobs School: Blanche Fuqua Elementary Directions: Place “X” by all descriptors that apply to your school. Community: _____Rural _____Suburban ___X__ Urban _____Other _____Mostly affluent _____Mostly upper middle-class families . Colon , Full stop , Orthography 1140 Words | 4 Pages. TIPS FOR MUET CANDIDATES!

Try not to treat or think of learning writing, MUET as a scary test. However, don't under estimate the preparation, . time and alphabet, effort required for this test either. Learning Creative Writing. If you have friends or classmates who have taken the test, ask them about it. You'll probably get many many different types of essays done, answers. OMG! It's tough! or Actually, its not that hard. Their experiences may vary depending on the amount of preparation done as well as their background in English. Well, MUET is a test. Learning. So. English language , Need to thesis, know , Speech 818 Words | 3 Pages.

Technical writing is a form of technical communication used in learning writing, a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer . hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics and astronautics, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, andbiotechnology. The Society for Technical Communication (STC) defines technical writing [1] as a broad field including any form of communication that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics: (1) communicating about technical or specialized. Communication , Documentation , Help authoring tool 970 Words | 3 Pages. Executive – composition and function, the role of the Civil Service. c. Judiciary – Structure of the court system, functions of Magistrates’ Courts, High . Courts, Privy Council, Caribbean Court of Justice d. Role of the creative writing middle activities, security systems, for example , police service, prison service. Functions of government: a. Raise revenue through direct and indirect taxation. Learning Creative Writing. b. Provide social services: welfare, education, health, public utilities. c. Manage the finances of the country (budgeting). d. Maintain.

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OD: 20/25 2. OS: 20/25 3. OU: 20/25 B. Unaided at Near 1. OD: J3 . 2. OS: J3 3. OU: J2 C. OD is the dominant eye and she uses right hand when writing • OLD RX None • COVER TEST A. Animism And The Essays. Without Rx 1. Exophoria at Distance 2. Exophoria at Near • CORNEAL REFLEX TEST A. Writing. OD Centric B. OS Centric . Contact lens , Eye examination , Lens 616 Words | 6 Pages. Cleveland, OH. Thesis. November 30, 2012 Summary The purpose of this report is to determine why we should lease computer equipment as opposed . to purchasing computer equipment. Creative Writing. Leasing computers can save this organization revenue by not having to have an on-site IT Department for any hardware or software issues that develop. Any technological advances that develop can be upgraded to stay current with technology. This report will also look at the total cost of personal goals mba, ownership as compared to leasing computer. Business terms , Costs , Finance lease 1659 Words | 7 Pages. XXXXXXXXX Exploratory Report Stake-Holders: People/Entities The conflict of the Ground Zero mosque has become one of the learning creative, fiercest religious . based debates in recent years. One of the most influential men in the debate is Feisal Abdul Rauf.

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Abbas Kiarostami , Alphabet , Cagayan de Oro City 707 Words | 3 Pages. of report writing in Business Organizations need accurate, timely, objective and concise information to make effective . decisions. Learning Creative Writing. One way they can obtain such information is from a business report . Personal Goals Essay. This document can be defined as “an organizedpresentation of information to a specific audience for the purpose of helping an organization achieve an objective” While business reports share similar characteristics, they also need to be customized for their particular purpose. An informal report may. Advertising , Corporation , Creative writing 1601 Words | 6 Pages. Progress Phase Report : Phase 1 MKTG304 – Friday 10am Andrew West Table of Contents Introduction . . 2 Consumption Patterns Type of trends, fluctuations and cycles in demand . 2 Consumer . Consumer , Consumer protection , Dishwasher 2100 Words | 7 Pages. Expository Writing What is writing it? Expository Writing is the most straightforward genre of writing that you . Goals Essay. do. It is also one of the most flexible genres. It can take a variety of forms: it can instruct, inform, report on an experience, or explore an idea. Expository writing conveys information to the reader in such a way as to bring about understanding, whether it is a process, procedure, information or the writer’s ideas on a concept.

Well-written exposition has a clear, central presentation. Essay , Featured articles , Formal system 882 Words | 5 Pages. Student Name HCA/220 April, 28 2013 Medical Report Assignment PAITENT NAME: Smith, John HOSPITAL NUMBER: 859-656-6561 DATE OF . ADMISSION: July, 23 20xx |Chapter 3 – Medical Record | |History of Present Illness | |The patient arrived, complaining of creative, chronic abdominal pain, vomiting. Asthma , Cardiology , Heart 941 Words | 6 Pages. Directed Writing: Report on Water Pollution. ?Directed Writing : Report Water issues that affected villagers health in the little village Written By: Jason Spencer Water . is goals essay one of human beings most important basic needs. Writing. Human can survive without food for couples of days but somehow going without water, human will not survive.

Using safe, clean, water is a basic human right. Mother Nature gifts us free water but selfish human beings keeps polluting the water with actions such as chemical leaks, littering into water, disposing industrial. Dengue fever , Mosquito , Pollution 1017 Words | 2 Pages. for writing 1. And The Alphabet. According to creative, Marvin Klein writing is the ability to employ pen pencil and paper to express ideas symbolically . Personal Goals Mba. so that sensation on paper reflect meaning and content capable of being communicated to another by creative writing, the producer. How youngster forms various representation of written expression to units of written language is online natural and important evolution. Scribbling is one of the primary forms of written expression. Creative Writing. In many respects, scribbling is the fountainhead for writing and occurs.

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IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Knowing how to structure your IELTS Writing Task 2 essay is an essential skill that can make the difference between the getting and not getting the band score you deserve. With that in mind, we have outlined the most common IELTS Writing Task 2 structures below. Nearly all of my Task 2 essay follow this basic structure: The sentences you put in each paragraph will depend on what type of question you get. The five most common IELTS Writing Task 2 questions are: Below I will outline examples and a structure approved by experienced IELTS teachers and examiners for each type of question. This will help you write a clear, coherent answer and learning writing, hopefully boost your IELTS band score.

I also include an essays example answer for each type of question so you can see what the structure looks like in a real essay. Please note that these are general structures and they may vary slightly depending on the particular question. Please also note that there is no ‘one’ structure that will get you a high score. There are many types of structures that can get you a high score. These are just the ones I think are most effective and easiest to learn. For more detailed guidance on each type of question please visit the lessons below. I have provided a link at the end of each section.

Opinion Questions (Agree or Disagree) What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree? To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programmes (for example working for a charity, improving the learning writing neighborhood or teaching sports to dillard seeing essay, younger children). To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement (It is agreed…/It is disagreed…/This essay agrees/disagrees…) Sentence 3- Outline Sentence (This essay will discuss….) Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary and opinion. t is learning creative argued that volunteering should be made part of the school curriculum.

This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the alphabet essays benefits it brings to pupils. The essay will first look at how voluntary work can help students develop soft skills and then discuss how these extracurricular activities are valued by universities and employers. Education should not be limited to creative writing, strictly academic pursuits and controversial, those in education should also develop life skills, such as teamwork, empathy and self-discipline, and one of the creative best ways to hone these aptitudes is through community service. Serving those less fortunate than ourselves teaches us many lessons including how to work with people from dillard essay summary other backgrounds and the value of hard work. For example, I personally volunteered to spend 6 weeks in Africa teaching disadvantaged children and this led to a much higher work ethic when I returned to writing, my studies. Many colleges and reference harvard, companies are also increasingly looking for this type of experience.

Most school leavers have the creative same grades and charitable works can help set you apart from the herd. Online! For example, Cambridge and Oxford receive thousands of applications from straight-A students every year and can only accept a small percentage of applicants. What you have done outside the classroom is often the thing that differentiates you from everyone else and learning creative writing, gets you that coveted spot. In conclusion, teenagers should be made to animism and the essays, partake in unpaid work as part of their schooling because it will help them learn things they wouldn’t ordinarily learn from their teachers and learning, it will also boost their chances of creative school activities getting into third level education. For more detail on how to learning creative writing, answer agree or disagree questions please visit our opinion essay lesson. Advantages and Disadvantages Questions. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and give your own opinion. Computers are being used more and more in reference harvard education. Discuss the advantages and creative, disadvantages and give your own opinion.

Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State One Advantage. Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Advantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- State One Disadvantage.

Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Disadvantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Opinion. It is argued that technology is playing an every increasing role in schools and universities. This essay will firstly, discuss student freedom as one of the main advantages of reference harvard this and secondly, outline decreasing levels of face to face contact as one of the main disadvantages. One of the principle advantages of an increase in learning writing the use electronic devices in essays done online education is the autonomy it provides students. Students have the freedom to focus on learning writing whatever topic or subject they want and study it in writing middle activities depth through the internet.

A prime example of this is the creative writing amount of online university courses available to students, covering a myriad of subjects, that up until recently were unavailable to most learners. This has resulted in more people studying third level degrees than ever before, at a pace and schedule that suits them. The main disadvantage associated with increasing use of technology in education is the decrease in face to creative school activities, face interaction between students. Students spend more time looking at computer screens by themselves than interacting with each other. For instance, the recent explosion in smartphone use has been at the expense of genuine human interaction. Learning Writing! This results in soft skills, such as verbal communication and empathy, being affected. In conclusion, the benefits technology brings to education, such as student autonomy, must be weighed against the drawbacks, such as negative effects on human interaction.

Overall, the educational benefits outweigh the disadvantages because human beings will always want human contact and most people will not solely use IT for education. For more detail on goals mba how to answer advantage and disadvantage questions please visit our advantage and disadvantage lesson. Discuss Both Views Question (Discussion Essay) Discuss both points of learning creative writing view and give your opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences. Discuss both sides of this argument and then give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question and/or state both viewpoints. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement.

Sentence 3- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State first viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss first viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- State second viewpoint.

Sentence 2- Discuss second viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. Essay Mba! It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and learning writing, think it will lead to adverse ramifications. This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and personal essay, teachers. Writing! This essay will discuss both points of view. It is reference clear that the Internet has provided students with access to learning writing, more information than ever before. Moreover, learners have the ability to reference, research and learn about learning creative, any subject at the touch of a button.

It is essays done online therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for education. Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and easily. However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and creative, empathy. Reference Harvard! Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. Creative! For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to interact in ways that were never before possible. While the benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to tap into limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomena and personal goals essay mba, not allow it to curb face to face interaction.

However, as long as we are careful to keep in mind the importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. For more detail on how to writing, answer discussion questions please visit our discussion essay lesson. Problem and solution. Cause and solution. Students are becoming more and more reliant on computers. What are some of the annie dillard seeing essay problems associated with reliance on computers, and what are some of the possible solutions? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State Problem. Sentence 2- Explain problem.

Sentence 3- Result. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- State Solution. Sentence 2- Explain Solution. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Recommendation or Prediction. Learners are becoming ever more dependent on technology, such as the Internet and mobile devices. This essay will discuss one of the main problems associated with dependence on computers and suggest a viable solution. The principal problem with over-reliance on technology, such as tablets and computers, is learning creative writing plagiarism.

Students often use search engines to reference phd thesis harvard, answer a question and creative, simply copy the text from a website, rather than thinking about the question. This practice is alphabet not only creative prohibited in schools and universities but also stunts a student’s intellectual development. For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from Wikipedia word for alphabet word rather than giving a reasoned answer to their questions. A solution to this worrying problem is asking students to email their answers to teachers and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. Moreover, students would be made aware of this practice and this would inspire them to creative writing, answer questions using their own words, rather than someone else’s.

For instance, many universities already use this kind software to scan course work for plagiarism and it could be extended to include all homework, by learners in both secondary and mba, tertiary education. In summary, one of the main problems with over-use of technology in learning creative writing education is plagiarism and this can be solved through the use of plagiarism detection software. It is predicted that more and more students’ will email their work to their teacher and this work will be scrutinised for plagiarism. For more detail on controversial how to answer problem and solution questions please visit our problem and solution lesson. There will normally be a statement and they will then ask you to answer to learning creative writing, separate questions. As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual wellbeing. What factors contribute to controversial thesis, job satisfaction? How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers?

Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence (mention both questions) Sentence 1- Answer first question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Answer second question directly.

Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. As the majority of adults spend most of their time at work, being content with your career is a crucial part of a person’s health and happiness. This essay will first discuss which elements lead to job satisfaction and it will then address the question of writing how likely it is writing that everyone can be happy with their job. The two most important things that lead to learning creative, someone being satisfied at work are being treated with respect by managers and being compensated fairly. If those more senior than you respect you as a person and reference phd thesis harvard, the job you are doing then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and benefits are also important considerations because if you feel you are being underpaid you will either resent your bosses or look for learning creative another job. There two factors came top of a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by Monster.com, that found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated.

With regards to essay, the question of happiness for all workers, I think this is and always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of people fail to learning, reach their goals and end up working in a post they don’t really care about in return for a salary. This money is done just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in learning a cycle of disenchantment. Essay Mba! For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the learning money. In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an important part of one’s well-being and respect from one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of happiness, however, job satisfaction of all workers is an creative middle school activities unrealistic prospect.

Can I get a band 8 or 9 following these structures? Nobody can give you a structure that guarantees you a high score. You score is dependent on how good your grammar and learning creative, vocabulary is and how well you answer the question. Writing! A good structure will help you answer the creative writing question to some extent and boost your score for coherence and cohesion, but you must use relevant ideas and use these ideas well to answer the controversial question. Looking for learning writing some sample questions? Here are over 100 sample questions from past exam papers. I hope you found this article useful. Now that you know the structures you should check out our task 2 sample answers to see how they have been used in practice.

Would you like me to check your essay and tell you how to reference phd thesis harvard, improve? Check out our essay correction service. The best way to writing, keep up to personal goals essay mba, date with more great posts like this and to access loads of practice exercises is to like us on Facebook. For more help with IELTS please check out creative IELTS Preparation– The Ultimate Guide. 62 Comments on IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures Thank you so much for your studies. I really like a sentence from the reference phd thesis harvard introduction: “This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils”. Learning! But how should I rephrase it in cace I disagree with the statement?

Is OK to phd thesis harvard, write: “This essay DISAGREES with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils”. I would be very thankful if you can provide us with an creative writing example for done online the question type “Two-part Question” the creative same as you did in and the the other types. This is a very good essay. This is creative writing great! Very simple and animism and the alphabet, easy to learning, understand. I hope to do some more practice using the tips here. Thank you! Hi Chris, thank you for creating such a great site. I like your way of structuring essay, but I am concerned about conccesion statements, especially for agree and disagree essays. Animism Essays! Could you please suggest where can I fit coccesion statements in these structures.

Thank you. Don’t worry about concessions in opinion essays. Home » Writing Task 2 » IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on creative writing this site is for information purposes only. IELTS is a registered trademark of University of essays online Cambridge, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia.

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