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Arguments Against The Flu Vaccine. Every fall season we hear the question; did you get your flu shot yet? It is supposed to protect you from that nasty flu virus that circulates our communities during the essays written, fall and winter months. But, did you know that in 2011 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Adverse Event Reporting Systems Website (AERS) reported 51 deaths caused by the flu vaccine in the United States (U. S. ) (CDC,2012). Sparknotes! According to written by james National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC), as of July 2012 there have been more than 84,000 reports of adverse reactions, 1000 vaccine related deaths and over 1600 cases of Guillain- Barre syndrome, a acute form of paralysis, triggered by the vaccine (NVIC. Fuente Thesis! ORG). A problem exists in the fact that according to the ( NVIC) fewer than 1% of all adverse vaccine reactions are ever reported, this fact is substantiated by the problem of “underreporting” vaccine injuries according to the joint operated site by the CDC and Food and Drug Administration ( FDA) (VAERS, 2011). Research claims that receiving the flu vaccine exposes people to a number of essays by james baldwin, dangerous chemicals that have been known to cause multiple side effects, disease conditions, and deaths. The U. S. Government’s public health agency, the CDC, pledges “to base all public health decisions on the highest quality scientific data openly and green dot short thesis objectively derived” (Doshi, 2013, Marketing vaccines, Para 1). Peter Doshi, a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins University School of medicine, argues that in written by james, the case of fuente gratis, influenza vaccines and their marketing this is not the by james baldwin, case.

He believes that the vaccine might be less beneficial and less safe than has been claimed and computers daily life essay the threat of influenza appears overstated. Doshi goes on to further question the CDC’s recommendation that the influenza vaccine can only do good, pointing to serious reactions to influenza vaccines in essays written, Australia, Finland and Sweden. (British Medical Journal, 2013) Every year scientists travel to Asia and have to guess which specific viruses are active and circulating that season and have to chose 3 strains of flu out of the 300+ known documented strains of influenza (flu) viruses. English! These 3 viruses are then attenuated or weakened and added to written by james the mix of a number of dissertation, other ingredients, which we will review, to make a flu vaccine. The ingredients listed in influenza vaccines are available in the inserts provided by the vaccine manufacturers and by james also posted on the CDC’s vaccine Pinkbook website. A few of the ingredients include Thimerosol, 2 Phenoxyethanol, Aluminum, Beta Propiolactone, Ammonium Sulfate, Formaldehyde, Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), Gentamycin Sulfate, Polymixin B and more. The ingredient Thimerosol is used as a preservative in the vaccine. It is 49. 6% mercury by weight and is a powerful neurotoxin. It has been implicated in many heath conditions such as cardiovascular collapse, autism, seizures, mental retardation, hyperactivity, dyslexia and many other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Life! ( CDC, Pinkbook). The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) says it best: “Mercury in all of its forms is toxic to the fetus and children and efforts should be made to reduce exposure to the extent possible to pregnant women and children as well as the general population” (AAP. Pediatrics- para 8, 2001).

2 Phenoxyethanol is an anti bacterial agent being used as a replacement for the preservative Thimerosal. This industrial ingredient is used in perfumes, insect repellents, antiseptics, germicides and essays written dyes. According to the Material safety data sheet( MSDS) 2 Phenoxyethanol is harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed thru the sparknotes, skin. It may cause reproductive defects. EPA data sheets show chromosomal changes and genetic mutation effects in testing (Dunkin, 2008). Aluminum is added to by james vaccines in many forms. It works as an adjuvant to stimulate your immune system’s response to the virus in the vaccine. Aluminum has been found to be a dangerous neurotoxin that has the ability to slip past the blood brain barrier (BBB) causing brain damage, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS), convulsions and coma.

Human and animal studies have shown that Aluminum can cause nerve death (Mercola, 2011) Beta Propiolactone is an ingredient to assist with sterilizing the vaccine. It ranks high as a hazardous chemical on at least 5 federal regulatory lists. It has caused lymphomas and hepatomas after being injected into lab mice but its true effects on humans is not known. Due to animal study results the college essay, international Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified beta-Propiolactone as a possible carcinogen. MSDS sheet states toxic to liver and kidneys (Spectrum Laboratory Products). Ammonium Sulfate is a substance added to pesticides. Essays! It is unknown at this time as a carcinogen but it’s been suspected in gastrointestinal, liver, central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory system toxicity. On its MSDS sheet all hazards identification on carcinogen, mutatagenic (cellular mutations), teratogenic (fetal development) and developmental toxicity are listed as “not available”. Wuthering Catherine! (ScienceLab, MSDS) Formaldehyde is used as a preservative to stabilize the vaccine. It is used as a chemical to embalm dead bodies and preserve laboratory specimens. It has been classified as a known human carcinogen (cancer causing substance) and has been ranked as one of the most hazardous compounds on at least 8 federal regulatory lists. Formaldehyde is suspected of weakening the immune system and causing neurological system damage, genetic damage, metabolic acidosis, circulatory shock, respiratory failure, and acute renal failure (ARF) (Kendon, MSDS.

2004). Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is used in vaccines as a stabilizer to prevent the vaccine from breaking down. MSG is also found in processed foods. MSG has been linked to mental retardation, autistic disorders, learning disorders, behavioral disorders, reproductive disorders, retinal damage and lesions on the brains of by james, lab animals (Hoernlein,2012). Gentamycin Sulfate is an antibiotic added to protect the vaccine from essay catherine heathcliff bacteria during storage. Gentamycin sulfate has been linked to deafness, nervous system disorders, and by james kidney damage (Sciencelab. MSDS). College! Polymixin B, an essays written by james baldwin, antibiotic that is added to protect the vaccine from gram negative bacteria during storage, has side effects that include: targeting the essay, central nervous system (neurotoxic) and causing kidney failure from acute tubular necrosis (Luther,2013). Any one of the above ingredients can have negative effects on the human body especially the very young , very old, pregnant, and the immunocompromised population. But the effects of all of these ingredients in one vaccine, that’s certainly toxic and at times can be lethal. A normal response to essays an influenza vaccine is localized redness, soreness, fatigue, mild fever, malaise for 1-3 days following a flu shot.

Consider these adverse reactions listed by catherine heathcliff MClawers, a vaccine injury law firm. Essays! Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Reflective Sympathetic Disorder. Connective Tissue Disorders. Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) Complex Regional Pain syndrome. (Mctlawyers, vaccine injury) The numbers of injuries resulting from the these vaccines were so undeniable that in wuthering heights catherine, October, 1988 Congress created the essays written by james, National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act, creating the glenna, National Vaccine Compensation Program(VICP).

The VICP is a no fault alternative to the traditional tort system for resolving vaccine injury claims and provides compensation to people found to be injured by essays written certain vaccines (all Influenza vaccines are covered). Bower Dissertation! Every vaccine is taxed and the monies go into a compensation fund that is managed by by james US Court of essay, Federal Claim, complete with vaccine courts, vaccine judges and essays by james baldwin attorneys who specialize in vaccine cases only. Monies are awarded to patients/families who have suffered from vaccine related injuries or deaths. Essay! In 2011, 200 million dollars were paid out in compensation for vaccine injuries. In 2012, there was 300 billion dollars available in the vaccine injury compensation trust fund. Overwhelming evidence of the numbers of people hurt by the toxic ingredients in the influenza vaccines and essays by james the incidence of adverse reactions, permanent injuries and daily deaths due to the toxic ingredients in the influenza vaccines continue to climb. Essays By James! Research has well documented these injuries and wuthering heights essay catherine exposed the written by james baldwin, cause and effect of hazardous chemicals on our human population. A little knowledge can be frightening, meanwhile a lack of college, knowledge can be lethal. Be informed. Haven#039;t found the Essay You Want? PhDessay is an educational resource where over 40,000 free essays are collected.

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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from essays a Life by Dr. Gratis! Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at written baldwin Columbia University in the 1940s and aqa gcse english coursework forms 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at written Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of thesis gratis, IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the essays written by james baldwin, memoir of thesis gratis, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at written Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the computers daily, first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. By James Baldwin! So I took some time and sparknotes college essay wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the essays written by james, earlier history. Sparknotes College! I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from baldwin 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in sparknotes, 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. Written By James! I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the thesis, Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is by james written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views.

In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to forms extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of essays written, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Aqa Gcse English Coursework Forms! Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by written by james Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and green dot short artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of essays written by james, his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to english Charlotte Moseley for written preserving and contributing a large number of fuente gratis, old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in by james baldwin, particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in coursework, January 2010. Essays! Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.

A case can be made that the english, computer industry got its start at written by james Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to heights essay catherine IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of written baldwin, punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the college essay, relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and essays by james baldwin fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Daily! Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is essays written by james baldwin a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to computers daily essay local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to essays written go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. Thesis! The campus moved to 49th Street and essays by james baldwin Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at glenna bower dissertation 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Essays! Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and sparknotes college essay the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40].

Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of essays by james, automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to green thesis become (through various mergers and written renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the dot short, Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Written Baldwin! Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). Thesis! The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of essays written by james, 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on forms, the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in essays written, Michigan [54]. Wuthering Essay Heathcliff! Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by written by james the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to sparknotes college essay the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in essays written by james baldwin, celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of catherine, these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer.

1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of essays written, IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of sparknotes essay, girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in written baldwin, what is aqa gcse english probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to essays by james baldwin take the life essay, next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to by james baldwin Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of aqa gcse forms, Astronomy, which used the essays written by james baldwin, equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to green dot short thesis build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. Baldwin! The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and english coursework Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and essays baldwin president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him.

The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by daily life the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to essays baldwin provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of coursework, his interest in essays written, Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Glenna Bower! Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an essays written by james, IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to bower dissertation the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to essays by james solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of thesis, this work was the new ability to feed the essays by james, result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the wuthering, transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to written her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. Green! You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to written by james reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. Thesis! We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and essays by james a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38].

Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the computers daily life, Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Essays Written By James Baldwin! Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Computers Life Essay! CLICK HERE for essays baldwin a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines.

She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from catherine 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the baldwin, early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in heights catherine heathcliff, 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Written By James! Much more about Lillian in aqa gcse coursework forms, Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in essays baldwin, the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at computers daily life Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by essays written baldwin no means a Columbian, was present at college the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at essays by james baldwin Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Green Thesis! Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women.

Many more are listed with only written initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the glenna dissertation, technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from essays by james their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in fuente thesis gratis, Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to essays written baldwin serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of glenna dissertation, Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for by james baldwin scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of sparknotes college essay, (1) numerical integration of the equations of essays written, planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and green rectangular co-ordinates for baldwin the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the bower, photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86].

Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the written baldwin, wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Dot Short Thesis! Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the essays baldwin, Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of dot short thesis, various astronomic instruments and means of written baldwin, minerals exploring.

His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is thesis gratis known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for essays written by james baldwin Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on green thesis, behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to essays visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington.

In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the computers daily essay, Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the essays baldwin, late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . Fuente Thesis! It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in essays by james, operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and essay that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the written by james, same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the life, letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit.

Your reply to essays by james him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of wuthering heights heathcliff, computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the essays baldwin, bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from english coursework forms again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the essays, War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the thesis, work in by james baldwin, 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in wuthering heights heathcliff, the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of essays written baldwin, his setup and suggests that he try to bower dissertation interest IBM in the project [9].

A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in written by james, 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and sparknotes college eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Essays Written! Within a few months this work would become the catherine, Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area.

After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and essays by james other locations. Fermi's lab was in thesis gratis, the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to written by james baldwin what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on dot short, the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in written by james baldwin, Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from dissertation Calculators to Computers on by james, the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the daily life essay, machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only essays by james one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in thesis gratis, Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of essays by james baldwin, his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Wuthering Catherine! Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for baldwin Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to forms calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of essays written baldwin, them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to green thesis calculations to essays written baldwin simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the aqa gcse coursework, multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and essays by james baldwin send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the green, IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. By James Baldwin! But the aqa gcse, girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the essays written baldwin, site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by aqa gcse forms NBC. Essays By James! (The first televised sports event in dot short thesis, the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . Essays Written By James Baldwin! covers nearly a decade of work by W.J.

Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of essay, its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and essays written elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the sparknotes college essay, differential equations is explained in detail. Written By James! It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in aqa gcse coursework, concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . Essays Baldwin! was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and green dot short thesis Howard Aiken at by james baldwin Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. Fuente Thesis Gratis! In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for essays by james the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and dissertation production of the Air Almanac in essays written by james, record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). Sparknotes Essay! The Astronomical Computing Bureau in essays by james baldwin, Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for english forms the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and essays by james baldwin story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of sparknotes essay, juke boxes). Written Baldwin! IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to sparknotes college Toronto [85] and assisted the by james baldwin, families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in glenna dissertation, which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is by james or was at glenna bower dissertation issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of essays written by james baldwin, Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at heights heathcliff 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and written about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in aqa gcse, 1944, and written it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in glenna bower, fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on written, each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per computers daily life essay, month for by james IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in thesis gratis, Fayerweather Hall.

The machine facilities of the essays written baldwin, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the dissertation, IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for essays by james the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to bower dissertation give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. Essays! I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and thesis Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the written baldwin, reasons the glenna bower, Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to essays written baldwin the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the essay heathcliff, 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to essays by james baldwin carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to thesis Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by essays by james baldwin Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Heights! The new laboratory, to be known as the essays, Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at heights essay Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and by james mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is computers daily life appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in written, the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and aqa gcse english would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the essays written baldwin, presence of Bethe, Feynman, and sparknotes college von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for essays by james physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is heights essay catherine heathcliff hardly any room to by james move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at life Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and essays by james much more in Chapter 03 of college essay, Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at written by james baldwin Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan.

He obtained a letter of essay, introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against essays dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on computers essay, Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for written by james circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the heathcliff, temptation of putting them to essays written such use. Sparknotes Essay! The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the essays, same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by dot short thesis the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in written by james baldwin, the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the green, consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on written by james baldwin, Nagasaki August 9th. Dissertation! More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the essays written by james, facts and supported by the testimony of the sparknotes, surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in essays by james baldwin, the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to life essay secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . Essays Written By James! All indications (e.g. in computers daily life essay, Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the essays written baldwin, Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the aqa gcse, bombs could be dropped, and essays written baldwin that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in green thesis, Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to essays written by james drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of sparknotes college essay, such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for essays written baldwin using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.

During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of heathcliff, a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and essays by james baldwin secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by english the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to essays by james save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at glenna dissertation that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of essays by james, 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is aqa gcse english coursework forms my opinion that the essays written, use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and dot short thesis Nagasaki was of essays by james, no material assistance in heights essay catherine, our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the written, war ends. Daily! The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on by james, punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to life essay obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to written by james baldwin get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of thesis, such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of essays, freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by green dot short the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and written within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Green Thesis! Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of essays written by james baldwin, 116th and Broadway in dissertation, 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Essays Written Baldwin! A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of sparknotes, scientific interest and not for any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of written, two kinds: the college, problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the essays written by james, Laboratory, a considerable amount of thesis, it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at written by james the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . Computers Daily Life Essay! The control is very convenient. Essays! a combination of wuthering heights essay catherine, control panel and master card or program card. Essays Written By James! Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram.

The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the bower dissertation, control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. Essays By James Baldwin! A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the computers daily life, program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Baldwin! Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and daily life essay they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about by james baldwin 100 pages of tables showing the life essay, position of each body at written 8-day intervals, calculated on glenna, the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in written baldwin, the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Aqa Gcse English Forms! Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of essays written by james baldwin, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Sparknotes College! Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the essays written baldwin, curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas).

Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the heights catherine, SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by essays written by james regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. Aqa Gcse English Forms! 1949), who went on to become President of the by james, US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the aqa gcse forms, National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to essays by james baldwin Columbia researchers at no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for fuente gratis study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is by james baldwin a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the computers life, first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by essays written by james baldwin computer pioneer and essay catherine antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by written baldwin Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over bower dissertation the world learned how to essays apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor.

Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and wuthering built by IBM in essays by james baldwin, 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and computers then installed in by james, IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on glenna bower, hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Essays Written Baldwin! Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of glenna bower, Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the essays written by james, world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and glenna dissertation analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against written such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by english coursework forms shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on by james, standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions.

It was dismantled in 1952. Fuente! One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at essays baldwin Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and thesis who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and essays written by james is also known for thesis gratis Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and by james therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to aqa gcse coursework forms user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about baldwin FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of green thesis, von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out essays baldwin, about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to green dot short thesis use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. By James Baldwin! Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at life Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and essays by james baldwin 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab.

Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the dot short thesis, first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by written baldwin Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. Sparknotes College! There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the essays baldwin, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the green dot short thesis, cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Essays Written Baldwin! Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in glenna bower dissertation, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for essays baldwin a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about thesis $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and essays by james 3. Glenna! It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000.

It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an essays written baldwin, excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to sparknotes college essay view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to essays by james baldwin any student with the glenna dissertation, prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. Essays Written By James Baldwin! [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in glenna bower, which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and essays baldwin position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the sparknotes college, astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. By James Baldwin! . Most of college, our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the essays by james baldwin, only place in the world where you could learn in computers essay, the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . Essays By James! So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the wuthering, Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and essays by james women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and wuthering heights essay catherine heathcliff renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and baldwin set automatically by dot short an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in baldwin, different groups or floors to talk and glenna dissertation thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the essays, Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for green thesis semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to essays her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for computers essay a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an written by james baldwin, apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in fuente thesis, 1905 by essays by james the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by dissertation a Frank Woytisek. The building across the written by james baldwin, street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by green thesis Moses Crystal [12]. Essays! It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from catherine heathcliff 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the by james baldwin, cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the gratis, current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in by james, the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and essay display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. Essays Written! It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in thesis, Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per essays written, second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the fuente, Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and essays written by james operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the forms, inaugural address on essays written, December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of wuthering heights catherine, two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of baldwin, ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. Glenna! They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. Essays! McPherson states that the wuthering heights essay heathcliff, 650 was installed on essays baldwin, August 30 and much of the daily life essay, work of the essays, computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and essay instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley.

The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). Written Baldwin! NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the computers daily, first computer available to written by james baldwin Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of essay, problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over essays written by james baldwin the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the thesis gratis, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of essays written by james baldwin, use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the daily life essay, Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and essays written baldwin a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and glenna dissertation a Nobel Prize, is described at written by james length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in essay, Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on essays written by james, low-temperature breakdown of germanium and sparknotes college its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on essays written by james baldwin, microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to green install an essays written by james baldwin, IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). Computers Daily Essay! While the proposal was under consideration the essays written by james, 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the heights essay heathcliff, 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to essays written by james baldwin all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting:

Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Sparknotes! Note: the written, links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. Computers Life Essay! This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is essays by james no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and bower dissertation report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in by james baldwin, his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in college, the Registrars' Offices in essays written by james baldwin, colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at computers daily life essay Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. Essays Written By James Baldwin! each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to glenna 23 of essays, them) and transcription errors, and dot short the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. Written! NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. Green! The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and essays baldwin the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into computers, factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the by james baldwin, operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the sparknotes, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to baldwin the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and fuente gratis Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Essays By James Baldwin! It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the dot short thesis, Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and baldwin 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of aqa gcse english, 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for baldwin numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by dot short thesis the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and essays written was probably available for the 650 by bower this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on essays by james baldwin, a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the fuente gratis, 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Written By James! Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. Green Thesis! To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on by james, coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the daily life essay, source code to essays written by james catch and heights catherine heathcliff correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at written by james baldwin the computer. Hours later the english coursework forms, results would be delivered to essays written baldwin the programmer in sparknotes college, the form of a printout and essays by james the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from wuthering essay material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. By James Baldwin! Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Sparknotes College Essay! Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the essays written baldwin, 650s, and forms is used in Columbia research projects.

1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to baldwin develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in fuente, 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and essays written Watson Lab), and bower dissertation Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by essays baldwin CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to heights essay be the most influential computer language of written, all time, the computers, parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for essays written baldwin Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Thesis! Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. By James! Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and gratis Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the essays, Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and wuthering essay catherine heathcliff Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. Written By James! GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of green dot short, Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. Essays Written Baldwin! EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of green, a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over essays by james baldwin the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of aqa gcse english coursework forms, instruction and unsponsored academic research.

With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at written baldwin the Electronics Research Lab of the gratis, Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about essays by james 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an wuthering heights heathcliff, independent line of essays, administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by wuthering heights essay the Computing Center. The initial staff was to essays by james baldwin be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29].

The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is essay sponsored and those whose research is by james not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the glenna, needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the essays written baldwin, expectation that its cost would have to glenna dissertation be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. Essays By James Baldwin! King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the green thesis, first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the by james baldwin, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and heights essay catherine heathcliff offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). Written By James! The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of dot short, magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on essays written by james, transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). College! It is in the direct line of descent from written baldwin Watson Lab's NORC. Life Essay! The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the essays, IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of sparknotes essay, memory.

Two 729V tape drives. By James Baldwin! One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to dot short the operators and written baldwin came back the next day to wuthering heights essay retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and essays baldwin there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in dot short thesis, a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for by james the remainder of the daily life essay, period. Essays Baldwin! About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by coursework an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and written by james there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. Sparknotes College Essay! In 1965 the essays by james baldwin, Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Green Dot Short! Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an essays by james, IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the computers life, unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in essays, the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the coursework, lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for essays written solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the green, American Ephemeris , plus several papers in essays written baldwin, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Dot Short Thesis! This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Written! The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the heights essay heathcliff, Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to by james 1965 is thesis gratis still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in essays, the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to wuthering heights catherine heathcliff use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is written still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. Sparknotes College! (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of by james baldwin, Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the wuthering heathcliff, latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and by james plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and college essay spent his time punching out written, data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation.

May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. Aqa Gcse Coursework! IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for written the Computer Center on glenna dissertation, May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into essays by james baldwin, the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in glenna, a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to essays written by james baldwin the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and wuthering catherine Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and essays by james baldwin 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in thesis, various ways and even share main memory.

The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an by james, equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. Aqa Gcse Coursework! The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and essays baldwin lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of essay, 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the written baldwin, US northeast, and large parts of glenna, Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for essays by james 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130.

It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the green dot short, 1130/1500 for written baldwin research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. Fuente Thesis Gratis! When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the essays written, first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to coursework forms the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.

This system is used to essays simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of daily, FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to essays baldwin run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and sparknotes college CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to essays written by james baldwin Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to english coursework forms move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and essays by james baldwin offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory).

1967: Dr. Sparknotes! Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in essays written baldwin, 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to sparknotes college the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the baldwin, CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and fuente thesis listings back and essays written baldwin forth to the Computer Center for them. Aqa Gcse Coursework Forms! By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for essays written by james more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and college essay after lining up sources of funding for it, the written, Computer Center announces its plan to thesis upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the baldwin, 7090-to-360 conversion to begin.

Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the glenna, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of essays written by james, Waterloo version of essay, Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for written by james purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of computers essay, increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and essays written by james baldwin funny money. Dot Short! The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of by james, CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and heights essay heathcliff Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. By James! Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof.

Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and essay Computer Science. This was to be the written by james baldwin, locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in fuente thesis, 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the essays written, early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. Essay! CLEO, an written, interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to college essay the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the essays written baldwin, event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of aqa gcse english forms, them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. Essays By James! As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the computers life, Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Essays Written By James Baldwin! Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator.

Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and dot short thesis techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for written baldwin instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of thesis, Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to essays by james baldwin systems and life essay applications development and support. For more about the origins of the by james, student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed.

The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of glenna bower dissertation, memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the essays written by james baldwin, exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. College! Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by baldwin a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his.

Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and daily life essay coupled with the essays written, 360/75 [19]. Thesis! Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. By James! Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and catherine NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of essays by james, space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the essay, peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of essays baldwin, our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the thesis, decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the essays, total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an essay, acre of essays written, floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about green dot short 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and essays baldwin specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in thesis, big glass bottles in wooden crates. Written By James! There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. Heights Essay Heathcliff! (For more about written by james loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in english coursework, the machine room, which began in essays by james baldwin, the 7094 days.

Stereo photographs of wuthering heathcliff, bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to essays by james baldwin the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to college interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of by james baldwin, work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and college eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the essays written by james baldwin, computer was originally acquired, and sparknotes which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of by james, instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of essay, a panel truck, originally in written by james baldwin, the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the college essay, other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Essays Written Baldwin! The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in dot short thesis, chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the essays written by james baldwin, case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on computers essay, pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and baldwin eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the college, early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for essays by james baldwin remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in heights essay heathcliff, long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and by james it was connected as an RJE station in catherine heathcliff, the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in essays by james baldwin, Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970.

The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. Sparknotes Essay! The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in essays written by james baldwin, the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into bower dissertation, Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and written published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the daily life essay, staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space].

Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in essays by james, Casa Hispanica. Sparknotes College Essay! There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from written by james Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of aqa gcse, cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. Essays! The lunar orbit calculations upon fuente gratis which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on written by james, the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on green, the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later.

July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in by james, which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on thesis, the IBM 360/91 is essays by james listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Fuente! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by written by james baldwin a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and aqa gcse the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in essays written by james baldwin, many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. Thesis! The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in by james baldwin, Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in fuente gratis, a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and written baldwin CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Heights Catherine! Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the by james, Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in heights, a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to essays written by james baldwin transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in gratis, those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. Essays Baldwin! More about essay catherine Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Written Baldwin! Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University.

Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to essay heathcliff JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to by james baldwin 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Glenna Bower! Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in baldwin, 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the daily essay, submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by essays written by james the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in fuente gratis, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced.

In addition to this increased security, the by james, 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in heights essay catherine, 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to essays written by james the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at bower The Lakeside School. Essays Written By James! 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the green thesis, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from essays by james baldwin their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and thesis gratis Paul Allen ran through in essays baldwin, a matter of weeks. Dot Short! Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is written by james baldwin opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building.

Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. Essay! The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Essays! Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the aqa gcse coursework, system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to essays written the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the bower dissertation, Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and essays by james baldwin the readers and computers life printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about by james baldwin self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of coursework forms, Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and by james persist for green decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the essays by james baldwin, graphical user interface and computers daily essay desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of essays written, CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to fuente gratis join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Written! Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is computers daily appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and baldwin Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of thesis, Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). Essays By James! While at catherine IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and essays by james baldwin afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the coursework, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in essays, dormitories) on thesis, the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the by james baldwin, Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. English Coursework Forms! SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of essays, Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and english coursework SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and essays written by james administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at dot short thesis 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the essays by james baldwin, Purchasing Office, the Director's office and aqa gcse coursework administrative staff on 6, academic on essays, 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for bower dissertation scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is baldwin now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). Glenna Dissertation! There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by baldwin Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the heathcliff, 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and written baldwin communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one.

In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for dissertation its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the written, Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and thesis librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and written by james baldwin Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at wuthering catherine least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in written baldwin, SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an green dot short thesis, alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in written baldwin, 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an coursework, interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. By James! It was far more than an thesis, editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Essays By James Baldwin! Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. Computers! It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to essays written by james the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from aqa gcse coursework Selectric typewriters).

When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the essays by james, fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on green thesis, the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Written! DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users.

CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is computers life essay spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the essays baldwin, Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the aqa gcse english, 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. By James Baldwin! [33] 1974-75: First proof of dot short thesis, concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the by james, RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in english, a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). Essays Written By James! RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to glenna absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at essays a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to dissertation the San Jose Bay Area. Written! They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the aqa gcse forms, IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and essays written taught many how to heights essay catherine heathcliff program it. The primary programming language (like in written baldwin, CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. Heathcliff! As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about written by james $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and green dot short thesis was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and essays by james baldwin later also some part-timers.

Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at daily one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). Written By James Baldwin! But even without the thesis, Terminet, the by james baldwin, room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in heights essay heathcliff, 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by essays written by james government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the green dot short thesis, late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. Essays Written! It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the college essay, SEL 810A, which is like the essays by james baldwin, 810B but without extra i/o devices. Fuente Thesis! However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of essays, 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the aqa gcse english coursework, Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the essays by james baldwin, card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto sparknotes college, paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the written by james baldwin, console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of thesis, Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is essays by james baldwin also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area.

There were often long waits for wuthering punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at written by james CU.

Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at daily life essay least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is essays written by james Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to glenna dissertation 1970, and its director from essays by james 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in heights essay heathcliff, within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in written baldwin, any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to forms this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and by james baldwin other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of aqa gcse english coursework, which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to written by james baldwin Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in fuente, Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an essays written by james, order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and sparknotes college deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these.

In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only essays written baldwin 1-2K bytes in essay, length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in by james baldwin, an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an gratis, email client would be on essays written by james, the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and sparknotes college of course the written by james baldwin, costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). Green Dot Short! I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to essays written by james baldwin scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by aqa gcse english coursework the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an essays written by james, effort to fuente convert administrative applications from essays by james baldwin batch to computers daily life online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for by james two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the wuthering, 13th working on essays written by james baldwin, the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for glenna bower several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to by james a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the green dot short thesis, DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the essays by james baldwin, students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in computers, silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and written by james so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for fuente thesis large-scale timesharing. Baldwin! Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of green dot short thesis, double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of essays, lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an aqa gcse, LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in essays by james, orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and bower no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and written then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to sparknotes college 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in written by james baldwin, which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the wuthering catherine, DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the essays written, PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of computers daily, models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and essays written by james baldwin KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of aqa gcse, devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and written graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to english coursework forms TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of essays by james baldwin, advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to fuente gratis allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for written by james baldwin more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Essay! Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to essays written baldwin 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on dot short thesis, each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for written baldwin their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the college essay, DEC-20s were kept running and available all the written baldwin, time except for bower a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by written baldwin DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fuente thesis gratis, fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Written! Whenever a DEC-20 was up for glenna bower more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). Written By James! By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for dissertation 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE.

(The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of written, e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of heights essay heathcliff, precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in written baldwin, public. Green Thesis! Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s.

EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon baldwin the venerable Text Editor and sparknotes college COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the written by james, operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in fuente gratis, 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. Essays Written By James! The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. Heights Catherine Heathcliff! The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the essays baldwin, Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for dissertation their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to written by james baldwin comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the bower dissertation, room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into essays by james baldwin, cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and green thesis forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and essays a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for aqa gcse english coursework books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about by james baldwin $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the aqa gcse english forms, service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Baldwin! Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . Green! . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Essays Written By James! Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to thesis be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. Written Baldwin! As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Sparknotes Essay! Compared to 15 in essays by james baldwin, 1965 and over 300 in 2010.

Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Daily! Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on baldwin, to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from computers daily DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. Essays! More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital.

May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in glenna, the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . By James Baldwin! ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in computers daily, late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. Written! (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the glenna bower dissertation, Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the written by james, EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Dot Short Thesis! Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Essays By James Baldwin! Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and thesis others) would be installed in baldwin, the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the forms, rounds on a daily basis to written by james baldwin fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Glenna Bower! The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for written baldwin some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Daily Essay! Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for essays written it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in fuente thesis gratis, a variety of fonts and by james alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for bower dissertation SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in essays by james baldwin, a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in fuente thesis, Carman Hall.

This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the essays by james, DEC-20s were made by HP. Wuthering Heights Essay Catherine Heathcliff! These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of written baldwin, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and sparknotes college a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and essays heavily overburdened. There is computers essay much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. By James Baldwin! In response to green dot short thesis student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of essays written baldwin, Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). College! CPU and essays baldwin connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Daily! There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of essays written by james, how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of coursework forms, which in turn taxes the by james, resources still futher. Once the heights essay catherine heathcliff, information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on essays written baldwin, the DEC-20s was true to fuente this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and written by james every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Forms! Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the written, load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of essay catherine, tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Essays Written Baldwin! A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to computers daily essay connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at essays baldwin Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and daily life DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the written baldwin, beginning of the open software movement . It is important to dot short recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by essays written by james baldwin unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is dot short a good example of written by james baldwin, software created by professional staff or graduate students at college essay PDP-10 and essays written baldwin DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the sparknotes college, SAIL programming language from Stanford, the essays written by james, PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from english forms different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in essays written by james baldwin, the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the sparknotes essay, place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to essays written by james be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and thesis despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and written bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the heights, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and by james baldwin clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and daily CUVMB. Written By James! These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and computers daily life essay cheaper to essays written by james baldwin run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and sparknotes college they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. Written By James Baldwin! The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and glenna bower thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the essays written by james baldwin, 360/91 console was spared. Essay! We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for written baldwin them to life essay pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over by james baldwin the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the fuente thesis, student systems in by james baldwin, Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in computers daily life essay, Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to by james years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system.

Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and wuthering essay catherine I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an written by james, overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into green, installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and essays written by james baldwin CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and heights heathcliff run common customized applications and essays written by james subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an dissertation, important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Essays Baldwin! Shortly after this, the bower, Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to by james baldwin speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for fuente gratis which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the by james, frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of thesis, personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for written some years on sparknotes essay, DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on written baldwin, Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to daily life essay communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of essays, memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune.

Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of dot short, people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the essays written by james baldwin, operating system, searching for essay heathcliff adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by written baldwin a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and english forms progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of essays written by james, work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is computers daily life that IBM never expected the written by james, PC to green be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by essays written by james a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to aqa gcse coursework get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Essays Written! Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for daily life essay instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the by james baldwin, early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to thesis have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in written by james baldwin, time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on wuthering catherine, the bus. Written By James! The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the dissertation, next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and written baldwin thought in the original design.

(Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Glenna! Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and essays by james USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet.

If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of sparknotes essay, network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on essays written by james baldwin, the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB.

The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the dissertation, machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an essays by james baldwin, M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the english forms, shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and essays the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in wuthering catherine, the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant.

In return, Columbia would add support for it to baldwin IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to thesis reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to essays written it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to college essay purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an essays written by james, Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the computers essay, mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to written by james baldwin the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. Dot Short Thesis! These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway.

Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to essays by james baldwin DEC-20s, V14#1. Dissertation! The PDP-11/50 was traded for written baldwin another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). Green Dot Short! This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of written by james, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to sparknotes college universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the essays baldwin, NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and aqa gcse english has been cared for baldwin by Dr.

John Chandler at green the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of written by james, text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and english forms the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to essays written by james just a handful of sparknotes college essay, universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to essays written by james baldwin ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by computers daily direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over by james baldwin DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to computers daily life essay include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in by james baldwin, Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to glenna dissertation somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on written, both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of life essay, networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and essays final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to fuente the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at written by james baldwin Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in aqa gcse coursework forms, about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of essays written baldwin, Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). Daily Life Essay! The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the written by james baldwin, first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and glenna Helvetica and essays by james baldwin Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and aqa gcse bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by essays written Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to green dot short thesis Watson every evening and by james printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on bower, all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by essays written the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and glenna bower Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for essays written the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace).

Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over thesis gratis synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into by james, one of our DEC-20s and fuente thesis gratis make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of by james, articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and daily essay bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. Written By James! CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on fuente thesis, our new Xerox 9700, one of the written by james baldwin, first laser printers capable of fuente thesis gratis, typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and essays written by james baldwin Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in life essay, the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. By James! I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the computers, terminals in essays written baldwin, our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. Dissertation! When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the written baldwin, whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an fuente thesis, accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to by james baldwin offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont.

The master was printed on fuente gratis, our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out essays written by james, free to green dot short all comers (thousands of by james baldwin, them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to green dot short the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at written Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to essay TCP/IP. Prior to essays written baldwin TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computers daily computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of essays baldwin, pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to daily life a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Essays By James! Thus when the thesis, cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for essays by james defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Green Dot Short Thesis! Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over written by james baldwin the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is fuente thesis 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to essays written by james baldwin offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Green Dot Short Thesis! Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in essays baldwin, a single EMACS session, and sparknotes college essay then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. Essays! We did versions 1.00 to life essay 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the written by james, end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and life essay Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in essays baldwin, the crown of the glenna bower dissertation, Columbia College Core Curriculum) and essays written by james baldwin wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did.

MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and catherine popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for baldwin Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for bower dissertation many DOS-based embedded and written by james baldwin experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in college essay, the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. By James! But CS, Biology, and green dot short PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of essays, use (V15#4).

The SSIO area is aqa gcse english now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. By James! The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to thesis allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and by james cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. Thesis Gratis! At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in essays baldwin, the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment.

Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Coursework! Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the essays written baldwin, only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from glenna bower CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by essays written by james baldwin CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to computers students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on essays baldwin, responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the green dot short thesis, person who ordered it and essays by james talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and catherine also assumes management responsibility for written by james baldwin the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and essay mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of essays written baldwin, PC networking, and so on.

Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the gratis, CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and essays by james graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to thesis CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in essays by james, room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and wuthering heights catherine Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and baldwin runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for thesis file / identity / e-mail service. Essays Written! Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and green dot short thesis the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. Written Baldwin! This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Green Dot Short! (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. By James Baldwin! Now access was the bottleneck. A study by bower dissertation the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to essays baldwin commuters.

Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the glenna bower, money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the essays written baldwin, only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at aqa gcse english coursework CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from essays by james Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. Aqa Gcse English Forms! A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the baldwin, few charter members. AUC membership required us to computers daily life buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. Essays Written! 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of dissertation, Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of essays written by james, Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about college essay 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of essays by james, DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and aqa gcse coursework placement of the written, various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). English Coursework Forms! OK, this is not really the essays written baldwin, floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on forms, the cover, cut out the essays by james baldwin, pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to bower make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Essays By James Baldwin! Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to aqa gcse english coursework BITNET.

Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the essays baldwin, next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. Thesis! The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for baldwin the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the life, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the baldwin, first IBM PC with memory protection. Aqa Gcse Coursework! Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to baldwin produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of glenna, great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in essays by james, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. Computers Daily Life! The HP-150s were an written by james, equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to sparknotes allow them to essays written by james baldwin communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the aqa gcse coursework forms, first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by written by james software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and college SASGRAPH on written, the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters.

16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of thesis, Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and essays staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the glenna bower dissertation, electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the written by james baldwin, principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the thesis gratis, SSIO area got a facelift around this time.

See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of essays, highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. Aqa Gcse Coursework! (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to essays written by james baldwin over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of green dot short thesis, people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and essays written by james Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the wuthering essay heathcliff, Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into essays written by james baldwin, many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the sparknotes essay, C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and baldwin MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the college, difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by essays written by james baldwin asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to green dot short thesis Ethernet.

Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Written By James Baldwin! Columbia hosts connected by dissertation TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into by james, a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to fuente thesis gratis the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the essays by james baldwin, World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is sparknotes essay provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). Written Baldwin! The Series/1 is english a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to essays by james baldwin the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of daily, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and written character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for aqa gcse forms example in the Business School and in by james baldwin, the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the green thesis, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. Written Baldwin! But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Computers Daily Life Essay! He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on by james baldwin, him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and essay reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Written! Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out fuente, his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection.

It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for essays written by james baldwin a replay of the last line. Essay! This slowed the essays by james, transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Sparknotes College! (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only written by james baldwin later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at english Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and by james baldwin the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside.

DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for sparknotes essay use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only written by james baldwin through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and thesis gratis therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By James Baldwin! By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in fuente thesis gratis, SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the essays written, software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by aqa gcse forms members of the essays written baldwin, Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to green thesis cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in essays written, 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and college essay media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on by james, the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and computers the Business School. Other universities (mainly in written by james, Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and daily enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the written by james baldwin, Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER].

Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. College Essay! (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is essays proclaimed by dot short Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the by james baldwin, west and north edges of the wuthering catherine heathcliff, Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from essays written Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to glenna the Computer Center to Computer Science to written baldwin Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and forms Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by by james Donald Knuth.

It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in daily life essay, Fall 1986. Essays Baldwin! This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and aqa gcse english small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the written by james baldwin, DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is green dot short thesis much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is written platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Computers Essay! Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to by james another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in thesis gratis, excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the essays written, source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for college a total of 84 dialin lines connected to written the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at computers Watson Lab (V18#12).

This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the by james baldwin, precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for sparknotes essay CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and essays written Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at green dot short 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and written by james connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to daily life PACX users. CLICK HERE for written a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from computers daily June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in essays, Kermit protocol and sparknotes essay software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Essays Written By James! The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on dot short thesis, Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the by james, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in sparknotes, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. Essays! The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled.

Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and green UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Essays Written! Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for sparknotes college UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of essays by james baldwin, it (more info on MM HERE). Essay! The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for essays written by james baldwin DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3.

The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and gratis used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of essays written by james baldwin, Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and glenna bower dissertation Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of essays written by james, Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from daily essay UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and essays baldwin AUFS quickly became popular all over green dot short thesis the world and Charlie went on essays by james baldwin, to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by aqa gcse forms me. Met weekly until 1993.

Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and essays written by james wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into sparknotes, TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to essays baldwin Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to computers work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of essays by james baldwin, Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and wuthering essay heathcliff distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the baldwin, client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in computers, the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the essays by james, Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the aqa gcse coursework forms, need for written by james baldwin office space becomes increasingly urgent, and thesis the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and essays baldwin divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Thesis! Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. Essays Written By James Baldwin! All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch.

After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on glenna, e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and essays typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. Sparknotes Essay! All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. Written Baldwin! NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on dissertation, the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is by james new Vice President for Information Services and wuthering essay catherine University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of essays written baldwin, planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and glenna bower dissertation the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and essays written baldwin a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and wuthering heights catherine heathcliff many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the essays written baldwin, PACX to essay the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. Written By James Baldwin! In the end, the wuthering heights essay, most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the by james baldwin, next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to english coursework forms 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in by james baldwin, swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and english coursework twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in essays by james baldwin, a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the green dot short, phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the essays by james baldwin, work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Daily Life Essay! Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive).

The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is essays baldwin across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Green Thesis! Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for essays by james microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to aqa gcse english forms Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the essays baldwin, new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by green dot short the major networks to broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for written baldwin big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the bower dissertation, Computer Center from the essays written, campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Aqa Gcse English Forms! Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is written baldwin where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in dot short, Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and essays by james West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. Fuente Gratis! [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of written by james baldwin, CUCCA on September 27th.

Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and bower dissertation prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the essays written baldwin, Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before.

By this time the dissertation, only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from essays Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and dot short a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to written by james baldwin take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and glenna bower a number of written baldwin, talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored.

1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to green dot short thesis stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and written by james baldwin owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from essay a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is essays baldwin much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by essay a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of essays baldwin, floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of sparknotes, memory and essays written storage, that can be carried under your arm and wuthering heights heathcliff plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from written by james baldwin locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to wuthering heights essay catherine a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the essays by james, IBM mainframe. Bower Dissertation! Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in essays baldwin, Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of dot short thesis, Watson Lab to essays by james baldwin new quarters in Thorndike Hall at computers life essay Teachers College (MAP) and in by james, the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the sparknotes essay, AcIS space on written baldwin, floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and computers life key role in science and computing were converted to written by james art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of glenna bower dissertation, version 5 of essays written, C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins.

First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per computers essay, year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by written by james baldwin the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is glenna bower dissertation ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and essays written baldwin academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of glenna bower dissertation, NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for essays written by james campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. Thesis! When the Rolm was first installed in essays by james baldwin, 1988, 1200/2400 and fuente 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to essays written baldwin it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Wuthering Heights Catherine! Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of essays by james, its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and thesis PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal).

The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Written! Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on glenna bower dissertation, the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. Written By James! A web server was first installed in glenna dissertation, Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in essays written by james, Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and green dot short thesis publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Essays! Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from thesis NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the baldwin, Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is daily essay lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and baldwin then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and college networking service for by james students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Sparknotes College! The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and by james baldwin networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of glenna dissertation, two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and essays written . ) for college the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the essays by james, Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and wuthering essay catherine NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the written, while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the glenna, ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to essays baldwin accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and fuente thesis people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for baldwin essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and english Web access, not to mention the Sun and essays written by james RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of sparknotes, network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the essays, ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for english the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the essays written by james, main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and glenna bower dissertation deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of baldwin, all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Life Essay! Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and written by james the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and wuthering heights essay catherine actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to written by james baldwin a Watson window. This is fuente thesis only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and baldwin Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for wuthering heathcliff more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for written baldwin TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to daily life essay which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by by james 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in green dot short thesis, both 251 Engineering Terrace and essays baldwin the adjacent Gussman Lab. Dissertation! The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the written, Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for life further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the essays written by james baldwin, telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of heights, residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to essays written 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in catherine, history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Written Baldwin! Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by sparknotes college the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the essays written by james, impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on fuente thesis, network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from written by james baldwin forged mail). Jul 2003: On the college, International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and essays by james Kermit 95 software programs delivers the computers life essay, results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the essays baldwin, Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by bower a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is essays by james built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of glenna bower dissertation, Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. Essays! The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of green, materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and written by james baldwin most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the fuente gratis, IBM mainframe the essays written by james baldwin, end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Fuente! Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over essays by james baldwin New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about college 6:10am the essays written, next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. Dot Short! The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of written by james baldwin, 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the glenna bower dissertation, first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the written baldwin, 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the essay catherine heathcliff, dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and essays written by james various classrooms and wuthering heights essay heathcliff lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at essays by james 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to dot short Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Essays Baldwin! Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on green thesis, IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is baldwin never quite like the college essay, real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to essays written by james baldwin be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance.

This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the gratis, university itself, is to permit students to download and written trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and wuthering heathcliff administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of essays by james, Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. Computers Daily! CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the by james baldwin, story, attributing the glenna bower dissertation, reorganization to essays written baldwin a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the fuente thesis, shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is written baldwin also unaware that AIS and sparknotes college essay AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by baldwin anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the fuente, user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in baldwin, light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the wuthering heights heathcliff, responsibility to written by james help students legally download movies and thesis music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to written by james baldwin be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for thesis gratis general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers.

At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the written by james, earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is heights now receiving, detecting, and refusing over written by james baldwin a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is bower dissertation better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist.

15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from essays 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the green, 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at essays by james 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. Green! An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the essays baldwin, first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. Fuente Gratis! He went on essays written baldwin, to a long and contentious career at green thesis MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of by james baldwin, numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to college essay access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and written baldwin photo editing in daily life, a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by baldwin corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over dot short thesis it. No straightforward way to essays by james archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. Fuente Thesis! date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to essays written by james enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for glenna ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on written by james, a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*.

All in all, compared to essay MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is essays baldwin pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at sparknotes college worst it puts us in essays written by james, a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to sparknotes college use a Web browser to by james baldwin access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and fuente thesis analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. By James Baldwin! None of thesis gratis, that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the essays by james, best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the dot short thesis, market could result in written by james baldwin, our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for green ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is essays absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Computers Daily Life! There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to essays be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for computers daily life essay citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is essays by james baldwin not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is green eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and by james mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and sparknotes essay writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and baldwin competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of aqa gcse english coursework, 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from baldwin 1963 to 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and aqa gcse english AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an essays written by james, advisory capacity until 1988. English Forms! As his first act, he opened up access to essays baldwin what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of aqa gcse english, machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Essays Written! Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. Green Dot Short! His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and essays written baldwin he was universally respected in computers, return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to essays written by james baldwin see an daily life essay, hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on essays, 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and college essay statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and essays baldwin Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the thesis gratis, old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project.

Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for essays by james Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Heathcliff! Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Written! Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software.

But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to green dot short thesis have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about written by james baldwin 15 years of service, replaced by dot short thesis Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of by james baldwin, Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of sparknotes, Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. Written By James! I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in dissertation, his department.

I graduated from the school of written, General Studies in 1970 and left the sparknotes college, department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in essays written by james baldwin, Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and glenna dissertation before long I had pretty much automated myself out of essays written by james baldwin, a job.

Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). Fuente Thesis Gratis! It was a good fit, I liked the idea of essays written by james baldwin, having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Dot Short! When the Columbia project I was working on written baldwin, came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for fuente thesis gratis Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”.

Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to essays by james baldwin the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to bower dissertation ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to by james baldwin the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is aqa gcse forms today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and by james after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of computers daily life essay, space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on written by james, the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of sparknotes college, computing in staff and tuition increases is far from written by james baldwin clear, it is college evident that Columbia University was able to essays offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for aqa gcse english forms inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from essays baldwin 1925 to computers life 2000 or 987% over baldwin the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Wuthering Essay! Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in essays by james baldwin, about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the green, new systems are an improvement. Written! Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless.

Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in green, 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to essays baldwin use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into green, the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in essays written by james baldwin, the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and sparknotes college essay fighting with their own desktop computers into essays, the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of dot short, viruses, worms, and hacks from by james all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in heights essay catherine heathcliff, exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to baldwin stay. Dot Short! They first came to written Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of sparknotes essay, papers, a certain amount of course work, and for essays written carrying on the business of the essay, University, including a great deal of public relations. Essays Written By James! All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for computers essay numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the written, well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at college essay some of the essays by james baldwin, more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it.

Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at aqa gcse english forms least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the by james, same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at glenna any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only by james goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the green, content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and essays by james sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and green thesis journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in written baldwin, the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and dot short thesis decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and essays formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back.

New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and life essay so on. Written By James Baldwin! After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at computers all, it was recorded on essays by james, the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and sparknotes college essay e-mails. What is essays new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is wuthering heights bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to written the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase.

Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. Green Dot Short! But don't expect them to last. Essays Written Baldwin! [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to computers life adapt by essays by james baldwin showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Dot Short Thesis! Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to by james keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to green thesis discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on by james, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out english forms, -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is written that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the thesis, home and written baldwin AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of fuente thesis gratis, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server.

BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second.

CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and baldwin Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation.

DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program.

HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security.

LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System.

NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.

OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and heights essay heathcliff DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to essays by james a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. Bower! MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. Baldwin! More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into wuthering heights essay heathcliff, a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per essays written by james baldwin, tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on gratis, the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. By James Baldwin! Thus it is heights essay catherine a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in essays baldwin, early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960.

Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in essay heathcliff, certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on essays written, it -- to fuente gratis print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the essays by james, drum just when the desired character is behind the green dot short, paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. Essays Written Baldwin! They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the computers life, input medium for written by james hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and essay drilling machines. Computer applications of essays written, paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the dissertation, latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the written baldwin, origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of daily life, Amsterdam Computing History Museum.

Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to essays by james which printer columns, etc. Fuente! Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540.

Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in essays written, New York were still based on wuthering catherine, punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and by james baldwin computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to glenna dissertation the mainframe by by james cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the sparknotes, mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and essays written by james line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for college other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in essays by james, which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into daily life, selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Written By James! Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications.

CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the heights heathcliff, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and essays written baldwin electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the fuente gratis, IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and written baldwin transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). Bower Dissertation! The best-known graphics terminal is the by james baldwin, Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the computers daily life essay, physical unit of essays, input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Bower! Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and essays IBM , Stein and bower dissertation Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at by james baldwin Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures).

Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of essay, Carson McCullers , University of written baldwin, Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of college essay, Graduate Studies in essays written baldwin, Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Computers Daily Life Essay! Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at essays written Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Green! Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Essays Baldwin! The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of dissertation, Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an essays by james, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. English! University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for written baldwin the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of sparknotes college, Dean Ralph S. Essays Written By James Baldwin! Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives.

Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in wuthering heathcliff, the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. By James Baldwin! Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and dot short thesis the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and essays by james its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of english coursework forms, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Essays By James Baldwin! Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of green dot short thesis, Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982).

Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). Essays Written! AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the computers life, subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the written by james baldwin, Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Aqa Gcse Coursework Forms! Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Essays Written By James! Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). College! Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). Written By James! The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on daily essay, Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and by james the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of gratis, Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Essays! (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aqa Gcse Coursework! Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. By James Baldwin! 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by wuthering essay heathcliff William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. By James! W.J.E. Aqa Gcse Coursework! (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of written by james baldwin, Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to heights essay catherine heathcliff Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in essays written baldwin, Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on english coursework forms, Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and essays written Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. College! Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to essays written baldwin Mr. G.W.

Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. Sparknotes Essay! 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for by james baldwin the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at computers daily life essay IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. Essays! 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003.

Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the glenna bower, Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. Essays Written! (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and sparknotes April 2004. Prof.

Seidelmann was at essays by james the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the daily life essay, Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of essays written baldwin, Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to sparknotes End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and essays written McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for green thesis Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the essays baldwin, Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in college essay, Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and written by james Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to glenna the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Essays Written! Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). English Forms! Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Essays Written By James! Andree, Richard V., Programming the dissertation, IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for written the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for heights the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Baldwin! Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Wuthering Essay Heathcliff! Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103.

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Baldwin! Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). Sparknotes! National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for written by james the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of fuente gratis, a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of written by james baldwin, Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in green, the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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The Top 10 Essays Since 1950 - …

Most Ridiculous College Mascots and Nicknames of written by james baldwin, All Time. Colleges around the country have some very strange mascots and computers daily team names. These 30 colleges have the strangest mascots and/or team names in written by james, the entire country. 30. Virginia Tech Hokies - HokieBird. The Hokie isn't even a real thing. It is defined as a devoted Virginia Tech fan and is modeled after a turkey. It looks like a jolly, old mascot, but it's strange to heathcliff have someone you'd eat for essays by james baldwin, Thanksgiving dinner as the symbol for your school.

30. Virginia Tech Hokies - HokieBird. The Hokie isn't even a real thing. It is defined as a devoted Virginia Tech fan and is modeled after a turkey. It looks like a jolly, old mascot, but it's strange to essay heathcliff have someone you'd eat for baldwin, Thanksgiving dinner as the symbol for your school. 29. Georgetown Hoyas - Jack the Bulldog. He looks like a nice guy doesn't he? There's having an sparknotes college essay, intense mascot and essays baldwin then there's having a mascot that looks like he's ready to attack you.

Additionally, the mascot doesn't even match the team name, which doesn't make a whole lot of sense. 29. Georgetown Hoyas - Jack the Bulldog. He looks like a nice guy doesn't he? There's having an intense mascot and then there's having a mascot that looks like he's ready to attack you. Bower. Additionally, the mascot doesn't even match the team name, which doesn't make a whole lot of essays by james baldwin, sense. This mascot falls into green, the random category.

All told, the mascot is actually pretty cool looking. He looks like a buff alien. Written Baldwin. At least he's had a lot to cheer about at football games the last several years. This mascot falls into thesis, the random category. All told, the essays mascot is actually pretty cool looking. He looks like a buff alien. At least he's had a lot to cheer about at football games the last several years. Obviously a tiger is a very popular nickname for a team, but Aubie is very strange looking. College Essay. Essentially, Aubie looks like a librarian that happens to be a tiger.

That's not exactly the essays by james intense look the program is probably looking for. Obviously a tiger is a very popular nickname for a team, but Aubie is very strange looking. Essentially, Aubie looks like a librarian that happens to college essay be a tiger. Written Baldwin. That's not exactly the intense look the program is probably looking for. From one Alabama school to their rival, the Alabama mascot doesn't make much sense either. Crimson Tide is actually a pretty cool nickname for a school, but who's the one who piped up and was like, We're the Crimson Tide, I know, let's make our mascot an daily life, elephant! Separately, the nickname and mascot are pretty cool, but together they make no sense. From one Alabama school to their rival, the Alabama mascot doesn't make much sense either. Essays. Crimson Tide is actually a pretty cool nickname for heights catherine heathcliff, a school, but who's the baldwin one who piped up and was like, We're the Crimson Tide, I know, let's make our mascot an elephant! Separately, the nickname and mascot are pretty cool, but together they make no sense.

25. Sparknotes College. Oklahoma State Cowboys - Pistol Pete. The huge head on Pistol Pete is essays written, what really gets people. Everything else looks like a normal cowboy, but then the head is gigantic. Fuente Thesis. He really looks like he's a caricature of by james baldwin, a cowboy, which probably isn't what Oklahoma State wanted when they created him. 25. Oklahoma State Cowboys - Pistol Pete. The huge head on aqa gcse english Pistol Pete is what really gets people. Everything else looks like a normal cowboy, but then the head is written by james, gigantic. Green. He really looks like he's a caricature of a cowboy, which probably isn't what Oklahoma State wanted when they created him. What represents a cyclone any better than a bird?

Nothing about the Cyclones' mascot makes any sense, although it would be hard to have a mascot that perfectly represented rapidly spinning winds. Everyone seems to agree they could've come up with something better than a cardinal, though. What represents a cyclone any better than a bird? Nothing about the Cyclones' mascot makes any sense, although it would be hard to have a mascot that perfectly represented rapidly spinning winds. Essays Written. Everyone seems to agree they could've come up with something better than a cardinal, though. Reveille is actually an absolutely beautiful dog and mascot, but he doesn't match with the team's name. Sparknotes College Essay. Texas AM is named after the agriculture industry, so having a dog doesn't make a whole lot of sense. Essays Written Baldwin. Sure, it would be weird to have any foods grown on a farm, but they could have cattle or something like that.

Reveille is heights, actually an absolutely beautiful dog and mascot, but he doesn't match with the team's name. Texas AM is named after the agriculture industry, so having a dog doesn't make a whole lot of sense. Essays Written. Sure, it would be weird to essay have any foods grown on a farm, but they could have cattle or something like that. 22. St. Essays Written By James Baldwin. Louis University Billikens - Billiken. Billiken looks like something straight out of a horror movie. Really, he looks like the trouble maker, pale child who plays tricks on green people in some old, abandoned mansion.

Perhaps that's going too far, but this mascot is beyond creepy and essays by james baldwin it's hard to english coursework forms believe he can inspire much excitement without scaring people. 22. St. Louis University Billikens - Billiken. Billiken looks like something straight out of a horror movie. Really, he looks like the trouble maker, pale child who plays tricks on people in some old, abandoned mansion.

Perhaps that's going too far, but this mascot is beyond creepy and it's hard to written baldwin believe he can inspire much excitement without scaring people. This one is a real head scratcher. Who thought it would be a good idea to make the school mascot Okra? That might be the dissertation least intimidating nickname of all time and by james baldwin the mascot just emphasizes the obscurity of the name. This one is a real head scratcher. Bower. Who thought it would be a good idea to essays written by james baldwin make the school mascot Okra?

That might be the least intimidating nickname of all time and the mascot just emphasizes the obscurity of the name. 20. Wake Forest Demon Deacons - The Demon Deacon. One has to think this mascot was modeled after the first head master of the school or something like that, because that's what he looks like. Thesis. For some reason, he rides in on a motorcycle, despite the fact he looks like an old man that belongs in his law library. Nothing about it makes sense. 20. Wake Forest Demon Deacons - The Demon Deacon. One has to essays written by james baldwin think this mascot was modeled after the first head master of the school or something like that, because that's what he looks like. Fuente Thesis Gratis. For some reason, he rides in on a motorcycle, despite the fact he looks like an essays written baldwin, old man that belongs in his law library. Nothing about it makes sense.

Poor, Oski. Golden Bears is a pretty cool nickname for a team, but Oski looks so bizarre. Aqa Gcse English. His face is far too large and something about him just looks off. Yes, he looks pretty nice, but without knowing who he was the mascot for, most people probably wouldn't be able to guess what he was. Poor, Oski. Written By James. Golden Bears is a pretty cool nickname for a team, but Oski looks so bizarre. His face is far too large and something about bower him just looks off. Yes, he looks pretty nice, but without knowing who he was the baldwin mascot for, most people probably wouldn't be able to green guess what he was. C'mon MIT, you're some of the smartest people in essays written, the country, you couldn't think of a more creative name? People going to the school are mostly engineers and so their teams are named after that profession. Aqa Gcse Coursework. Can you imagine if every school made their mascot according to this?

There would be a lot of schools with the mascot of the Undeclareds. C'mon MIT, you're some of the smartest people in the country, you couldn't think of a more creative name? People going to baldwin the school are mostly engineers and so their teams are named after that profession. Can you imagine if every school made their mascot according to this? There would be a lot of thesis, schools with the mascot of the Undeclareds. 17. Texas AM Corpus-Christi - Izzy the Islander.

Izzy is actually one of the coolest mascots in college sports. However, that doesn't make him any less strange. His big Tiki head walking around strikes people right away and makes him a prime target for a photo op with fans. Count him as one of the most creative mascots in essays written by james, college athletics. 17. Green Dot Short Thesis. Texas AM Corpus-Christi - Izzy the baldwin Islander. Izzy is actually one of the coolest mascots in college sports. However, that doesn't make him any less strange. His big Tiki head walking around strikes people right away and makes him a prime target for a photo op with fans. Daily Essay. Count him as one of the most creative mascots in college athletics.

16. Essays By James Baldwin. Cal State Long Beach Dirtbags - Prospector Pete. Prospector Pete is nowhere to be seen, so he's a little bit of a mystery, but the nickname Dirtbags is a bit of a head scratcher. Fuente Thesis. It makes people think that anyone playing for this team must be a dirtbag, which usually has a negative connotation attached to it. 16. Cal State Long Beach Dirtbags - Prospector Pete. Prospector Pete is nowhere to be seen, so he's a little bit of a mystery, but the nickname Dirtbags is a bit of a head scratcher. It makes people think that anyone playing for this team must be a dirtbag, which usually has a negative connotation attached to it. 15. Dartmouth Big Green - Keggy the Keg. Now, this is baldwin, a great, straightforward mascot.

More colleges should adopt this straightforward approach, really. An Ivy League school having a mascot modeled after beer and computers drinking is pretty hilarious. The mascot itself actually looks pretty cool too, although it looks like he's been sipping a bit from by james baldwin, his own keg. 15. Dartmouth Big Green - Keggy the Keg.

Now, this is wuthering heights catherine heathcliff, a great, straightforward mascot. More colleges should adopt this straightforward approach, really. An Ivy League school having a mascot modeled after beer and drinking is pretty hilarious. The mascot itself actually looks pretty cool too, although it looks like he's been sipping a bit from his own keg. Credit: Christopher Hanewinckel, USA Today Sports. Nothing says we're going to written baldwin beat you than having an item you can find in the grocery store as your mascot. Yes, the college essay orange involved in Syracuse's uniforms makes them look really cool, but Otto is a very weird, bumbling mascot. The biggest question is, how does the person inside see through that costume?

Nothing says we're going to beat you than having an item you can find in the grocery store as your mascot. Essays Written Baldwin. Yes, the dot short orange involved in essays baldwin, Syracuse's uniforms makes them look really cool, but Otto is a very weird, bumbling mascot. Sparknotes College Essay. The biggest question is, how does the written by james baldwin person inside see through that costume? 13. Tulsa Golden Hurricane - Captain Cane.

Like Iowa State, Tulsa didn't exactly know how to make a mascot based on a natural disaster, but the choice they went with is very weird. Someone who looks like Captain America shouldn't be representing a golden hurricane, whatever that is. Green. For that matter, Golden Hurricane sounds a bit like an inappropriate nickname. 13. Essays Baldwin. Tulsa Golden Hurricane - Captain Cane. Like Iowa State, Tulsa didn't exactly know how to make a mascot based on a natural disaster, but the choice they went with is very weird. Wuthering Heights Heathcliff. Someone who looks like Captain America shouldn't be representing a golden hurricane, whatever that is. For that matter, Golden Hurricane sounds a bit like an inappropriate nickname. Credit: Mike Carter, USA Today Sports. Brutus is a beloved mascot that is written by james, very popular because of the Buckeyes' athletic success, but take a second to heights heathcliff realize how strange he is. Essentially, his head is an actual buckeye from a buckeye tree, which is kind of cool, but it also makes him look like one of the goofiest mascots in by james baldwin, college sports.

Brutus is a beloved mascot that is very popular because of the Buckeyes' athletic success, but take a second to realize how strange he is. Life. Essentially, his head is an by james, actual buckeye from a buckeye tree, which is kind of fuente gratis, cool, but it also makes him look like one of the goofiest mascots in college sports. 11. Toledo Rockets - Rocky the essays by james Rocket. This is thesis, a slick looking mascot. Rocky really looks like something out of the essays written by james baldwin future. Why Toledo, in particular, has this mascot doesn't really make sense, but hey, more power to them.

11. Toledo Rockets - Rocky the Rocket. This is college essay, a slick looking mascot. Essays Written By James Baldwin. Rocky really looks like something out of the future. Why Toledo, in particular, has this mascot doesn't really make sense, but hey, more power to them. 10. Wuthering. Stanford Cardinal - Stanford Tree. Forever the goofiest mascot of all time, the essays baldwin Stanford Tree looks like something you should be decorating on Christmas, not something that should be representing a sports team. The poor guy doesn't even have any arms, how sad is that? 10.

Stanford Cardinal - Stanford Tree. Forever the goofiest mascot of all time, the Stanford Tree looks like something you should be decorating on Christmas, not something that should be representing a sports team. The poor guy doesn't even have any arms, how sad is that? 9. Wichita State Shockers - WuShock. In Kansas, this mascot makes sense, but it doesn't make a whole lot of essay, sense anywhere else. Just in essays, this picture, he's eating corn. Wuthering Heights Catherine. For an baldwin, agricultural symbol, though, he looks a bit aggressive. 9. Wichita State Shockers - WuShock. In Kansas, this mascot makes sense, but it doesn't make a whole lot of gratis, sense anywhere else.

Just in this picture, he's eating corn. Essays Written By James Baldwin. For an essay, agricultural symbol, though, he looks a bit aggressive. Cayenne gives off the essays written by james spicy vibe, which apparently is heights catherine, what Louisiana Lafayette is going for, but he looks so weird. Essays By James. The way his eyes look makes it seem like perhaps the spiciness is getting to him, which probably wasn't the intention. Cayenne gives off the spicy vibe, which apparently is dissertation, what Louisiana Lafayette is written by james, going for, but he looks so weird. The way his eyes look makes it seem like perhaps the spiciness is getting to him, which probably wasn't the intention. 7. Fuente. UC Irvine Anteaters - Peter the Anteater. Anteaters sleep 20 hours a day, so why would you want your team mascot to be one?

UC Irvine apparently wants to be represented by it and essays baldwin their mascot looks so weird. Wuthering Heights. You can't deny based on this picture, though, it looks like he gets his work in at the gym. 7. UC Irvine Anteaters - Peter the essays by james Anteater. Anteaters sleep 20 hours a day, so why would you want your team mascot to be one? UC Irvine apparently wants to be represented by it and aqa gcse english coursework forms their mascot looks so weird. You can't deny based on this picture, though, it looks like he gets his work in at the gym. 6. Penn State Nittany Lions - The Nittany Lion. There might not be a creepier mascot in written baldwin, college sports than the Nittany Lion at Penn State. Daily Essay. It looks like a bad Halloween costume with a bizarre mask attached to it. For having such a cool logo, Penn State really seems to have screwed up its mascot's look. 6. Essays By James Baldwin. Penn State Nittany Lions - The Nittany Lion.

There might not be a creepier mascot in college sports than the green Nittany Lion at Penn State. It looks like a bad Halloween costume with a bizarre mask attached to baldwin it. For having such a cool logo, Penn State really seems to have screwed up its mascot's look. When he's moving around, he looks hilarious and is certainly entertaining. College. The inspiration for the costume, though, the world may never know. When he's moving around, he looks hilarious and is certainly entertaining. The inspiration for the costume, though, the essays written baldwin world may never know. The few schools that use inflatable mascots are very weird and Nebraska's is the weirdest of the bunch. A little kid as your mascot for a team with a bizarre nickname is just confusing.

To get back to bower their winning ways, maybe they should adopt a mascot closer to the age of most of its athletes. The few schools that use inflatable mascots are very weird and Nebraska's is the weirdest of the bunch. A little kid as your mascot for a team with a bizarre nickname is essays written by james, just confusing. To get back to their winning ways, maybe they should adopt a mascot closer to the age of most of its athletes. 3. UC Santa Cruz Banana Slugs - Sammy the Slug. If anyone knows what a banana slug is, please let UC Santa Cruz know that it should not be their mascot.

Sammy the Slug looks like something you'd shoot out of your nose when you have a cold. Basically, not the ideal mascot for a college sports team. 3. Thesis. UC Santa Cruz Banana Slugs - Sammy the Slug. If anyone knows what a banana slug is, please let UC Santa Cruz know that it should not be their mascot. Sammy the written by james Slug looks like something you'd shoot out of computers essay, your nose when you have a cold. Basically, not the baldwin ideal mascot for a college sports team. 2. Williams College Ephs - The Purple Cow. D-III Williams College has such a strange mascot, it had to make the list. Glenna Bower. This purple cow is essays baldwin, a living legend, despite the glenna fact he makes no sense. Sometimes, having a mascot that doesn't make sense, actually makes it a little bit funnier.

2. Written. Williams College Ephs - The Purple Cow. D-III Williams College has such a strange mascot, it had to make the list. This purple cow is a living legend, despite the fact he makes no sense. Sometimes, having a mascot that doesn't make sense, actually makes it a little bit funnier. 1. Western Kentucky Hilltoppers - Big Red. Any mascot that looks like he can eat a fan at any time that he wants is a strange one. Big Red might be the only one in college sports that fits that description. He looks so goofy with no jaw and a mouth that is heights catherine, huge, but his red body brings together the essays written baldwin entire costume that makes him the strangest mascot in college sports. 1. Western Kentucky Hilltoppers - Big Red. Any mascot that looks like he can eat a fan at any time that he wants is life, a strange one. Big Red might be the only one in essays, college sports that fits that description.

He looks so goofy with no jaw and a mouth that is huge, but his red body brings together the entire costume that makes him the strangest mascot in college sports.

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am essay i life who We write papers to make our customers pleased. Essays Baldwin? Choose from a wide range of academic writing tasks and catherine heathcliff get the by james baldwin one you need. One of the most popular essay topic among students is dissertation, #8220;Essay about Life#8221; where every student tries to describe his/her life, problems, priorities and outlooks. To write a good essay about life one should be able to reflect a little, to release his/her mind from other thoughts and to start writing an essay on written baldwin life. Here#8217;s a sample essay about life written by one of our professional essay writers: #8220;Life is beautiful and yet life is not a bed of daily essay roses. Though it is full of ups and downs it has many facets of blessings and successes. To some people, life is hard, cruel and merciless. These set of essays written by james people see life as punishment throughout their entire lives.

They therefore resigned themselves to fate, believing all is finished. To them, nothing that they do can ever be good. They take delight in committing crimes and maiming others to avenge their ill-fortune. They lost every sense of direction and most times, some of them go as far as committing suicide, just to escape the injustice life has meted out to them. But there are those who see life as a challenge, a channel of discovery and computers daily life innovation, a prospect for success and a gateway to wealth. To them life is sweet, colourful and essays written by james kind. No matter the situation these people find themselves, they keep pressing on, believing in a cause, a cause to succeed and get the most out of life.

No wonder an adage says, “Where there is life, there is hope.” The will to succeed or fail lies within an individual jurisdiction. You can live life to the fullest with utmost satisfaction and fulfillment if you determine with all your mind, body and heights catherine heathcliff soul to by james baldwin succeed. On the other hand, life can be miserable to you if you take everything for granted and aqa gcse wait on fate to by james play itself out. Setting of coursework forms goals and strategic plans that will strive no matter the odds which may move against you is one of the basic things needed to get the best out of written baldwin life. These goals which must be result oriented, should be followed up consistently even if things seem blurred or unyielding at green first. Also, the mind is the written by james centre of everything. It controls your thoughts and beliefs. A focused mind has never fail. A positive mind helps one to discover his talents and computers daily life essay potentials. Great men and women, both living and dead, had their minds focused on something and essays written by james baldwin nothing deterred them from computers, achieving their dreams.

Each of them had a belief, should I say faith, which they held onto, they nurture the belief, focused all their attention and live on it. And today, we have benefited in one way or the other from essays written by james baldwin, their inventions and aqa gcse english forms great ideas. Life is a challenge. And for anyone to succeed in life, he must be ready to show the stuff he is made of. He must be ready to sacrifice his time and build up his mind frame toward success. What is happening in our environment should not influence or affect us in our daily quest for success in life.

Instead, we should control the happenings around us. Life is so easy, yet many people rush and miss what they want to achieve in life. Don’t rush in life. Take one step at a time. Written Baldwin? Each step should be properly planned before being launched.

Steady, balance, mark and glenna bower shoot. And before you know it, the sky will become the essays beginning of essay your success. All the essays by james great men of aqa gcse english today, has one way or the other tasted the other side of life but they did not cower. Instead, they were renewed to redefine their goals; they ride on written by james with faith, believing in their potentials, focusing their mind on computers daily life essay something, knowing fully well that in every black cloud there is always a silver lining. I take life to be very simple and do you know what? Life is to be enjoyed. What about you? If you need custom essay about Life written from scratch by highly qualified essay writers, visit our professional custom essay writing service. Order a custom written paper of high quality. -ee Charged with Killing Chicago Cop, Former Cha Officer, The Devil in the White City by essays by james, Larson, Larson describes Chicago by writing about the streets angling past gambling houses, bordellos, and bars, where vice thrived together with the indulgence of the computers essay officials.

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Historical Review Of Mutual Funds. In the written early commercial history, Egyptians and Phoenicians sold shares in bower, vessels and caravans in order to spread the risk of their venture. On the same lines the idea of mutual fund has its formal origin in Belgium, here the idea was used in transportation of ships. In 1822 Societes' Generale de Belgique was started as first Investment Company to finance investments in national industries with high associated risks. Later, in Switzerland and in France similar agencies took birth, still later in 1860's it also moved to written by james England, in 1868, the foreign and colonial government trust was established. In USA, the idea took root in the beginning of the 20 Century and green, there was little activity up-till 1924, in 1924 three investment companies were organized.

' Massacheusells Investment Corporation. ' State Stree Investment Corporation. ' US and foreign securities corporation. All these institutions are still operating. Investment companies Act of 1940 was enacted to protect the public investment. There are over 5000 mutual fund schemes with total assets of over essays written by james, US $1million will prefer to mutual fund route to investing in equity instead of direct participation in share market. Fidelity Investment, is the largest fund, the annual growth rate is dot short thesis 20-25% the trend is almost similar in all Europe.

In 1920, it entered Canada, Canadian Investment Fund in 1932, was the first mutual fund in Canada, later on written it spread to almost all countries of the world. In U.K, nearly 80% of investors look to the mutual funds unit trusts as they are called there. The unit trust is leading bank deposits. Mutual funds in aqa gcse forms, the U.K. are divided into two, namely, 1. Unit trusts are essentially Open-ended funds. 2. Investment trusts are Close ended funds. Japanese Trusts are of essays written baldwin, two kinds: 1. Unity type investment centers. 2. Open type investment centers. In Japan investment trusts were set up under the securities investment law, 1951. The unique characteristic difference between Japanese investment trusts and American mutual funds is the fact tat the mutual fund industries in America evolved in response to market needs, whereas the development of the Japanese investment trusts has been in response to Government Policy.

In recent years mutual fund in Japan and Far East countries have been showing excellent performance. Daily Essay? Mauritius and Netherlands are emerging as tax heavens for off shore mutual funds. HISTORY OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN INDIA. Mutual funds entered Indian Market in 1963. Unit trust of India was set up under the UTI Act, 1963. It operates both as a Financial Institution and as an Investment Trust. Unit scheme 64 was the first scheme started with a basic objective of mobilizing savings though the sale of units and baldwin, invests them in equities and other securities. It offered three-dimensional benefits namely high yield, capital appreciation and liquidity. The history of mutual fund in India till the fuente gratis mid of essays baldwin, 80s' in virtually synonymous with the history of essay, UTI.In 1986, the UTI launched first growth scheme. Master shares which was listed and treated in written by james, stock exchanges. The monopoly of the UTI was broken in 1987.

Public sector banks entered the scene with their mutual funds schemes with much fun fair i.e. in 1987, five banks. ' State Bank of dissertation, India. ' Punjab National Bank. ' Along with LIC and GIC came out with their mutual funds. Mutual funds sponsored by the banks and other public sector financial institutions became popular on account of.

' Wide network of collection centers of the written baldwin bank and other sponsoring organizations. ' Trust in the ability and reliability of the sponsors. ' Accessibility and familiarity with the sponsor bank/ organizations. Till 1992, the scene was well as the stock market was in a boom and share prices were rising quite sharply. Aqa Gcse Coursework Forms? So there was a great demand for equities, the investors could have never even thought in their wildest dreams to deliver. The investors rushed to buy at essays baldwin, what ever was on offer they were not bothered about the risk associated with the quality of the funds on offer their objectives and track records of the fund managers. This irrational action on the part of the investors cost them heavily, when the bubble of Securities Scam burst in 1992, as the rise in the prices of the stock were not because of the business performance but because of handiwork of few brokers it was destined to meet its logical tragic end. And when this happened the market reacted in green thesis, a great panic, which led prices to fall like rune pins. After this, SEBI issued guidelines to Mutual Fund Industry in Mutual Fund Industry in 1993 and due to the Economic Reforms, Private sector and foreign companies entered into this sector.

The reasons for private mutual fund to written by james enter maybe- 1. Poor servicing, in computers daily essay, ordinate delays in the receipt of unit certificates and divided warranties. 2. Indifferent performance of written by james, most of the mutual fund schemes, which under performed the market thus denying the investor, reasonable returns. 3. Essay Heathcliff? Absence of adequate disclosure norms. 4. Lack of an investor friendly approach in general. Kothari pioneer was the first privates company to launch its mutual fund in 1993 and Morgan Stanley was the first foreign company to enter into the Indian market which is one of the world's largest mutual funds. Briefly the categories of players can be divided into four types, viz. ' Public sector banks. ' Insurance companies / All India financial institutions. ' Private sector- inclusive of foreign companies and essays, joint ventures.

Private sector funds are performing well in the market. Computers Life Essay? A fund mobilized by essays written baldwin private sector is more than UTI and public sector. RESOURCES MOBILISED BY MUTUAL FUNDS. Private Sector MF's Public Sector MF's UTI Grand Total. Open end Close end Total Open end Close end Total Open end Close end Total. of Funds 7769.59 76.91 7846.5 364.1 1307.1 1671.3 6820.23 6372.66 13192.9 22710.7.

Amount 1101.93 36.73 1138.66 291.85 404.16 696.01 9773.41 546.26 10319.67 12154.34. Redem-ption Amount 5180.98 74.16 5255.14 0.27 639.90 640.17 0.00 5610.75 5610.75 11506.06. Net In/Outflow of essay, Fund 1486.77 -33.98 1452.70 72.03 263.13 335.16 -2953.18 215.65 -2737.53 -949.67. According to data available on provisional basis, the mutual funds mobilized Rs.22710.73 crore without adjustment of repurchase redemption during the financial year 1997-1998. However, it is written by james baldwin important to note that in case of Open-ended schemes, there was a continuous sale and repurchase of mutual funds, and there was redemption of some of the schemes as specially of fuente gratis, unit 64 scheme of UTI. Thus after adjustment of repurchases and redemptions, there was an outflow of funds of essays written by james baldwin, Rs.949.67 crore during 1998-1999.

Further analysis of data shows that while there was a net inflow of funds of Rs.1452.70 crore and Rs.315.16 crore in case of private sector mutual funds and thesis, public sector mutual funds, respectively, there was a net outflow of Rs.2737.53crore in case of the UTI the largest mutual fund. Details are given in the following table: Table showing Resources Mobilization by Mutual Funds (Rs. In crore) CLASSIFICATION OF MUTUAL FUNDS. Based on advantages and services offered to various sections of the society, mutual funds can be classified into three broad categories.

Viz., It is essays written by james baldwin based on the basis characteristics of the mutual fund schemes opened for the public subscription; it can be classified as; (A) OPEN ENDED MUTUAL FUNDS: It is a scheme in which a investor can buy and sell units on daily basis, where in the scheme have perpetual existence and a flexible ever changing corpus. Investors are free to catherine buy and essays by james baldwin, sell any number of units at any point of time, at prices, which are linked, to NAV of the units. As the NAV changes with time, so do the prices at which the investors can buy and sell these units it gives complete flexibility to the investor as he can invest or dis-invest at daily essay, any time. The fund is not listed in essays written by james, the stock market. The investor can buy and bower dissertation, sell these units form and to the mutual fund. In accordance with the recent changes, the fund manager has the option to list the fund in the stock market in addition to repurchase and essays, resale. (B) CLOSE ENDED MUTUAL FUND: It is a fund where in it has a fixed corpus and operates for fixed duration at the end of which the entire corpus is disinvested and proceeds are distributed to the various unit holders in dot short thesis, proportion of written by james baldwin, their holdings. The fund can also make interim payments if it so decides.

Thus it ceases to exist after final distribution. The units are issued like any other company's new issues, listed and quoted at the stock exchange. The units of close-ended funds are not always redeemable at their NAV. Market prices are determined by demand and supply and not solely by NAV. If the fund manager so chooses, he can offer repurchase facility. So also he can resume resale to the extent of repurchase.

All the schemes discussed below are either open ended or close ended. Mutual funds differ with reference to the type of fuente, instruments in by james baldwin, which the money can be invested. These are specified in the offer documents/ prospectus and accordingly the fund is structured for a particular purpose. They provide fixed returns for those who desire safety and steady income. The Fund is life essay invested in Government securities and Bonds. It is more liquid, diversified and conservative investment with regular income and moderate capital gains. Essays Written By James? The price of units of a Mutual Fund fluctuates with changing interest rates.

They are mainly those who are willing to accept risk in the hope of a high Return. These are called Common Stock Fund. They are of two types ' Growth Funds and Go-Go Funds. The former consists of investments in Blue Chips and the latter is High Risk Stocks. They are mainly to maximize the current income of investors. They are two types of funds Low Investment Risk with steady income and High Risk Investment with maximum income. Investment would typically be in fixed income securities to greater extent; and in shares, to a smaller extent.

Capital appreciation in such schemes may be limited. It is ideal for dot short thesis, retired people and others with a need for capital stability and regular income, and investors who need some income to supplement their earnings. As most of Investors prefer income Funds, the essays written sales of this fund had dominated the other types of essay catherine, funds. (D) MONEY MARKET MUTUAL FUNDS: Investments are predominantly in Money Market Instruments like, Certificate of Deposits, Commercial Paper, and Treasury Bills etc. They are short term in tenure, highly liquid with high safety. This fund is an alternative to saving account of written by james, high bracket savers. The fund cannot invest the corpus in shares, debentures and other such papers. Wuthering Heights Catherine Heathcliff? Returns on these schemes may fluctuate depending upon the interest rates prevailing in the market. (E) SPECIALISED FUNDS:

These funds invest in securities of certain industries/specific set of or specific income producing securities. They carry more risk due to essays written lack of diversification. (F) LEVERAGE FUNDS: The funds borrow money in order to increase the size of the corpus and there by increase the daily life essay benefit to the Unit Holders by operating with a larger corpus than the money collected. Essays Written? Now doubt the cost of borrowing funds, which have to be more than compensated by returns on investments.

(G) BALANCE FUNDS: Here the assets are made up of a judicious mixture of industries, Stock and Bonds. To secure reasonable rate of sparknotes college essay, return, the funds are employed in high-grade common stock and conservative fixed income securities like debentures, bonds and preference shares. In a rising stock market, the NAV of these schemes may not normally keep pace or fall equally when the market falls. It is by james ideal for investor's looking for a combination of income and moderate growth. (H) PENSION FUNDS: These Funds provide for green, long-term investments out of individuals' investors' superannuation savings. They take advantage of tax rate available for such investors. Investments are made in the index scripts with the same proportion and weight age as that of index.

The performance of written by james baldwin, fund will be in the line with the index. (J) TAX SAVING SCHEMES: These schemes offer tax rebate to the investors under tax laws as prescribed from time to time. This is made possible because the government offer tax incentives for investment in specific avenues. Recent amendments to the Income Tax Act provide further opportunities to wuthering heights essay investors to save capital gains by investing in Mutual Funds. This scheme is ideal for investors seeking tax rebate. MUTUAL FUND ' FRAME WORK. ' Approval by SEBI. ' Sound track record. ' Experience in Financial Services. ' Professional Competence, Financial Soundness, Reputation, etc.

' Contribution to AMC Capital 40% minimum. ' Names to be approved by essays written by james SEBI. ' Legally responsible for administering the glenna bower dissertation Trust and Compliance. ' Norms for Trustees. ' Experience in Financial Services. ' Minimum 4 members on the board and 50% of the written baldwin members not to be connected with the sponsor. ASSET MANAGEMENT COMPANY (AMC) ' Managing funds for schemes. ' Performing Accounting Function.

' All day-to-day affairs of the Mutual Funds. Income of an AMC/ AM fee. ' 1.25% of weekly average NAV (Net asset value) of each scheme up to Rs 1000 crore of assets managed. ' 1.00% greater than 100 crore. ' Infrastructure expenses to be borne by fuente the AMC. ' Safe keeping of the written assets held by the Fund. ' Receives and Delivers Securities for payment. ' Follow up on Corporate benefits. ' Provide an independent means of control. ' Issue of aqa gcse english, Account Statements to essays Investors. ' Arranges payment to Investors when they redeem.

' Takes care of college essay, non-commercial transactions like change of address, loss of account statement etc. The registrar maintains the investment account of the Unit holders and also handles the complaints and grievances from the investors relating to dividend, purchase and essays written baldwin, sale of units. REGULATION OF MUTUAL FUNDS. The Mutual Funds operating in India was governed by a number of Regulations and guidelines issued by computers various Agencies viz., UTI Act 1963 and UTI Guidelines, the essays by james baldwin Indian Trust Act 1882, Income Tax Act 1961 etc. Mutual Funds sponsored by Banks were governed by guidelines dated June 28,1990 and Revised Version dated February 14,1992. The Ministry of wuthering heights catherine heathcliff, Finance and Government of India realized the need for a set of common rules governing entire Mutual Fund Industry, appointing a Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr.S.A.Dave, who was the Chairman of UTI. The Committee submitted its report in 1992, based on these recommendations SEBI issued guidelines for the Mutual Fund Industry in by james, January 1993. And these are known as Securities and wuthering heights, Exchange Board of India (Mutual Funds) Regulations 1993. After the issue of these guidelines by SEBI, Mutual Fund Industry was opened for private sector to enter the field. Essays Written Baldwin? And all the Mutual Funds controlled by SEBI except UTI. Brief details of the SEBI Guidelines are: - ' Mutual Funds are to be established in the form of Trust under the Indian Trust Act.

' Funds and assets are to be managed by an Asset Management Company. ASSET MANAGEMENT COMPANY. ' AMC shall have minimum net worth of Rs.10 Crores. AMC and Trustee of Mutual Funds are two separate legal entities. ' AMC should furnish SEBI their respective Memorandum and Articles of association for approval. ' AMC or its affiliate can undertake activities like management and advertising services to Pension Funds, Provident Funds, Venture Capital Funds, Financial Consultancy and Research, but should not act as manager for any other Fund. ' All schemes floated by Mutual Funds are to be registered with SEBI. ' A standard format of Scheme's prospectus has to be introduced. ' All the sparknotes college investors up to 5,000 Units will be given full allotment in case of over subscription.

' Mutual funds dealing with money market instruments are to be regulated by SEBI. ' Other Mutual Funds Schemes, which invest partly in money market and essays by james, partly in Capital market, are regulated by SEBI. ' No Mutual Funds, under all its schemes should own more than 10% of bower, any company's paid up capital carrying voting rights. ' Mutual Funds may invest in another scheme managed by the same AMC or others to the extent of 5% of the NAV. ' Mutual Funds can invest only transferable securities in Money Market or Capital Market. ' Investment in by james baldwin, debt instrument should generally be in english, those rated an investment grade and above. All Mutual Funds must distribute 90% of their profits every year among their investors. MARKETING OF MUTUAL FUNDS. Marketing is the big challenge in business especially of marketing of Mutual Fund.

The challenge is that with the same product and customers with diversified profile. Mutual Funds deal with small investor's hard-earned money, a sensitive commodity and only service is involved in selling the product. Since mutual Funds interacts with lakhs of essays by james, investors who are likely to be associated for a longer tenure, post issue services plays an important role in glenna bower dissertation, customer satisfaction. Along with four P's namely, product, price, place, and promotion, Mutual Fund has one more P i.e., Portfolio. The marketing division has to design the product according to written by james baldwin the needs of the investors and life essay, place it in essays written baldwin, right market, in right manner, targeted to the right segment. Formalities of marketing Mutual Funds starts with taking permission from Agencies like Ministry of Finance, RBI, SEBI etc. Gazette Notification of green dot short, Schemes is then done. Marketing division has to evaluate the strengths, potentials, opportunities and weakness of the market.

According to the market condition it has to design the products i.e., the written baldwin Scheme. The price should be so designed, such that to reach and attract small investors. The price of one scheme will differ from the other according to its segments of customers. Various techniques are used to reach the unaware pocket of investors like direct mailers to full-fledged marketing campaigns, the Fund will spend lakhs of rupees to mobilize investments and consequently marketing cost will increase. So a marketing division should always balance its costs with the price of the scheme. The expenses of the heights heathcliff fund should not increase the income from the fund. A Mutual Fund is an investment vehicle for those who want to by james baldwin spread their risks and seek returns, which are than those available from Bank deposits or other investment avenues.

Such investors from should be educated to avoid facing situations of loss of faith in investments or heavy off-loading in college essay, the huge discount of NAV. Positioning of Mutual Fund is essays written by james very important. Mr. G.D.Shenai, Managing Director, Canara bank Mutual Fund states that ' Most funds have targeted the wrong segment of customers, he feels mutual offer a solution to those people who do not have access to sparknotes college essay the Stock Market, due to baldwin lack of time or because of geographical spreads limitations. It is this segment of investors, which should be trapped through television.

Rural markets could be penetrated with special schemes aimed at this population. Also the wide Canara Bank network in the rural areas could serve this clientele. The portfolio of investments made by fund should be regularly reviewed by calculating the returns from each segment of the portfolio, their present market positions, evaluate their future market position etc. if one segment is not up to green thesis the target then the portfolio should be changed. The portfolio should be so designed which satisfies the Scheme's need. The portfolio of essays written by james, a debt scheme will have more equities and less debt, liquid funds have money market instruments and debt of catherine, very short-term tenure. Marketing of Mutual Fund is not deal based, but it is relationship based. The psychology of investor's needs deep insight; understanding and responding to by james baldwin present investor will obviously bring new investors besides retaining present investors. College Essay? Thus data based marketing should be emphasized for open-ended schemes. PRICING OF MUTUAL FUND UNITS. Pricing is by james baldwin a very concept of marketing mix.

Pricing of financial products is a complicated issue. Very often, there are vast differences between face value and market price. There are some legal restrictions on pricing of units. SEBI Experts Committee on pricing units: An Expert Committee was set up by SEBI under the Chairmanship of forms, Mr.L.C.Gupta.

The Committee has suggested two options namely: 1. Essays Baldwin? The purchase and sale price can be determined with a fixed discount and premium respectively on the NAV. 2. The AMC should have the discretion to green fix the repurchase and written by james baldwin, sale prices as long as they are anchored to the NAV i.e., the glenna repurchase price is not lower than 93% of the NAV, provided that the spread between repurchase price and the sale price does not exceed 7% calculated on the sale. Thus the Committee has opined the repurchase and sale prices in the case open-ended schemes should be nearer to NAV after suitable adjustments for expenses in connection with entry and exit to or from the scheme as the case may be. SOME TERMS RELATING TO PRICE. 1. Entry load or front end load ' A sales fee charged at the time of purchase. 2. Exit load or back end load ' A fee charged at the time of redemption of repurchase of units. 3. Premium - If the essays baldwin price of the unit is dot short thesis higher than NAV then the units is issued at discount. 4. Discount - If the NAV is higher than the written baldwin price of the unit then the unit is issued at life essay, discount.

5. Managed Fees ' The percentage changed for portfolio management. This expense will be stated in Fund's prospectus. These expenses may decline proportionately as the Fund's asset base increases. 6. Net Asset ' Total value of by james, Fund's cash and securities less its liabilities or Obligations. 7. Expenses Ratio ' The annual expenses of a Fund include the Management fee, Administrative costs, divided by thesis net assets. 8. Public Offering Price ' The sale price per unit at essays written baldwin, which a unit holder can buy the units. POP = NAV / 1 ' Sales Load. 1. Redemption Price ' The sales price per unit at which a unit holder can sell the units of open 'ended scheme.

REDEMPTION PRICE = NAV / 1 + Exit Load. 2. Repurchase Price ' It is the price at which a close-ended scheme repurchased its units and it may include a back end load. Benefits of Mutual Funds. 1. Professional Management: Availing of the daily life services of experienced and skill professionals who are backed by a dedicated investment research team which analyses the performance and prospectus of Companies and select suitable investments to achieve the objectives of the Scheme. Mutual Funds invest in a number of companies across, aboard cross section of industries and sectors.

This diversification reduces the essays by james risk because seldom do all stocks time and in the same proportion. Investors can achieve this diversification through Mutual Fund with far less money he can do on his own. 3. Convenient Administration: Investing in a Mutual Fund reduces the english paper work and helps in avoiding many problems such as bad deliveries, delay payment and unnecessary follow up with brokers and companies. Mutual; Fund save time and make investing easy and convenient. 4. Return Potential: Over a medium of long term, Mutual Funds have the potential to provide a higher as they invest in a diversified basket of selected securities. Mutual Funds are a relatively less expensive way to invest, compared to directly investing in the Capital Market, because the benefits of scale in essays written, brokerage, custodian and other fees translate into lower costs for dissertation, investors. In open-ended schemes, one can get their money back promptly at Net Asset Value related prices from the Mutual Fund itself. Close-ended schemes units can be sold in a Stock Exchange at the prevailing market price or avail the facility of direct repurchase at NAV related prices, which some close ended and interval schemes offer.

Investor can get regular income information on the value of essays written, their investment in addition to disclosure on the specific investment made by the scheme, the college essay proportion invested in each class of assets and the fund managers investment strategy and outlook. Through features such as regular investment plans, regular withdrawal plans and dividend reinvestment plans one can systematically invest or withdraw according to their needs and convenience. 8. Choice of by james baldwin, Scheme: Mutual Funds offer a family of schemes to suit the varying needs of dot short thesis, different types of investors. 9. Well Regulated: All Mutual Funds are registered with SEBI and they function within the provision or strict regulations designed to protect the investor's investment. The operations of Mutual Funds are regularly monitored by SEBI. While risk cannot be eliminated, skillful management can minimize risk. Essays Baldwin? Mutual funds help to reduce risk through diversification and sparknotes essay, professional management.

The experience and expertise of by james baldwin, Mutual Fund manages in sparknotes college, selecting fundamentally sound securities and timing their purchases and sales help them to build a diversified portfolio that minimizes risk and maximizes returns. At present investment in mutual fund schemes enjoy the following tax benefits ' 1. Since, April 1, 2003, all dividends declared by essays written by james baldwin debt-based mutual funds are tax-free in the hands of the investor. A dividend distribution tax of 12.5% (including surcharge) is be paid by the mutual fund on the dividends declared by the fund. 2. Investors in college essay, ELSS (equity-linked savings schemes) can avail rebate under Section 88 of the Income Tax Act, 1961 on investment up to written baldwin Rs 10,000 subject to sparknotes college essay the various conditions laid down in essays baldwin, the said Section. 3. Fuente Gratis? Under Section 10(38) of the Act, long-term capital gains arising from transfer of a unit of essays by james, mutual fund is aqa gcse coursework exempt from tax if the said transaction is undertaken after October 1, 2004 and the securities transaction tax is paid to the appropriate authority. 4. Under Section 111A of the baldwin Act, short-term capital gains arising from transfer of a unit of mutual fund is chargeable to tax @ 10% (plus applicable surcharge) if the said transaction is undertaken after October 1, 2004 and the securities transaction tax is paid. However, such securities transaction tax will be allowed as rebate under Section 88E of the Act if the transaction constitutes business income. ' Under Section 112 of the Act, capital gains, not covered by the exemption under Section 10(38), chargeable on transfer of long-term capital assets are subject to following rates of dissertation, tax: ' Resident Individual HUF --- 20% plus surcharge.

' Partnership Firms Indian Companies --- 20% plus surcharge. ' Foreign Companies --- 20% (no surcharge). Capital gains will be computed after taking into written by james, account cost of acquisition as adjusted by Cost Inflation Index notified by thesis the central government. Under Section 115AB of the Income Tax Act, 1961, long-term capital gains in respect of units purchased in written by james, foreign currency by an overseas financial organization held for dot short thesis, a period of more than 12 months will be chargeable at essays written by james, the rate of 10%. Glenna Bower? Such gains will be calculated without indexation of cost of acquisition. No surcharge is applicable for written by james baldwin, taxes under section 115AB, in respect of computers daily essay, corporate. PROBLEMS FACED BY MUTUAL FUNDS; The problems in mutual fund industry are as follows:

1. Volatility in Indian economy: Shares prices in Indian stock changes frequently. Thus a fund manager has to change the written portfolio according to the changes of share prices. 2. Investors education: Many investors are not aware of the benefits from mutual funds, they are not aware of the characteristics return risk trade off in investing in a mutual fund many investors are inactive and ignorant. 3. Incapable fund managers: Many fund managers lack the knowledge economy, industries and companies many playing with investor's money, they are not capable of Judge between investment choices and review portfolio. 4. Non co-operation between organizational committees: Sponsors, custodians, fund managers are not working hand in essay heathcliff, hand. SEBI guidelines say mutual fund has to maintain transparency in its operations, but many funds are not transparent to its investors, government and essays by james baldwin, public. 6. English Coursework? After sales service:

Mutual funds are not providing after sales services to investors like give details for by james, reference, NAV disclosure etc., 7. Direct launching of english coursework, equity: This may be the reason for the failure of mutual funds. In USA debt schemes were first incepted and then equity schemes were started, but in India due to baldwin boom in share market direct equity schemes were started and then debt schemes were introduced. 8. High risk, low return: The return, which a investor gets from mutual fund, is low, but the risk is high. Bower? Return earned from fund has to essays by james be distributed among the unit holders only heights catherine, after deduction for maintenance of the fund, thus the return will be low.

New trends in essays written by james, mutual fund industry. a) Systematic investment plan (SIP): Unit holders can benefit by investing specified rupee accounts at sparknotes essay, regular intervals for a continuous periods, for purchasing additional units of the schemes at essays written, NAV based prices. By this unit holder can take advantage of the life essay benefits of rupee cost averaging. b) Systematic withdrawal plan (SWP): SWP allows the unit holders to withdraw a specific sum of money each month/ quarter/ half year/ yearly from his investments in the schemes.

The amount thus withdrawn by redemption will be converted into units at applicable NAV based prices and the numbers of units so arrived at will be subtracted from the units balance to the credit of the unit holder. c) Switching options: Unit holders under one scheme can switch or all of their holdings in the schemes to another, which is available for investment at essays baldwin, that time. d) Dividend at short intervals: Dividends from computers daily life essay liquid funds are now coming thick and fast, with funds promising fortnightly and even weekly, pay-outs, liquid funds mainly targets companies and essays, high net worth individuals.

e) Loans against bower, Mutual Funds: Birla Global finance offers loans against mutual fund units. Essays Written By James Baldwin? The company tracks 10 best performing open-ended mutual funds and fuente thesis gratis, grant loans against essays, units of these funds. Investors have to pledge their units at green dot short thesis, interest rate of written baldwin, 17.5%. the company will disburse loan up to 60% of the value of equity fund up to 85-90% of the wuthering essay catherine heathcliff debt fund units. Written By James Baldwin? Term of the loan is a minimum of 15 days up to a maximum of a year. f) Electronic clearance: Reserve bank of India has introduced a new method of green dot short thesis, payment which promises investors an essays option to glenna collect periodic interest/ dividend/ repurchase/ redemption directly through bank account. Baldwin? In this system payment instruction would be issued electronically through bank to the clearing authority and the clearing authority would supply credit reports to the bank with which investors maintain the specified account. The branch will credit the account directly and an ECS entry will appear in the passbook. A payment advice will also be send to investors.

This facility will help kin avoiding cases of pilferage, fraudulent encashment etc., TITLE OF THE STUDY. 'INVESTERS' PERCEPTION TOWARDS MUTUAL FUNDS' STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. The topic is selected assuming that the mind of every common man investing in mutual funds is a very risky affair, if not the thesis riskiest.

This sentiment will result in written by james baldwin, the collapse of secondary market and the investments in stock market. The wrong feeling from general customers mind there is green dot short a need to study the perception towards Mutual Funds in Bangalore and to see if there is dependency of income level over investment in Mutual Funds and some efforts have been made to know about existing investors opinion about Mutual Funds and their performances. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH. ' To know customers awareness about essays written by james baldwin Mutual Funds. ' To study of sparknotes college essay, investment in Mutual Funds is dependent on income levels or not.

' To study investors willingness to take market risk. ' To know the Brand and Advertisement influence on customers about Mutual Funds. ' To study the possible direction and growth in the context of the recent development in the Indian capital market. ' To study the age of people who are most interested to invest in written baldwin, Mutual Funds. SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

The scope of the study is extended to investors' perception towards the mutual fund schemes, which is based on the conducted by the research Bangalore during the period of 2013 2014. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY. Efforts were made to see that the data has been collected and analyzed as accurate as possible. Bower Dissertation? In spite of all precautions was taken, and certain limitations of the study can be observed, they are as follows:- ' The sample size taken for research may not give exact figure or may not cover the entire population artificially or that the essays by james baldwin respondent may be biased. ' The second constrain was that the heights heathcliff respondent may skip some questions. Also they may not respond every question correctly. ' The third and important constrain is the time limit. ' Finally the techniques used in written, data analysis may not be as accurate as other software applications. The study methodologies are as follows.

' Direct interview with some mutual funds holders. ' Discussion with persons who have some knowledge about mutual funds. ' Discussion with some mutual funds brokers. ' The study of sparknotes essay, various books of written baldwin, mutual funds, magazines, and newspapers. TOOLS USED IN DATA COLLECTION. Primary data: - It has been collected by. ' Discussion with some persons who have knowledge about computers life essay this subject. Secondary data: - It has been obtained from. ' Magazines, journals and by james baldwin, newspapers. It includes investors investing in mutual fund and money market.

The sample size of 50 respondents and method of green dot short thesis, sampling is baldwin random sampling. Global trends in Mutual Funds. Mutual funds have emerged as the chief vehicle of individual savings and investments the fuente world over. In the U.K, nearly eighty percentage of investors look to the mutual funds- 'Unit Trusts' as they are called there. In the baldwin U.S an individual with even $1 million of investable funds takes the fuente gratis mutual fund route to investing in essays baldwin, equity, instead of resorting to direct participation. This is so even though he has access to a mass of information like Standard and Poor's 500 and aqa gcse english, Dow Jones Index to guide him in taking his own investment decisions.

Presently in the U.S there are nearly 5000 mutual fund schemes with asset of baldwin, $1.6 trillion invested by 75 million unit-holders. By the turn of the century, the total assets are likely to touch $4 trillion. The largest fund, Fidelity Investments manages funds aggregating $268 billion. This has to fuente be appraised in the context of essays written baldwin, total market capitalization of all the stocks listed in Bombay Stock Exchange standing at a mere $115 billion. In the U.S the dot short mutual fund business is growing at an annual rate of twenty to twenty-five per cent. According to a review conducted by Gold man Sachs, a leading U.S merchant banker, mutual funds are now the market's driving force, having brought eighty-four per cent of all shares acquired on 1993. The great diversity if mutual fund schemes in the U.S is baldwin illustrated by wuthering heights catherine the Amana funds, the first and apparently the written baldwin only U.S mutual fund operating according to strict Islamic guidelines reportedly. Since Islamic law prohibits a guaranteed return on investment, the fund holds no bond or preferred stock, and computers daily life, keeps its cash in checking accounts, which pay no interest.

Thus fund, however, invests in stocks, which rise and fall in essays by james, value and can rise, lower or eliminate any dividend. In all of Europe, too, the sparknotes college essay trend is similar. The major stock exchange at Luxembourg which has developed specialized skills in euro-issues, had 67 mutual funds, 'funds commons' as they are known, listed in essays, 1984 with net assets of LUF 24,690 billion. In 1990,the number of funds increased to 268 and their net assets to LUF 1,38,660 billion. In keeping with general trend there was a dramatic surge in mutual funds investments. Obviously with such a large choice, the western investors has a wide variety of options and doesn't have to thesis rely on the same stereotyped schemes popularly known as 'plain vanilla' schemes. Mutual Funds in India.

Mutual funds first made their entry in essays baldwin, India in heathcliff, 1964 with the essays baldwin Unit Scheme 64 launched by the Unit Trust of coursework, India (UTI). UTI was set up under the UTI Act, 1963, to operate both as a financial institution and investment trust. Written Baldwin? Unit Scheme 64 turned out to aqa gcse coursework be extremely popular, initially as a vehicle for domestic savings, but subsequently as an written baldwin instrument for corporate holding as well. Essay? By 1964, the investable funds in this scheme had crossed Rs. 12,000 crores. In 1986 the first mutual fund growth scheme, Master shares, was launched by UTI. This was successfully listed and traded in the stock exchange. Encouraged by this venture, other players emerged.

In 1987 The State Bank of India Mutual Fund (SBI MF) and Canara Bank Mutual Fund (Canbank MF) started their operations, followed by the mutual funds sponsored by the Bank of India, Indian Bank and Punjab National Bank. Not to lag behind, Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and General Insurance Corporation (GIC), too, sponsored their respective mutual fund schemes. Seven institutions in the Public Sector -five banks and two insurance companies thus followed UTI. They all had the inherent advantage of basic infrastructure, an overflow of funds and customer service outlets. Essays By James Baldwin? By the end of March 93, the total corpus of the big eight was approximately Rs. 50,000 crores. Forms? With UTI alone, accounting for Rs. 40,000 crores. The spectacular surge came in 1992-93 when the total number of investors increased from 18 million to 32 million and the combined corpus rose to Rs 38,000 crores.

Much of it was no doubt account for by UTI Master Gain 92 which netted in essays by james baldwin, Rs 4,791.79crore winning for green dot short, itself a place in Guinness book of records. This increase has to be viewed against the background of by james baldwin, net assets of a measly Rs4, 000 crore in 1987 for the entire eight-fund put together. Phase of development of mutual funds in India. The mutual fund industry in daily life essay, India started in written by james, 1963 with the formation of Unit Trust of India, at the initiative of the Government of India and Reserve Bank the. Bower Dissertation? The history of mutual funds in India can be broadly divided into four distinct phases. FIRST PHASE ' 1963-1986. An Act of Parliament established Unit Trust of India (UTI) in written by james, 1963. It was set up by the Reserve Bank of India and essay, functioned under the Regulatory and administrative control of the Reserve Bank of India. In 1978 UTI was de-linked from the RBI and the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took over by james, the regulatory and administrative control in place of RBI. The first scheme launched by UTI was Unit Scheme 1964. Dot Short Thesis? At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs.6,700 crores of assets under management.

SECOND PHASE ' 1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds) 1987 marked the entry of non- UTI, public sector mutual funds set up by public sector banks and Life Insurance Corporation of written baldwin, India (LIC) and General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC). SBI Mutual Fund was the first non- UTI Mutual Fund established in June 1987 followed by Can bank Mutual Fund (Dec 87), Punjab National Bank Mutual Fund (Aug 89), Indian Bank Mutual Fund (Nov 89), Bank of India (Jun 90), Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund (Oct 92). LIC established its mutual fund in June 1989 while GIC had set up its mutual fund in December 1990. At the end of 1993, the mutual fund industry had assets under management of Rs.47,004 crores. THIRD PHASE ' 1993-2003 (Entry of Private Sector Funds) With the entry of private sector funds in 1993, a new era started in the Indian mutual fund industry, giving the Indian investors a wider choice of fund families. Green Dot Short? Also, 1993 was the year in which the essays written first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being, under which all mutual funds, except UTI were to be registered and governed. The erstwhile Kothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sector mutual fund registered in July 1993.The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by sparknotes college essay a more comprehensive and written baldwin, revised Mutual Fund Regulations in 1996.

The industry now functions under the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations 1996. The number of mutual fund houses went on increasing, with many foreign mutual funds setting up funds in India and also the industry has witnessed several mergers and acquisitions. By the end of January 2003, there were 33 mutual funds with total assets of Rs. 1,21,805 crores. The Unit Trust of India withRs.44,541 crores of life, assets under management was way ahead of other mutual funds. FOURTH PHASE ' since February 2003. In February 2003, following the baldwin repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963 UTI was bifurcated into two separate entities.

One is the computers life essay Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust of India with assets under management of Rs.29,835 crores as at baldwin, the end of January 2003, representing broadly, the assets of US 64 scheme, assured return and certain other schemes. The Specified Undertaking of Unit Trust of India, functioning under an aqa gcse administrator and under the rules framed by Government of India and does not come under the purview of the by james Mutual Fund Regulations. The second is the UTI Mutual Fund Ltd, sponsored by SBI, PNB, BOB and LIC. It is computers daily essay registered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. With the bifurcation of the erstwhile UTI which had in March 2000 more than Rs.76,000 crores of assets under management and essays written, with the setting up of bower dissertation, a UTI Mutual Fund, conforming to the SEBI Mutual Fund Regulations, and with recent mergers taking place among different private sector funds, the mutual fund industry has entered its current phase of consolidation and growth. As at essays by james, the end of September 2004, there were 29 funds, which manage assets of Rs.153108 crores under 421 schemes.

GROWTH IN ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT The graph indicates the growth of assets over the years:- However, the heights monopoly of the big eight was ended by the new economic policy spearheaded by essays by james baldwin Dr. Manmohan Singh from 1991. The process of liberalization threw the doors open to players in the private sector to aqa gcse english provide the. much-needed competitive edge and a wider scope of options to the investors. The existing mutual funds, it was felt, had failed to live up to the expectations of common investors due to: (a) Poor servicing, inordinate delays in written baldwin, the receipt of fuente thesis, unit certificates and dividend warrants; (b) Indifferent performance of most of the mutual fund schemes which under-performed the market thus denying the investors a reasonable return; (c) Absence of adequate disclosure norms; and. (d) Lack of an investor-friendly approach in general. Hence the securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) accorded approval to essays by james a number of players in fuente thesis, the private sector to sponsor mutual funds.

These include some of the biggest heavyweights of Indian corporate sector. An important feature of the private sector mutual funds-at least the first few-was their collaboration with foreign investment and fund managers. Thus Kothari tied up with Pioneer, the oldest fund in the US managing $8 billion, 20th century with Kemper Corporations which claimed to be the eight largest fund manager in USA managing assets over $70 billion. Credit capital asset managers' inc. that launched the Taurua Star share had for its partners, apart from Commonwealth Development Corporation, London and Asian Development Bank, Manila, International Finance Corporation, Washington (Rs 22.50 crore), and Edinburgh Fund Managers, U.K (Rs 24 crores). While many Indian private sector mutual funds collaborated with foreign partners, Morgan Stanley, which manages funds worth $44.2 billion, chose to essays go it alone. Its issue was a runaway success. There was serious controversy and the apex court had to fuente thesis intervene. The issue was heavily over-subscribed netting in Rs 1,000 crore against the target Rs 300 crore. The vital aspect of a strong research capability of foreign collaborators had been recognized and the public sector GIC Mutual Fund, too, reacted to the winds of essays by james baldwin, change and tied up with he U.S Soros Fund Management headed by the legendary George Soros who manages funds worth $10billion.

ICICI Mutual Funds had merged with Prudential, Tata Mutual Funds with Toronto Dominion (TD). Same ways there are many companies merged and entered in Indian mutual fund industry. Important Domestic Mutual Fund Players. (I) SBI Mutual Fund. SBI Mutual Fund draws strength from India's premier and largest bank; the State Bank of India. College? Set up on July 1, 1955, the State Bank of India is the largest banking operation in written by james, the country. SBI Mutual Fund has grown tremendously in terms of daily essay, corpus as well as number of investors. Today they are one of the essays by james baldwin largest bank sponsored Mutual Fund in the country. SBI have launched 35 Schemes, of which 15 have been redeemed, yielding handsome returns to investors.

They were also the first Bank sponsored Mutual Fund to life launch an offshore fund, the India Magnum Fund, with a corpus of around Rs. 225 Crores.. Today, the essays fund manages over Rs. 16500 crores of assets and has a diverse profile of investors actively parking their investments across 30 active schemes. With a large network over 100 collection branches, 26 Investor Service Centers, 28 Investor Service Desks and fuente thesis, 52 District Organizers, SBI constantly endeavor to get closer to their growing family of investors. SBI gives the investors the written following options: (1) Open ended schemes.

Magnum equity fund. Magnum tax gain. Magnum Index Fund. Magnum Sector Funds Umbrella. Magnum Multiplier Plus Scheme. Magnum Global Fund. Magnum NRI Investment Fund. Magnum Income Plus Fund.

Magnum Income Fund. Magnum Children's Benefit Plan. Magnum Monthly Income Plan. Magnum Gilt Fund. (2) Closed schemes. Magnum Equity Linked Saving Scheme 94. Magnum Equity Linked Saving Scheme 95. Magnum Equity Linked Saving Scheme 96. II) Birla Sun Life. Birla Sun Life Financial Services offers a range of financial services for resident Indians and Non Resident Indians. Brought together by two large, powerful and reputed business houses, the Aditya Birla Group and Sun Life Financial, the aim is to offer diverse and top quality financial services to essay customers.

The Mutual Fund and Insurance companies provide wealth management and essays, protection products to customers while the Distribution and Securities companies provide brokerage and trading services for investment in equities, debt securities, fixed deposits, etc. Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Limited. Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund follows a conservative long-term approach to investment, which is based on identifying companies that have good credit-worthiness and are fundamentally strong. Aqa Gcse English Coursework Forms? It places a lot of emphasis on quality of management and essays written baldwin, risk control. This is done through extensive analysis that includes factory visits and field research. It has one of the largest team of research analysts in the industry. III) Reliance Mutual Fund. Reliance Mutual Fund (RMF) has been established as a trust under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 with Reliance Capital Limited (RCL), as the Settlor/Sponsor and Reliance Capital Trustee Co. Limited (RCTCL),as the trustee . RMF has been registered with the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI). College? The name of Reliance Capital Mutual Fund has been changed to Reliance Mutual Fund effective 11th.

March 2004. Reliance Mutual Fund was formed to launch various schemes under which units are issued to the Public with a view to contribute to written the capital market and to green provide investors the opportunities to make investments in essays, diversified securities. Reliance Mutual Fund (RMF) is one of India's leading Mutual Funds, with Assets Under Management (AUM) of computers daily life, Rs. 39019 crore (AUM as on 31st Jan 2007) and essays written, an investor base of over heights essay, 3.1 million. RMF offers investors a well-rounded portfolio of products to meet varying investor requirements and has presence in 115 cities across the country. OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO AN INVESTOR. ' Reliance Monthly Income Plan. ' Reliance Income Fund. ' Reliance Medium Term Fund. ' Reliance Liquid Fund. ' Reliance Short Term Fund.

' Reliance Gilt Securities Fund. ' Reliance Fixed Term Scheme. ' Reliance Floating Rate Fund. ' Reliance Growth Fund. ' Reliance Vision Fund. SECTOR SPECIFIC SCHEMES. ' Reliance Banking Fund. ' Reliance Diversified Power Sector Fund. ' Reliance Pharma Fund. (IV) ICICI PRUDENTIAL MUTUAL FUNDS. Prudential ICICI Asset Management Company, (55%:45%) a joint venture between Prudential Plc, UK's leading insurance company and by james, ICICI Bank Ltd, India's premier financial institution.

The joint venture was formed with the key objective of providing the Indian investor mutual fund products to sparknotes essay suit a variety of investment needs. Baldwin? The AMC has already launched a range of products to suit different risk and maturity profiles. Prudential ICICI Asset Management Company Limited with asset over Rs.37906.24 crore as on computers daily essay march 31, 2008. Both Prudential and ICICI Bank Ltd have a strategic long-term commitment to the rapidly expanding financial services sector in essays written by james, India. The funds offered under this category are the thesis gratis Prudential ICICI Growth Plan, Prudential ICICI FMCG Fund, Prudential ICICI Technology Fund, Prudential ICICI Tax Plan, Prudential ICICI Index Fund and Prudential ICICI Power. The funds offered under this category are the Prudential ICICI Income Plan, the by james Prudential ICICI Gilt-Treasury Fund, The Prudential ICICI Gilt-Investment Fund, Prudential ICICI Liquid plan, Prudential ICICI Fixed Maturity Plan, Prudential ICICI Short Term Plan, Prudential ICICI Long Term Plan and Prudential ICICI Sweep Plan. The funds offered under this category are the Prudential ICICI Balanced Fund and coursework forms, Prudential ICICI Child Care Plan. V) TATA MUTUAL FUNDS.

Tata Asset Management Limited is one of India's fastest growing fund management companies with more than Rs. 12562.65(31st august 2006) crores of essays by james baldwin, assets, from about 0.3 million investors. The Tata Group is computers daily life essay one of by james baldwin, India's best-known conglomerate in the private sector with a turnover of around US $ 11.2 billion Long known for aqa gcse english coursework forms, its adherence to business ethics, it is India's most respected private business group. With 210,443 employees across 93 companies, it is also India's largest employer in the private sector. The Group has always believed in returning wealth to the society which it serves. Thus, nearly two-thirds of the written baldwin equity of Tata Sons, the Group's promoter company, is green thesis held by philanthropic trusts which have created a host of national institutions in natural sciences, medical care, energy and essays written by james, the arts, and which give substantial annual grants and green thesis, endowments to by james baldwin deserving individuals and institutions in the areas of life essay, education, healthcare and social upliftment.

Investment Process Every aspect of this process is tightly controlled and monitored to essays by james baldwin optimize returns for fuente thesis, the investors. The investment process is built around four key principles: Equity Products Balanced Products Debt Products. Tata Pure Equity Fund. Tata Balanced Fund. Tata Liquid Fund. Tata Tax Saving Fund.

Tata Young Citizens' Fund. Tata Short Term Bond Fund. Tata Select Equity Fund. Tata Gilt Securities Fund. Tata Life Sciences Technology Fund. Tata Income Fund. Tata Equity Opportunities Fund. Tata Income Plus Fund. Tata Index Fund. Tata Fixed Horizon Fund. Tata Growth Fund.

Tata Monthly Income Fund. Vi) KOTAK MAHINDRA MUTUAL FUND. Kotak Mahindra is one of India's leading financial institutions, offering complete financial solutions that encompass every sphere of life. From commercial banking, to stock broking, to mutual funds, to life insurance, to essays written investment banking, the sparknotes college essay group caters to the financial needs of baldwin, individuals and corporates. Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Company Limited (KMAMC), a wholly owned subsidiary of KMBL, is the asset manager for Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund (KMMF). The group has a net worth of around Rs.2,900 crore and employs around 8,800 employees across its various businesses servicing around 2 million customer accounts through a distribution network of branches, franchisees, representative offices and satellite offices across 282 cities and towns in India and offices in New York, London, Dubai and college essay, Mauritius. KMMF offers schemes catering to written investors with varying risk- return profiles and catherine, was the first fund house in the country to launch a dedicated gilt scheme investing only in government securities.

' Kotak Dynamic Income. ' Kotak Floater Short Term. ' Kotak Floater Long Term. ' Kotak Income Plus. ' Kotak Equity FOF. ' Kotak Global India. Table shows that the Age Profile of the Respondents. Age No.

Of Respondents Percentage. 36 Above 10 20. This table shows the Age Profile of the Respondents. Written By James Baldwin? 48% of respondents are in 31-35 age groups. 20% of the respondents are in the age of 36 above. 18% of the respondents are in the age of 26-30.

The remaining 14% of the respondents are in daily life essay, the age of essays by james, 18-25. From the age of the respondents, it is clear that the people are investing once they earn a regular income. The 86% of respondents are above 26 years, which means the aqa gcse english coursework people invest once they are settled. Graph shows that the written Age Profile of the Respondents. Table shows that the occupation profile of the respondents. Occupation No. Of respondents Percentage. Profession 17.5 35. Housewife 07 14. In the occupation profile there are five groups, which are namely business, profession, housewife, services and others. The professional respondents are 35%, services 33%, business 11%, housewife 14% and wuthering essay catherine, others are 7%.

This data shows that the respondents from essays written by james professions and services are aware of mutual funds and they are interest to invest in it. The business people are aware of mutual funds and essay, they are not interest to invest in it. Written By James? Whereas in green thesis, the case of other and housewife is interest to invest is essays written by james baldwin lesser. Graph shows that the occupation profile of the respondents. Table shows that the Number of computers essay, family dependents of the respondents. SL NO. SIZE No Of respondents Percentage. 3 5 Above 17 34. In the table, 48% of the respondents are family dependents. And in the range of 3-4,34%of the respondents are 5 and above of family dependents, and 18% of the respondents are family dependents in the range of 0-2.

In the table most of the respondents are having their dependents in by james baldwin, range of 3-4 and 5 above they are more serious in investing their savings for future of their dependents. Graph shows that the Number of Family Dependents of the respondents. Table shows that the income profile of the daily life respondents. Income No. Of respondents Percentage.

Below 5000 00 00. 6000 to 15000 05 10. 16000 to 25000 21 42. 26000 to 35000 15 30. 36000 and above 09 18. In the table 42% of baldwin, investors falls in the income bracket of 16000-25000. 30% of the green dot short respondents have income of 26000-35000,where as 18% of the investors are the by james baldwin income of 36000 and computers daily, above, the remaining 10% of the investors falls in the income bracket of essays, 6000-15000.

In the table 90% of the respondents earn Rs.16000/ or more every month. The more they earn the more they can invest and vice versa. The People who earning less can invest in small amounts, whereas the dot short thesis people earning more can go for higher investments and essays baldwin, take higher risks for the higher returns. Graph shows that the Income profile of the respondents. Table shows that the thesis gratis Awareness of investment options among respondents. Investment Option No. Essays Written By James? Of respondents aware Percentage. Insurance 45 90. Real Estate 20 40. Mutual Fund 43 86. In the table it is found that the 90% of the respondents are aware of the insurance, 80% are the aware of the bonds, 40% of the respondents are aware of real estate, 84% on stocks and 86% of the respondents are aware of mutual funds.

The table gives the idea about of awareness of respondents on glenna dissertation investment options among all the respondents. In the table it indicate that the mutual funds are popular, second are insurance. This is the study conducted for general public and mutual funds investors. The mutual funds are not as old as insurance in India. Graph shows that the Awareness of Investment options among the respondents. Table shows that the Investment profile of the respondents. Investment Option No. Of the essays written by james respondents Percentage.

Insurance 25 50. Real Estate 05 10. Mutual Funds 33 66. In the table 66% of the respondents are mutual funds investors and rest of the respondents are not interest to invest in mutual funds. Wuthering? They are interest to invest in written baldwin, various options like as insurance, bonds, real estate and stocks. In the table most of the respondents are interest to invest in mutual funds with bonds and wuthering, stocks coming second. Graph shows that the Investment profile of the respondents. Table shows that the essays by james reason for not investing in mutual funds.

SLNO REASON NO of respondents % 1 Don't know about mutual funds 10 15. 2 They are risky 26 39. 3 Don't have enough money 0 0. 4 Happy with present investments 30 46. In the table 46% of the respondents are satisfied with their investments, 39% of the respondents thinks that the mutual funds are risky, and 15% of the respondents are says that they don't know about the mutual funds. In the table most of the respondents who have not interest to invest in green dot short, the mutual funds. Some of the respondents are think that the mutual funds involve risk. Graph shows that the reason for not investing in mutual funds. Table shows that the annual investment of the respondents. SLNO ANNUAL INVESTMENT NO % 1 Less than 5,000 07 14.

2 5,000-10,000 22 44. 3 10,000-20,000 10 20. 4 Above 20,000 11 22. In the table most of the written by james baldwin respondents are invest/save between 5000 to 10000 is 44%. 22% of the wuthering essay heathcliff respondents' save/invest above 20000, 20% of the respondents 'save/invest between 10000 to 20000 and 14% of invest less than 5000.

In the written by james baldwin table many respondents income lie below 100000 p.a. they are possible to save/invest only for about five to ten thousand p.a. Graph shows that the annual investment of the respondents. Table shows that the popular mutual funds products among the thesis respondents. Mutual Fund Products No.of respondents Percentage. Prudential ICICI 29 88. Kotak Mahindra 15 45. HDFC Mutual Fund 19 57. Birla Sun life 17 51. SBI Mutual Fund 09 27.

LIC Mutual Fund 08 24. Can bank Mutual Fund 08 24. Franklin Templeton M.F 21 63. In the table most of popular mutual funds among of the written by james baldwin respondents are, prudential ICICI with 88%, franklin Templeton mutual funds with 63%, HDFC mutual funds 57%, Birla sun Life 51%, Kotak Mahindra mutual funds 45%, and rest of fuente gratis, them are with average of around 24% and 27%. In the table it's clear that the ICICI and Franklin Templeton are popular among investors. They are because of the aggressive of the advertisements they employ. Graph shows that the popular mutual funds products among the written respondents. Table shows that the ranking of bower dissertation, factors for investment. Factors Simple average Ranks.

Assured Return 7 02. Risk Cover 4 05. Government Guarantee 5 04. High Return 7 01. Voting right 2 06. In the table, it is essays written designed to study of most important factors for interest to invest in the various investment options. In the above table,most of the sought after criteria for essay, interest of essays by james, invest. The investors are not worried about the risk involved.

They are high-risk areas with high returns. The people are ready to take more risks for more returns. Graph shows that the ranking of factors for green dot short thesis, investment. Table shows that the investment opinion of respondents if the returns between 15% to written 25% and above. Opinion No. Of the respondents Percentage. In the table, it is constructed to heights know the opinion of the respondent if the returns are between15% to 25%. These are the respondents not in interest to invest in mutual funds. In the essays written baldwin table, this also it is clear that investors care primarily about one things only return. Graph shows that the investment opinion of essay, respondent if the returns between 15% to essays by james 25% and above.

Table shows that the Investing option among the respondents between risk and return. Returns No. Of the respondents Percentage. 15% to 20% return with moderate risk 04 33. 20% to 30% with high risk 06 50. 30% to 40% with very high risk 02 17.

In the table that shows the thesis gratis expectations of investor on essays by james the returns, the data shows that 33% are interest to invest in 15% to 20% returns with moderate the risk. Gratis? In the case of by james, 50% says 20% to sparknotes essay 30% with high risk and finally 17% respondents want to 30% to 40% with high risk. In the table of a high risk is essays written baldwin okay for the respondents, as 50% is suggested. More than three fourth of the respondents are not concerned about risk if they are get returns for the risk taken. Graph shows that the investing option among the respondents between risk and return. Table shows that the Awareness of mutual funds advertisements among the respondents. Awareness No. Of the respondents Percentage. In the table, data analysis says that 78% are aware of mutual funds is wuthering essay catherine advertisements and written, 22% says that they are not aware. In the table, the awareness about the thesis product is very important for financial service marketing, in particular, to succeed in modern competitive world.

Graph shows that the Awareness of mutual funds advertisements among the respondents. Table shows that the most common mutual funds company advertisement. Mutual Fund Company No. Of the respondents Percentage. ICICI Prudential 28 72. Kotak Mahindra 09 23. HDFC Mutual Fund 07 18. Birla Sun life 19 49. SBI Mutual Fund 18 46. LIC Mutual Fund 06 15.

Can bank Mutual Fund 04 10. Franklin Templeton M.F 26 67. In the table, 72% of the respondent has voted prudential ICICI advertisement as the most popular closely followed by Templeton. And Birla and SBI, with can bank getting the least percentage. In the table, it is written by james baldwin designed to college essay study the most common advertisement of Mutual Fund companies of the respondents. Prudential ICICI and Franklin Templeton are the popular companies as far as advertisement goes. Graph shows that the essays written by james baldwin most common mutual funds company advertisement.

Table shows that the influence of brand among respondent while investing in mutual funds. Influence No. Of respondents Percentage. In the table, it is designed to study of the influence of brand name while investing. Fuente Thesis Gratis? The study it is clear that 88% of respondents says that the branding is very important to build investors confidence, and 12% of respondents says that the brand name is not important. In the above table brand name comes along with experience, quality, and trustworthiness and most importantly by the advertisements. A company acquiring all the above features will have a good brand name. Written By James Baldwin? In Mutual funds, investors look for wuthering heights essay, the brand before investing as 88%. Graph shows that the influence of brand name among respondents while investing in mutual funds.

Table shows that the opinion of written by james, respondents on returns on returns in dot short thesis, mutual funds compared to shares/derivatives. Opinion No. Of the respondents Percentage. In the table, it's shows that 62% of the respondents says that mutual funds returns are better than share or derivatives. In other hand 38% of respondents says that the mutual funds returns are not good compared to share or derivatives. In the table, it is in all the by james three are having good returns, as well as unpredictable returns.

But Mutual funds seem to have an impression in the respondents mind as they think its unpredictability is less compared to the other two. Graph shows that the opinion of respondents on return of mutual funds compared to shares/derivatives. Table shows that the investment firm's transparency in recent times. Transparency No. Of the respondents Percentage. In the wuthering catherine table, it is as far as transparency is concerned the survey says that the 72% of the respondent says that firms are transparency presently and essays baldwin, 28% says that firms are not transparent as compared as to earlier times. In the table, people now a day went everything to be revealed.

It is hidden agenda makes them conspicuous. Graph shows that the investment firms' transparency in recent times. Table shows that the fuente thesis performance of funds according to respondents. Funds No. Essays Written By James? Of the green thesis respondents Percentage. Index and Industry 12 24. In the table, this data analysis says that which fund is performing better at the present.

It is the response that the debt and baldwin, gilt funds are performing better, where as index and industry and equity schemes are less popular. It is interesting to sparknotes note that equity schemes, which were once popular with the essays by james baldwin investors, have gone down as debt and gilt funds have picked up. Therefore the investors' perception changes from time to time and a successful company needs to understand this. Graph shows that the aqa gcse english performance of funds according to respondents. ' The main findings' of the study is that, there is written no dependency of income level over heights catherine heathcliff, the investment in the Mutual Funds. Therefore income being high or low is not the major criteria for the Mutual Fund investments.

' The awareness towards Mutual Fund is good, but it is not excellent. For the study of the written by james collected sample size was 50. Out of them 33 are mutual funds investors. ' Another findings' is that the college essay brand name of the investment firm is very important to gain. Out of essays by james, 50-sample size 44 respondents said that brand name is required. Only 6 respondents said that brand name is wuthering heights catherine heathcliff not required. ' The investors' point of view, the essays written popular mutual fund companies are Prudential ICICI, and Franklin Templeton mutual funds. ' The Most common advertisements of Mutual Funds Companies from investors' point of view are Prudential ICICI with 71.79% and Franklin Templeton with 66.66%. ' Investors have ranked High Return, Assured Return, Liquidity, Government Guarantee, Risk Cover and thesis, Voting Right as the important factors for the investments respectively.

' The transparency is the written order of the day. The overall perceptions about this matter is that 72% of the respondents says that these days' firms are more transparent than in aqa gcse english forms, old days. ' The Private sectors of Mutual Funds are on a rampage. The market share of the private sector mutual funds is increased. ' From the existing mutual funds investors, it is found that the essays written by james debt funds and gilt funds are performing better than last years. ' Investors are worried and confused about the legal formalities of the Mutual Funds. It is complicated compared to other investment avenues like as bank deposits.

' The launching up of aqa gcse, new schemes by Mutual Funds companies has increased the number of investors. ' Mutual Funds have become the buzzword currently. The numbers of people are investing in Mutual Funds lately. Shares, Real Estate, and Insurance are presently other hot areas for the investment. ' Mutual Funds Company should be more the transparent while declaring their dividends, Net Asset Value, administration charges and their accounting norms. ' Brand name of the essays written by james baldwin investment firms is very important to gain or attract customers.

Mutual Fund companies should make their advertisements more aggressively, so that the common public should come to know about their product features and their position in the market. ' It is the perception of investors that the Mutual funds will not give any surety on aqa gcse english returns. This perception should be removed from by james their mind. Mutual funds Company needs to sparknotes formulate some of the written by james baldwin marketing strategies. ' These analysis shows that Mutual fund returns are better than shares or derivatives.

So the existing investors are satisfied with their returns, so the mutual funds company should makes efforts to retain the existing investors. ' The launching up of new schemes of the Mutual Funds Company has increased the fuente number of investors. ' Investors are worried and confused about the legal formalities of the essays baldwin Mutual Funds. Bower? It is complicated compared to other investment avenues like bank deposits. Therefore legal formalities need to be the minimized and the dealing have to be simplified. ' Mutual Funds needs itself to be differentiated from other not investment avenues.

Mutual Funds must offer to the public more returns, safety and tax benefits so as to attract investors into investing in Mutual Funds rather than in Shares or Real estates. ' Increased deregulation of the financial markets in the country coupled with the introduction of baldwin, derivative products will offer tremendous scope for the industry to design and sell innovative schemes to suit individual customer needs, which helps the Mutual Fund industries. A perceptible change is sweeping across the mutual Fund landscape in an India. Factors such as changing investors' needs and their appetite for risk, emergence of Internet as a powerful platform, and above all the growing commoditization of mutual funds products are acting as major catalysts putting pressure on the industry player to formulate strategies to stay the course. Building and sustaining a powerful brand is aqa gcse coursework also becoming an issue of paramount importance. With the investor today having a range of baldwin, products to aqa gcse coursework choose from, effective communication is required to reach a wider audience.

The success of marketer in future would depend upon his ability to use 360-degree compounding effect of media through a presence in all media interfaces with all the investors. Increased deregulation of the financial markets in the country coupled with the introduction of derivative products offers tremendous scope for the industry to design and sell innovative schemes to suit individual customers need. It is being increasingly felt, with the essays written by james commoditization of products looking imminent, service to bower investors and performance would be the major differentiators in the years to come. ' Evaluating Mutual Fund Performance -------- S.P Kothari. ' Mastering in Mutual Funds ---------- K. S. Murthy. ' Investment Analysis and ---------- Prasanna Chandra. 2) Age: 1) 18 to 25 2) 26 to 30. 3) Occupation: 1) Business 2) Profession.

3) House wife 4) Service. 4) No. Of family dependents: 5) Income: 1) Below 5000 2) 6000 to 15000. 6) What type of investment options are you aware of?

1) Insurance 2) Bonds 3) Real Estate 4) Stock. 7) In which of this type have you invested? 1) Insurance 2) Bonds. 3) Real Estate 4) Stocks. 8) Why have you not invested in Mutual Funds?

Don't know about Mutual Funds Risky. Don't have enough money Happy with present investments. 9) What % of your income do you invest annually? Less than 5000 5000 ' 10000. 10000 ' 15000 Above 15000. 10) What are the factors' you will consider while investing in written baldwin, Ranking method?

3) Government guarantee. 11) Can you name any Mutual Fund products? 12) If Investment type gives return between 15 to 25% and more respect to market risk, what would you do? 1) Consider 2) Ignore. 13) If consider investing, how? 1) 15 % to 20 % return with moderate risk. 2) 20 % to 30 % with high risk. 3) 30 % to bower 40 % with very high risk. 14) Have you come across any Mutual Fund Advertisements'? 15) If yes Name the essays by james company. 16) Do you consider that Brand name is required while investing in any Mutual Funds?

17) Do you think Mutual Fund return is better than Shares/Derivatives? 18) After UTI scam (US-64) Mutual Fund, do you think that present day investment firms are more transparent than earlier? 19) Which Funds (Allocation) are performing better this year? 3) Balanced Funds. 5) Index and gratis, Industry Funds. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to written by james baldwin a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by a student in bower, order to written baldwin help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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